Haan, Carolina Lea de – (1881 – 1932)
Dutch novelist and writer
Born Carry de Haan (Jan 1, 1881) at Smilde into a Jewish family, she was trained as a schoolteacher. Her first marriage was to the writer and journaslist Kees van Bruggen, and her second (1918) to Aart Pit, the noted art historian. With her first husband she co-edited the Deli Courant paper, in which she published some of her own radical ideas and philosophies. Her novels were Der verlatrene (The Abandoned) (1910), Heleen (1913), Een coquette vrouw (A Coquette) (1915) and Eva (1927). Her other works included Het huisje aan de sloot (The Small House by the Creek) (1921) and Vier jaargetijiden (Four Seasons) (1924). She denigrated what she viewed as excessive nationalism in Hedendaags Fetischisme (Contemporary Fetishism) (1925). Having long suffered from depression, Carolina de Haan committed suicide (Nov 16, 1932) aged fifty-one, at Laren.

Haankhes – (fl. c1600 – c1570 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Queen Haankhes was probably the wife of King Inyotef VII of the XVIIth Dynasty (1585 – 1549 BC). She was the mother of his son and heir Ameni, who did not live to inherit the throne, but who had been married to his close relative Sobkemheb, the daughter of King Sobkemsaf II, and niece to King Taa I. Queen Haankhes is identified as the mother of Ameni by a surviving stela, found at Koptos, half of which is preserved in the Petrie Museum in London, whilst the other half resides in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, Russia.

Haardt, Sarah Powell – (1898 – 1935)
American literary figure, author and letter writer
Sarah Haardt was born (March 1, 1898) in Montgomery, Alabama. She became the wife of the noted essayist, editor, and critic, Henry Louis Mencken (1880 – 1956). Haardt herself wrote the work The Making of a Lady (1931), whilst her letters to her husband were edited and published five decades later by Marion Elizabeth Rogers as Mencken and Sarah: A Life in Letters.The Private Correspondence of H.L. Mencken and Sarah Haardt (1987). Sarah Powell Haardt died (May 31, 1935) aged thirty-seven.

Haas, Dolly – (1911 – 1994)
German dancer and film actress
Dolly Haas was born in Hamburg, and trained for the ballet in early childhood. She quickly graduated from dance to films, and became a new star of the German talkies in the 1930’s, appearing films such as Eine Stunde Gluck, Dolly macht Karriere (Dolly’s Way to Stardom) (1930), Es wird schon wieder besser (1932) and Warum lugt Erdulein Kathe ? (1935). Haas also appeared in several films made in Britain such as, Broken Blossoms (1936) and Spy of Napoleon (1937). After WW II she also appeared in an American film entitled I Confess (1953). Her life was later the subject of a West German documentary Dolly, Lotte, and Maria (1987), which explored her relationships with fellow performers, Lotte Goslar and Maria Piscator.

Haas, Monique – (1906 – 1987)
French pianist and concert performer
Monique Haas was born (Oct 20, 1906) in Paris, and studied at the Conservatoire under Lazare Levy and Joseph Morpain. Her musical education continued under Rudolf Serkin and others, and she eventually married the French-Romanian composer, Marcel Mihalovici (1898 – 1985). Haas avoided the works of the romantic composers, apart from those of Schumann, and featured instead works composed by famous French composers such as Francois Couperin and Jean-Philippe Rameau. Haas was particularly remembered for her contributions to twentieth century French music, and she recorded the Douze Etudes and Preludes of Claude Debussy, as well as some of the concertos of Ravel, and became famous for her interpretations of the work of Bela Bartok. Monique Haas died (June 7, 1987) aged eighty.

Hababa – (fl. c170 – c180 AD)
Roman barbarian Imperial progenatrix
According to the Greek historian Jordanes, Hababa was the wife of Micca, and the mother of the barbarian leader Maximinus Thrax (c173 – 238 AD), who later became emperor as Maximinius I (235 – 238 AD). The historian Herodian stated that Hababa came from the Alanian tribe. She resided with her husband in the province of Moesia in Thrace. Their origins were undistinguished but their son was born a Roman citizen.

Habben, Carol – (1933 – 1997)
American baseball player
Carol Habben was born in New Jersey. She began playing baseball in high school, and was the centre fielder and catcher for the Rockford Peaches of the All-American Porfessional Baseball League in Illinois (1951 – 1952) and with Kalamazoo Lassies in Michigan (1953) who won the league championship that year. She was later an umpire for both male and female baseball leagues and was portrayed in the baseball film A League of Their Own (1992). Carol Habben died (Jan 11, 1997) in Ridgewood in New Jersey.

Haber, Clara    see   Immerwahr, Clara

Haber, Joyce – (1932 – 1993)
American newspaper gossip columnist, actress and author
Born Joyce Sanford (Dec 28, 1932) in New York, she was the daughter of a business executive. She attended Bryn Mawr and Barnard Colleges.  Joyce was married and divorced, and produced two sons. Joyce Haber had worked as an actress, and later went to New York, where she became a researcher with Time magazine (1953 – 1963) and was later a journalist with the Los Angeles Times (1967 – 1975), where she had her own influential syndicated column. Haber was the author of the children’s work Caroline’s Doll Book (1962) and the novel The Users (1976). She also wrote articles for various magazines such as Town and Country and Harper’s Bazaar. Joyce Haber died (July 29, 1993) aged sixty, in Los Angeles, California.

Haberilla – (c590 – c650)
German nun and saint
Haberilla was originally converted to Christianity through the preaching of St Gall, the Irish monk and missionary, when he was in the region of Bregenz, on Lake Constance. Gall trained Haberilla for life as a nun and consecrated her himself, appointing her to rule over a community of nuns at Bregenz. Due to her fervent religious piety and ascetism, Haberilla was regarded a saint and was venerated (Dec 1).

Habersack, Susanne Emilie Luise Adele    see   Nicoletti, Susi

Habersham, Josephine Clay – (1821 – 1893)
American Civil War diarist
She kept a private journal through the uncertain period of the Civil War. This was later edited and published a century afterwards by the University of Georgia as Ebb Tide: As seen Through the Diary of Josephine Clay Habersham (1958).

Hache, Juliana le – (c1273 – before 1322)
English mediaeval peeress
Juliana was the only child of Eustache le Hache, first Baron Hache and his wife Avice. She was married firstly to William de Hardreshull of Hertshill in Warwickshire, the grandson of Sir Philip Neville of Scotter. Hardreshull died in 1303, he and Juliana having jointly held the estates of Solesby and Kelsey, as the gift of her father to them and their heirs. Juliana then remarried (1304) to one John de Hansard and received livery of the estates of Solesby and Kelsey. With her father’s death Juliana survived him as suo jure second Baroness Hache (1306) and she and Hansard also had received her inheritance of Chesterton in Warwick. Details of her life after succeeding to the peerage remain sparse. John de Hansard died (before July 7, 1322) but Lady Hache is believed to have predeceased him.

‘Hachette’    see     Laisne, Jeanne

Hack, Elizabeth Jane – (1878 – 1961)
Southern American author
Born Elizabeth Miller (Aug 17, 1878) in New Ross, Indiana, she married and was the author of several works such a Saul of Tarsus (1906), Daybreak, a Story of the Age of Discovery (1915) and The Science of Christopher Columbus (1922), being a study of his journey to the Americas. Elizabeth Hack died the day after her eighty-third birthday (Aug 18, 1961).

Hack, Maria – (1777 – 1844)
British children’s writer
Maria Hack was born in Carlisle to Quaker parents, and was sister to the poet Bernard Barton (1784 – 1849), who was the friend of the children’s author Charles Lamb (1775 – 1834). Mrs Hack became best known for her collection of stories told by travellers Winter Evenings; or, Tales of Travellers (1818 - 1820), which was published in four volumes. Maria Hack also wrote the children’s novel Harry Beaufoy; or, the Pupil of Nature (1821), in which a mother teaches her young son to see the wonders of the natural world as proof of the existence of God.

Hackeborn, Mechtild von    see    Mechtild of Hackeborn

Hackett, Deborah Vernon Drake-Brockman, Lady – (1887 – 1965)
Australian mining company director, editor and welfare reformer
Deborah Drake-Brockman was born (June 18, 1887) at Guildford, Western Australia, the third daughter of the noted explorer and surveyor Frederick Slade Drake-Brockman (1857 – 1917) and his wife, the famous heroine Grace Bussell. She was sister to Geoffrey and Edmund Drake-Brockman, both prominent figures in government and politics. In the face of strong family disapproval Deborah became the second wife (1905) of General Sir John Hackett (1848 – 1916), the commander-in-chief of the British army on the Rhine in Germany, and proprietor of the West Australian newspaper. She bore her husband four daughters and a son General Sir John Winthrop Hackett (1910 - 1997).
A noted society hostess Lady Hackett worked tirelessly for the cause of the war effort, and was awarded the Medaille de la reconnaissance Francaise by the French government. She edited the household manual The Australian Household Guide (1916). Lady Hackett remarried secondly (1918) to Sir Frank Moulden, the Lord Mayor of Adelaide, South Australia, and was Lady Mayoress (1920 – 1922) and re-established the South Australian branch of the National Council of Women (1921). Becoming interested in Australian minerals she traveled remote areas of Western Australia and the Northern Territory and obtained a contract with the American company, the Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation, to supply ore for tantalum deposits. With difficulty she formed the company Tantalite Ltd (1932) being determined that the benefits should accrue to Australia. This mineral was used to develop radar during WW II.
Soon after the death of her second husband the University of Western Australia bestowed a law doctorate upon Lady Moulden. She remarried thirdly (1936) to Basil Buller Murphy (1896 – 1963), a Melbourne barrister. She also published a volume of Dordenup Aboriginal legends An attempt to eat the moon (1958). Lady Hackett died (April 16, 1965) aged seventy-seven, in Perth. Her oil portrait by James Govett is preserved in St George’s College in the University of Western Australia.

Hackett, Joan – (1934 – 1983)
American stage and film actress
Joan Hackett was born in New York City and was educated at New York University. She began her career as a fashion model but then decided to switch to acting, and trained under the director Lee Strasberg (1901 – 1982). Joan Hackett proved successful after her appearance in ‘Call Me by My Rightful Name’ (1961) on the Broadway stage.
Miss Hackett continued to appear on stage and appeared in several television presentations, which showcased her comic and dramatic abilities. Her film credits included The Group (1966), Rivals (1972), Mr Mike’s Mondo Video (1978) and One Trick Pony (1980). She was nominated for an Academy Award for her performance in Only When I Laugh (1981). Hackett was the second wife of the noted character actor Richard Mulligan (1932 – 2000) from whom she was divorced. Joan Hackett died of cancer.

Hacking, Margery Allen Bolton, Lady – (1887 – 1984)
British public figure, political wife and civic leader
Margery Bolton was the eldest daughter of Henry Hargreaves Bolton, a justice of the peace from Newchurch-in-Rosendale, Lancashire. She became the wife (1909) of Douglas Hewitt Hacking (1884 – 1950), who was firstly created a baronet (1938), and then created first Baron Hacking (1945) by King George VI.
Lady Hacking was appointed OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1956) because of her work establishing hospitals and medical units in Europe during WWI. She was the mother of Douglas Eric Hacking (1910 – 1971), later the second Baron Hacking (1950 – 1971). Her daughter Elizabeth Margery Hacking became the wife of Sir George Stanley, OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire), of Hatch Hill, Haslemere, in Surrey. Lady Mergery survived her husband over three decades (1950 – 1984) as the Dowager Baroness Hacking. Lady Hacking died aged ninety-seven, in London.

Hada, Princess    see   Mangguji

Hadamunda of Ebersberg (Hadamuta) – (c974 – c1030)
German margravine and saint
Hadamunda was the daughter of Adalberon I, Count of Eersberg and his wife Luitgarde, and was a descendant of Carloman III, King of Bavaria. She was married (c990) to Markwart I of Eppenstein (died 1000), Count of the Isar and Vils and Margrave of Upper Bavaria.
Her two children were, Emma of Eppenstein, the foundress of the Abbey of Gurk, and wife of Willliam of Sanngan, and Adalbert II of Eppenstein (c992 – 1039) who became Duke of Carinthia and left issue.
Hadamunda left her possessions to the poor and then made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in Palestine. She survived her husband about thirty years and died (Feb 19, c1030). Hadamunda was revered as a saint (Nov 11).

Hadamunda of Saxony (Hathamunda)(840 – 874)
German nun and abbess of Gandersheim
Hadamunda was the daughter of Luidolf I, Duke of Saxony and his wife Oda of Franconia, the daughter of Billung, Count of Thuringia and his wife Aeda of Neustria, the daughter of Pepin the Hunchback, and the granddaughter of Charlemagne. Hadamunda was educated at the royal abbeys of Herford and Werra, whilst her parents founded the abbey of Gandersheim, and then moved to Gandersheim (857), near Goslar the community of nuns who had shortly before been established at Bruneshausen, with Hadamunda appointed as first superior. Her younger brother Agius was a monk at Gandersheim. Hadamunda died (Nov 29, 874) aged only thirty-four, and was succeeded as abbess by her sister younger Gerberga. She was venerated as a saint (Nov 28).

Hadamuta of Eppenstein – (c1014 – c1033)
German mediaeval countess
Hadamuta was the daughter of Eberhard of Eppenstein (c993 – c1039), Count of the Isar and Vils, sometimes called Ezzo or Eppo, and his wife Countess Richgarda of Chiemgau, the daughter of Friedrich, Count of Chiemgau. Hadamuta became the first wife (c1030) of Count Friedrich of Upper Isar (c1005 – 1075), who after her death, succeeded as Count Friedrich II of Diessen (1056 – 1070).
Countess Hadamuta died (Oct 17, c1033) aged about nineteen, after giving birth to an only daughter, Hadagunda of Diessen (Haziga) (c1033 – 1104), whose third and last husband was Count Otto of Scheyern. Through this marriage, Hadamuta was the ancestress of the Hapsburg dynasty and their varied connections. Her particular descendants included Catharine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII of England and their only daughter, Mary Tudor.

Hadassah     see    Esther

Haddington, Jean Gordon, Countess of – (c1623 – 1655)
Scottish peeress
Lady Jean Gordon was the third daughter of George Gordon (c1591 – 1649), second Marquess of Huntley and his wife Lady Anne Campbell, the daughter of Archibald Campbell, seventh Earl of Argyll. She became the second wife (Jan 14, 1640) of Thomas Hamilton (1600 – 1640) second Earl of Haddington bringing a dowry (tocher) of thirty thousand marks.
However, Lord Haddington was killed (Aug 30, 1640), together with two of his brothers and others, through the treachery of servants, after an explosion of gunpowder at Dunglass Castle in Haddington. Lady Haddington bore her husband an only posthumous child, Lady Margaret Hamilton (born 1641) who later became the wife of Sir John Keith (c1634 – 1714), first Earl of Kintore and left descendants.
During her widowhood Lady Haddington enjoyed an unsavoury moral reputation and was the ‘painted harlot’ of the Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers by Sir Robert Aytoun (1570 – 1638), who from a balcony jeered at Lord Montrose when he was being led to his execution (1649). The countess was answered by one of the crowd, who replied that it would become her better to sit in court for her adulteries. Lady Haddington died (summer of 1655) aged in her early thirties.

Haddington, Juliana Ker, Countess of – (c1566 – 1637)
Scottish peeress, estate manager and letter writer
Juliana Ker was the second daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of Ferniehurst, Roxburgh, and his first wife Janet Kircaldy, the daughter of Sir William Kircaldy of Grange in Fife, and was the sister of Robert Ker, Earl of Somerset and Andrew Ker, first Lord Jedburgh. Juliana was married firstly to Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth (died 1609), and secondly (1613) to Sir Thomas Hamilton (1563 – 1637), Lord Binning (as his third wife) and became Baroness Binning (1613 – 1619).
Juliana then became the Countess of Melrose after Hamilton was raised to the earldom by James I (1619). Lord Melrose was later created first Earl of Haddington by King Charles I (1627) and Lady Melrose became the Countess of Haddington (1627 – 1637). Lady Haddington was buried (March 30, 1637) at Holyrood, predeceasing her husband by only two months. By her second marriage the countess was the mother of Robert Hamilton of Wester Binning (1615 – 1640). He remained unmarried being killed at Dunglass Castle, Haddington, together with his half-brother Thomas Ker (1600 – 1640), second Earl of Haddington, they both being blown up by a gunpowder explosion.

Haddy, Anne – (1930 – 1999)
Australian film and telvision actress
Anne Haddy was born (Oct 5, 1930) in Quorn, South Australia. She was married to actor James Condon. Haddy appeared in the film They’re a Weird Mob (1966), and had roles in popular television series such as Prisoner and Sons and Daughters, but was best known however for her role as Helen Daniels (1985 – 1997) in the long-running series Neighbours. Her retirement was forced due to ill-health. Anne Haddy died (June 6, 1999) aged sixty-eight.

Hadeloga    see    Adeloga

Haden, Sara – (1897 – 1981)
American film actress
Sara Haden was born in Galveston, Texas. She appeared on the stage from early childhood, and worked on Broadway before finally entering the film industry with her appearance in Spitfire (1934). Her movie credits included Magnificent Obsession (1935), The Last of Mrs Cheyney (1937) and Our Hearts Were Growing Up (1946). She was best remembered as the aunt in the Andy Hardy series of films such as Andy Hardy Comes Home (1958).

Hader, Berta Hoerner – (1890 – 1976)
American writer and illustrator
Berta Hoerner was born in San Pedro, in Coahuila, Mexico. She became the wife of author and illustrator Elmer Stanely Hader (1889 – 1973), and the couple worked together to produce highly popular picture books for children for over four decades (1920’s – 1960’s). Examples of their joint works included Two Funny Clowns (1929), Green and Gold (1936), Rainbow’s End (1945), Wish on the Moon (1957) and Two Is Company, Three’s a Crowd (1965). However, they are best remembered for their story The Big Snow (1948) which dealt with the lives of wild animals during a particularly hard winter.

Hadewijch (Adelwip) – (c1230 - 1297)
Flemish mystic poet
Hadewijch was an intellectually talented beguine or lay nun who resided with a group of other like minded women in Antwerp. Apart from her works little is known of her personal life. Her mystical writings were intense and passionate, which made them outstanding examples of their king in medieval literature. She left accounts of her visions in prose and poetry which include the work All Things Confine, attributed to her as it formed part of a manuscript which contained many other poems bearing her signature.

Hadice Osmanoglu – (c1665 – 1743)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Hadice Osmanoglu was born in Constantinople, the third daughter of Sultan Mehmed IV Avci (the Hunter) (1648 – 1687), and was the granddaughter of Sultan Ibrahim Veli (the Mad) (1640 – 1648). Princess Hadice was married firstly (1675) during childhood, to Kapudan Sarikci Mustafa Pasha (died 1686), to whom she bore four sons. Princess Hadice remarried secondly (1691) to the Grand Vizier Morali Hasan Pasha (1655 – 1713), whom she survived for thirty years. The princess died aged in her late seventies (May 9, 1743) during the reign of Sultan Mahmud I (1730 – 1754).

Hading, Jane – (1864 – 1941)
French operartic soprano and stage actress
Born Jeanne Alfredine Trefouret at Marseilles, she was the daughter of an actor. She received training for the stage locally and was engaged with theatres in Algiers and in Cairo in Egypt, where she played mainly minor soubrette roles. Hading later returned to Marseilles where she performed in operetta, and from there to Paris, where she made her debut performing in La Chaste Suzanne at the Palais Royal.
Miss Hading later performed at the Gymnase in her home town of Marseilles with great success in Le Maitre de forges (1883) and was married briefly (1884 – 1887) to the theatre manager Victor Koning (1842 – 1894) from whom she was divorced. Jane Hading later toured America with the famous actor Benoit Coquelin (1841 – 1909) (Coquelin aine’ ) and was remembered for her performances in works such as La Princesse Georges by Alexandre Dumas the younger and Plus que reine by Emile Bergerat (1899).

Hadley, Martha – (1852 – 1915)
American Quaker missionary and traveller
Martha Hadley ministered for the Society of Friends in Alaska and kept a private journal and record of her experiences covering a five year period (1899 – 1903). This was later edited and published by her descendant, Loren S. Hadley, as the Alaskan Diary of a Pioneer Quaker Missionary (1969).

Hadow, Grace Eleanor – (1875 – 1940)
British educator and social work pioneer
Grace Hadow was the daughter of a clergyman and sister to the scholar Sir William Hadow. She attended Somerville College, later becoming a tutor at Lady Margaret Hall (1906). During the latter part of WW I she became a director of a department at the Ministry of Munitions (1917), and was then appointed as secretary of Barnett House, Oxford (1920).
A decade later she was appointed as principal of the Society of Oxford Home Students (1929). Grace Hadow was a prominent figure within the WI (Women’s Institute) movement, and she served as vice-chairman of the orhanization for well over two decades (1916 – 1940). Hadow co-wrote The Oxford Treasury of English Literature (1906 – 1908), with her brother.

Hadwisa of Gloucester    see    Isabella of Gloucester

Hafford, Mary Louise – (1902 – 1992)
American violinist
Mary Hafford was born in Dallas, Texas, and studied music at the Cincinnati Conservatory. She later travelled to France where she continued to study under Leopold Auer and Eugene Ysaye. Hafford made her New York debut (1930), after which she performed at Carnegie Hall and gave recitals around the USA.
Miss Hafford was the founder and director of Intimate Concerts Association of Westchester, and taught the violin at the New York College of Music, the Manhattan School of Music, and the Goddard College at Plainfield, Vermont. Mary Hafford died (Jan 3, 1992) aged eighty-nine, in New York.

Hagan, Helen – (1891 – 1964)
Black American concert pianist
Helen Hagan was born in Connecticut, and taught by her mother before gaining her music degree from Yale University (1912), and a diploma from the Schola Cantorum in France (1914). Helen performed her own composition Piano Concerto in C Minor, at the All-Colored Composer’s Concert, held in Chicago, Illinois (1915), and she toured France during World War I to entertain black troops serving at the front.
Her debut at the Aeolian Hall (1921) made Helen the first black pianist to ever perform in a New York concert hall. Hagan graduated as a teacher from the Columbia University Teachers’ College. Helen Hagan later joined the faculty of a music college in Tennessee, and then in Texas, where she was appointed dean of the School of Music at Bishop College.

Hagar – (fl. c1750 – c1700 BC)
Egyptian Biblical handmaiden
Hagar was the maidservsant to Sarah, the wife of Abraham. Later she became Abraham’s concubine, but Sarah jealously mistreated her and Hagar fled into the wilderness. There a messenger from God is said to have visited her and urged Hagar to return, promising that she would be the ancestress of many descendants. This she did, and in due time, she gave birth to Ishmael. When over a decade afterwards Sarah produced her own son Isaac, she feared Hagar and her son, and persuaded Abraham to exile mother and child into the wilderness, which the patriarch reluctantly did. They were saved by a second divine messenger, who led them to water, and again assured Hagar of her promised posterity through Ishmael.

Hagen, Jean – (1923 – 1977)
American film actress
Born Jean Verhagen in Chicago, Illinois, Jean Hagen was best known for her appearances in such films as Adam’s Rib (1949), with Katharine Hepburn, The Ashphalt Jungle (1950), Singin’ in the Rain (1952) for which she received an Academy Award nomination for her admirable performance as a silent film star possessed of a ghastly real-life voice, Panic in the Year Zero (1960) and Dead Ringer (1964), in which she appeared as a ditzy socialite with Bette Davis and Peter Lawford.
During the 1950’s she made appearances on television with the Danny Thomas Show (1953 – 1956). Hagen was later forced to retire due to ill-health. Jean Hagen died (Aug 29, 1977) aged fifty-four, in Los Angeles, California.

Hagen, Uta – (1919 – 2004)
German-American stage actress and educator
Uta Hagen was born in Gottingen, Germany, and immigrated to the USA with her family during her early childhood, and was raised in Madison, Wisconsin. Uta studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts in London, England. Known predominantly for her stage roles, Hagen twice received the Antoinette Perry Award (Tony) in (1951) for The Country Girl and in (1963) for Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf ?. She was twice the recipient of the London Critics Award (1963) and (1964).
Blacklisted during the McCarthyism hype of the 1950’s, Hagen remained out of film and television until 1972.
Miss Hagen was later nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for her supporting role in the popular television series One Life to Live. She was the married firstly to Jose Ferrer (1938 – 1948), from whom she was later divorced because of her liasion with black actor Paul Robeson, whom she played opposite in Shakespeare’s Othello on Broadway (1943 – 1945). Her second husband (1957) was Herbert Berghof, with whom she co-founded the Herbert Berghof Studios in New York.
A highly successful teacher, some of her students included Sigourney Weaver, Liza Minelli, Jack Lemmon, Al Pacino, Robert De Niro, Matthew Broderick, and Whoopi Goldberg, amongst many other now prominent actors and actresses. She was the author of Respect for Acting (1973) and Challenge for the Actor (1991). Uta Hagen died (Jan 14, 2004) aged eighty-four.

Hagenburg, Countess von    see   Koppen, Anna Elise von

Hager, Alice Rogers – (1894 – 1969)
American reporter, traveller and writer
Born Alice Rogers in Peoria, Illinois (Aug 3, 1894), she attended Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley. She was married to John Hager from whom she later divorced. She worked as a reporter in Los Angeles, California, and was the Washington editor and war correspondent throughout China, Burma and India during WW II (1944). She later served as a public affairs officer at the US Embassy in Brussels (1948 – 1952) and then with the Information Agency (1953 – 1957).
Alice Hager travelled world wide during her long career and wrote several accounts of her various experiences including The Canvas Castle (1948) for which she received the Julia Ellsworth Ford Foundation award, and Brazil: Giant to the South (1961), for which she received the Brazilian Order of the Southern Cross. Her other works included Wings over the Americas (1940), Washington, City of Destiny (1949) and Washington Secretary (1958). Alice Rogers Hager died (Dec 5, 1969) aged seventy-five, in Manasses, Virginia.

Hagerup, Inger – (1905 – 1985)
Norwegian lyric poet, radio dramatist and memoirist
Born Inger Halsen in Bergen, she was raised in Nordfjord and Volda. She became the wife of Anders Hagerup (1931). Her subsequent studies at the Universiry of Oslo were interrupted by the hostilities of WW II. Her first published work were the collections of verse Jeg gikk meg vill i skogene (I Lost My Way in the Woods) (1939) and Flukten fra Amerika (Flight from America) (1942).
Inger hagerup published the volumes of children’s verse Sa Rart (So Strange) (1950) and Lille Persille (Little Parsley) (1961). She also published several volumes of childhood memoirs including Det kommer en pike gaende (A Girl Comes Walking) (1965) and U tog soke tjeneste (Out Looking for Work).

Hagerup, Nina    see   Grieg, Nina

Hagesichora – (fl. c650 BC)
Greek choral leader
Hagesichora was born into a prominent family and was a golden haired beauty. She was the leader of a women’s chorus, which was arranged to celebrate important Spartan rituals which sang hymns to the gods. Much of the music was considered erotic, and has led to speculation as to the exact nature of the relationships between the women involved.

Haggard, Lillias Margitson Rider – (1892 – 1968)
British writer
Lillias Rider Haggard was born at Ditchingham, in Norfolk, the younger daughter of the famous traveller Sir Henry Rider Haggard (1856 – 1925), the noted adventure novelist and author of King Solomon’s Mines (1885). Lillias was educated at home under the supervision of a governess, and later attended St Felix School in Southwold.
Miss Haggard was appointed as MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George V (1919), in recognition of her valuable volunteer hospital work during WW I. She then devoted her time to writing producing Norfolk Life (1943) in conjunction with Henry Williamson, and three of her own works Norfolk Notebook (1947), Country Scrapbook (1950) and The Cloak that I Left (1951). Haggard also edited two works I Walked By Night (1935) and The Rabbit Skin Cap (1939). She remained unmarried. Lillias Rider Haggard died (Jan 9, 1968) aged seventy-five, at Ditchingham House, near Bungay, in Suffolk.

Hagger, Mary Knight – (c1758 – 1840)
British Hanoverian Quaker diarist
Mary Hagger was a native of Ashford in Kent and lifetime member of the Society of Friends there. She kept a private journal for a period of twenty-five years (1814 – 1839) which was published posthumously in London as Extracts from the Memoranda of Mary Knight Hagger (1841).

Haggith – (fl. c1000 BC)
Hebrew concubine
Haggith was one of the mistresses of King David (c1000 – c966 BC), and was the mother of his eldest son Prince Adonijah (c1000 – c966 BC), who was later put to death in the reign of his half-brother Solomon, which execution may have been engineered by Solomon’s mother, Bathsheba.

Hagnodike      see       Agnodike

Hagood, Margaret Loyd Jarman – (1907 – 1963)
American sociologist, demographer and statistician
Margaret Loyd Jarman was born (Oct 26, 1907) in Newton County, Georgia, the daughter of a school teacher. She studied at Covington and Atlanta and was married (1926) to Middleton Howard Robert Hagood to whom she bore an only daughter, and from whom she was later divorced (1936). Mrs Hagood then studied at Queen’s College in Charlotte, North Carolina, and then went on to study mathematics at Emory University in Atlanta.
Margaret Hagood became involved in pioneering sociological studies at the Institute for Research in Social Science at the University of North Carolina., and became a specialist in sociaological statistics and demography. Her published works included Mothers of the South (1936) and in depth analysis of tenant life, and Statistics for Sociologists (1941), which went through several editions. Hagood was then employed by the US Depertment of Agriculture in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics (1942 – 1952) and then with the Farm Population and Rural Life Branch of the Agricultural Marketing Service (1952 – 1962).
Margaret Hapgood established a level-of-living index for every county of the USA which could be utilized by the Census Bureau and successive government policy makers. Mrs Hapgood was appointed as the president of the Population Association of American (1954) and of the Rural Sociological Society (1956). Margaret Hapgood died (Aug 13, 1963) aged fifty-five, in San Diego, California,

Hahn, Emily – (1905 – 1997)
American feminist and author
Emily Hahn was born (Jan 14, 1905) in St Louis, Missouri, of Jewish antecedents, the daughter of a salesman. Though poor, her education was encouraged by her mother, and she eventually became the first woman to enroll with the faculty of mining engineering at the University of Wisconsin, and worked for a period as an oil geologist. Hahn moved to New York (1928) where she began her career as a writer, her first published work being Seduction ad Absurdum: The Principles and Practices of Seduction – a Beginner’s Handbook (1930).
During the 1940’s she wrote several works concerning China such as The Soong Sisters (1941) and the memoir China To Me (1944) which established her international literary reputation. Her published work included Hong Kong Holiday (1946), Raffles of Singapore (1946), Love Conquers Nothing (1952), China Only Yesterday (1963) and the travel volume Congo Solo: Misadventures Two Degrees North (1933). Emily Hahn died (Feb 18, 1997) aged ninety-two, in New York.

Hahn-Hahn, Countess Ida Maria Luise Sophie Friederike Gustava von – (1805 – 1880) 
German novelist and author
Ida von Hahn-Hahn was born at Tressau, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the daughter of Count Karl von Hahn-Hahn and his wife Sophie von Behr. She married (1826) Count Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Hahn-Hahn, a cousin. Her marriage was unhappy, and she was granted a divorce (1829). The countess then travelled and produced some lyrical poetry.  
In 1838 was published her first work Ausater Gesellschaft, a title given to a whole series of her novels. This work was later renamed Ida Schonholm, However, her patrician affectations drew upon her the ridicule of Fanny Lewald in a parody of her style entitled, Diogena Roman von Iduna H ….H…(1847). After 1848 revolution, the countess retired to a convent. Her most famous novel was Ulrich und Graffin Faustine (1841) and her Gesamnelte Werke was arranged in forty-five volumes (1903 – 1904), with an introduction by Ovan Schaching. Countess von Hahn-Hahn died (Jan 12, 1880) aged seventy-four, at Mainz.

Haider, Ursula – (1413 – 1498)
German letter writer and author, she was born in Leutkirch, Swabia. Her parents died during her early youth and she was raised by relatives. She was educated by the Franciscan nuns at Reute, near Waldsee. After finishing her education she refused to marry at the urging of her relations, and instead became a Clarissan nun at Valduna (1431), where she eventually succeeded as abbess (1467).
With seven other sisters she later established a religious foundation, the Bickenkloster, at Villingen (1480) and remained the spiritual head of that community until her death, though illness forced her to resign form office in 1489. Her convent later evolved into the Institute of St Ursula (1782). Several of her own texts were preserved in the Chronicle of the Bickenkloster at Villingen, but her descriptions of her own mystical religious experiences have been lost. Ursula Haider died (Jan 20, 1498) at Valduna, Vorarlberg. She was interred at Villigen and revered as a saint.

Haig, Dorothy Maud Vivian, Lady – (1878 – 1939)
British courtier and memoirist
Dorothy Vivian was the daughter of Sir Hugh Crespigny Vivian, third Lord Vivian and his wife Louisa Alice Asheteon-Smith. She was married (1905) to Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig (1861 – 1928), later first Earl Haig of Bemersyde. Lady Haig served at court, before and after her marriage, as lady-in-waiting to Queen Alexandra, the wife of Edward VII (1901 – 1910). She remained in her service during her years of widowhood (1910 – 1925).
During WW I she was involved with Red Cross war work, and was appointed a Lady of Grace of St John of Jerusalem. She was the author of, A Scottish Tour (1935). Her third daughter, Irene Violet Haig (1919 – 2001) became the wife of Gavin, Lord Astor of Hever. Lady Haig died aged sixty-one (Oct 18, 1939).

Haines, Helen Elizabeth – (1872 – 1961)
American librarian and author
Helen Haines was born (Feb 9, 1872) in New York, the daughter of a merchant. She was educated at home, and her earliest commissioned work was the History of New Mexico from the Spanish Conquest to the Present Time, 1530 – 1890 (1891) which she completed with assistance from her widowed mother. Helen obtained a position as secretary to the businessman and philanthropist Richard Bowker, who made her responsible for editing his various publications, Library Journal, Publisher’s Weekly and the American Catalogue (1895 – 1896).
Haines later became the managing director of the Library Journal (1896) and later the vice-president of the American Library Association (1906 – 1908). Forced to resign due to ill-health Haines wrote articles which were published in the Pasadena Star News for several decades. After working as a librarian in the Los Angeles Public Library and then joined the faculty of the University of Southern California. She lectured in contemporary fiction at the University of California at Berkeley.
Her published works included Living With Books: The Art of Book Selection (1935) and What Is A Novel? (1942). Helen Elizabeth Haines remained unmarried and died (Aug 26, 1961) aged eighty-nine, at Altadena.

Haines, Janine – (1945 – 2004)
Australian politician
Born Janine Carter (May 8, 1945) in Tanunda, South Australia, she attended Adelaide University and trained as a schoolteacher. She became involved in politics and was appointed as the elected member of the newly formed Australian Democrats in the Senate (1977) by Premier Don Dunstan. She lost that seat the following year but regained in in 1980. Janine haines later replaced the party leader, her own mentor, Don Chipp, as leader of the Democrats (1986) and became the first ever female Australian party leader.
Refusing to be intimidated by male political bully-boy tactics Haines managed to use the Democrats position to maintain the balance of power in the Senate until her retirement from politics after her defeat in a bid for the House of Representatives (1990). She was the author of Suffrage to Sufferance: 100 Years of Women in Politics (1992) and was appointed as an AM (Member of the Order of Australia) (2001). Janine Haines died (Nov 20, 2004) aged fifty-nine.

Hainisch, Marianne – (1839 – 1936)
Austrian feminist and writer
Marianne Hainsch was born in Vienna and was married to a manufacturer. She became the mother of the Austrian statesman Mikhail Hainisch (1858 – 1940), who was elected twice as the president of Austria, in (1920) and (1924 – 1929). She was the author of several published works including Die Brotfrage der Frau (1875) and Die Mutter (the Mother) (1913).
Marianne Hainisch campaigned vigorously for the causes of female suffrage and education, being particularly desirous of opening up university education for women. She was the founder of the Allgemeiner Osterreichischer Frauenverein organization, which worked towards the reform of the marriage laws, and banning legalized prostitution. Hainisch later served as president of the society and served with the Austrian Red Cross during WW I, serving as vice-president of that organization.

Halamova, Masa – (1908 – 1995)
Slovenian poet
Halamova was born Maria Pullmanova (Aug 28, 1908) at Blatnica. She attended school in Stara Pazova in Serbia, and was later employed at the Institute of culture and Adult Education in Bratislava, Czechoslavakia. She was married to a physician and went to study in Paris (1929 – 1930). She was later employed as an editor with the publishing company, Osveta, in Martin (1956 – 1958) and later with the publishing company, Mlade leta in Bratislava (1959 – 1973), which specialized in children’s books.
Masa Halamova was best known for her three published volumes of lyric verse Dar (The Present) (1929), Cerveny mak (The Red Poppy) (1932) and Smrt’ tvoju zijem (I Am Living Your Death) (1966). Her works for children included O sykorke z kokosoveho domceka (The Tit from the Coconut House) (1976), and the collection of essays Vzacnejsie nez zlato (More Precious than Gold) (1981). Masa Halamova died (July 17, 1995) aged eighty-six, in Bratislava.

Haldane, Elizabeth Sanderson – (1862 – 1937)
Scottish social reformer, writer and political activist
Elizabeth Haldane was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of Robert Haldane of Cloanden, and was educated abroad in Rome. She received a decondary education in Edinburgh, but returned home (1877) in order to care for her mother at Cloan, near Auchterarder, and in London. Haldane was later able to enter the nursing profession and was then appointed to manage the royal infirmary in Edinburgh. She served on the royal commission on the civil service, and also on several advisory committees, and became the first woman to ever be appointed a justice of the peace in Scotland. She gave evidence before the Departmental Committee on Poor Law Medical Relief (1904) and at the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws (1909).
Apart from her public and community acitvities, Haldane studied philosophy at the University of St Andrews, and wrote several works such as The Wisdom and Religion of a German Philosopher (1897), a guide to nursing activities in British Nurse in Peace and War (1923) and assisted with a translation of Hegel’s History of Philosophy (3 vols., 1892). She also wrote several biographies such as the Life of James Ferrier (1899), the Life of Descartes (1905) and George Eliot and her Times (1927). Haldane successfully organized the rescue from demolition of the historic Sadlers’ Wells Theatre (1914) and left a volume of memoirs From One Century to Another: the Reminiscences of E.S. Haldane (1937).

Haldetrude (Adaltrudis) – (c575 – 604)
Merovingian queen consort (c592 – 604)
Haldetrude was the first wife (c592) of Clotaire III (569 – 629), King of Neustria (584 – 629). Her origins remain unknown though she was possibly the daughter of Leutfrid, Duke of Alemannia. Their only son Merovech (c595 – 604) died young and Queen Haldetrude was then murdered at the instigation of the king’s mistress Berthetrude, so that she could marry the king.
Queen Haldetrude was interred in the Abbey of St Pierre at Rouen in Normandy. Her two daughters were Enymia of Neuatria who was later consecrated as a nun and appointed an abbess in Rouergue or Gevaudan, and Emma of Neustria (c602 – 641) the third wife of the Anglo-Saxon king Eadbald of Kent and left issue.

Hale, Binnie – (1899 – 1984)
British actress and musician
Binnie Hale was born (May 22, 1899), the daughter of actor Robert Hale. Her younger brother was the actor Sonnie Hale (1902 – 1959) and Binnie made her stage debut in the play Follow The Crowd (1915). Her marriage with stage actor Jack Raine produced an only daughter. Miss Hale was best known for her appearances in the musicals No, No, Nanette (1925) and Mr Cinders (1928) in London. She made a recording of the song Spread a Little Happiness from Mr Cinders which proved enormously popular.
Hale’s later stage work included appearances in Give Me A Ring (1933), Yes Madam ? (1934), Flying Colours (1943), Four, Five, Six (1948), and the pantomime Jack and the Beanstalk (1935) at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. She made a handful of movies such as This Is the Life (1933), The Phantom Light (1935), Take a Chance (1937) and Love from a Stranger (1937). Binnie Hale died (Jan 10, 1984) aged eighty-four.

Hale, Cicely – (1884 – 1981)
British suffragette, social reformer and author
Cicely Hale joined the Women’s Social and Political Union as a young woman (1908). During WW I Hale worked amongst the poor and immigrant women in the Whitechapel area of London. For almost a decade she was employed on the staff of the Women’s Own magazine, and she gave public lectures on the suffrage movement during her retirement. Her personal memoir A Good Long Time (1973), dealt particularly with this part of her life.

Hale, Kathleen – (1898 – 2000)
British children’s author and illustrator
Kathleen Hale was born (May 24, 1898) in Broughton, in Lanarkshire, Scotland, and was raised in Manchester, Lancashire, in England. She studied art in Manchester and Reading and eventually moved to London (1917). In London she was employed as a secretary to the painter Augustus John, and maintained friendships with Vanessa Bella and Duncan Grant. She married a physician and had two sons, the family settling in Hertfordshire.
Hale then decided to devote her talents to writing a book for her own children. The result was the extremely popular Orlando the Marmalade Cat, for which she herself did the illustrations. She was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1976) for her services to children’s literature. Other works included Henrietta, the Faithful Hen (1943) and Henrietta’s Magic Egg (1973). Kathleen Hale died (Jan 26, 2000) aged one hundred and one, at Bristol.

Hale, Louise Closser – (1872 – 1933)
American actress and author
Louise Hale was born in Chicago, Illinois (Oct 13, 1872). Apart from successful career as an actress and stage performer, Miss Hale was the author of several notable novels such as The Actress (1909), on which she drew from her own experience and The Married Miss Worth (1911). Hale also produced several travel books such as We Discover New England (1915). Louise Closser Hale died (July 26, 1933) aged sixty.

Hale, Lucretia Peabody – (1820 – 1900)
American author
Lucretia Hale was born (Sept 2, 1820) in Boston, Massachusetts, daughter of Nathan Hale (1784 – 1863) and a close relative of the author and antiquarian Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 – 1864). Her brother was the Unitarian clergyman and writer Edward Everett Hale (1822 – 1909), the author of the classic novel The Man Without a Country (1865). Lucretia remained unmarried. Miss Hale wrote fiction for the Atlantic magazine for over two decades, before she established herself as a successful writer of popular children’s books.
Lucretia Hale was the author of two popular novels The Peterkin Papers (1880), which took a satiric look at contemporary Bostonian society, for which she created the famous literary character ‘The Lady from Philadelphia.’ This was followed by The Last of the Peterkins (1886). Her private correspondence has been edited and published. Lucretia Peabody Hale died (June 12, 1900) aged seventy-nine, in Boston.

Hale, Nancy – (1908 – 1988)  
American novelist and editor
Nancy Hale was born (May 6, 1908) in Boston, Massachusetts, the granddaughter of the author and editor, Edward Everett Hale (1863 – 1932). Both her parents were noted painters, and she was married to Fredson Thayer Bowers. Nancy Hale resided in New York where she worked with Vogue magazine before being appointed as assistant editor of Vanity Fair magazine (1935).
Her novels included the satirical The Young Die Good (1932), The Prodigal Woman (1942), The Sign of Jonah (1950) and The Empress’s Ring (1955), amongst many others. She also wrote her autobiography entitled New England Girlhood (1958) and produced a biography of Mary Cassatt (1975).

Hale, Sarah Jane – (c1857 – 1920)
British educator
Hale was born at Burton Latimer in Northants. She trained as a teacher and served for three decades (1890 – 1920) as the principal of the Edge Hill College for Teachers in Elementary Schools. Sarah Hale died (April 1, 1920) at Liverpool, in Lancashire.

Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell – (1788 – 1879)
American editor, poet and journalist
Sarah Josepha Hale was born (Oct 24, 1788) in Newport, in New Hampshire, and sometimes wrote using the pseudonym ‘Cornelia.’ Hale became the first female magazine editor in the USA. She established Thanksgiving as a national holiday and was responsible for Mount Vernon becoming a national shrine. Hale was educated at home and established herself as the head of a small private school (1806 – 1811), before going on to become editor of the Boston Ladies’ Magazine (1828 – 1837). From (1834 – 1836) she was in charge of producing the popular children’s magazine The Juvenile Miscellany (1828 – 1837), and for four decades was co-editor of the famous Godey’s Lady’s Book (1837 – 1877).
Hale was the first editor to publish the stories of Frances Hodgson Burnett, and was herself the author of the well known children’s poem “Mary Had a Little Lamb,” which was first published in 1830, and also appeared in her collection of verse Poems for Our Children (1830). Mrs Hale later removed to Philadelphia (1841), where she became actively involved with the activities of various charitable and philanthropic organizations. Her other written works included The Genius of Oblivion (1823), Sketches of American Character (1829) and Traits of American Life (1835). Sarah Josepha Hale died (April 30, 1879) aged ninety, in Philadelphia.

Hale, Una – (1922 – 2005)
Australian soprano
Una Hale was born in Adelaide, South Australia, where she received her early musical training. She later travelled to London (1946) where she studied at the Royal College of Music. In Britain Hale appeared on stage with the Carl Rosa Opera Company, and appeared in roles such as Violetta in La Traviata and Micaela in Carmen. She appeared in the role of Naomi in the first performance of the opera Ruth by Lennox Berkeley (1956). Hale also appeared in the title role of Ariadne auf Naxos during the first performance of that opera in Australia (1962). She was married to the ballet director Martin Carr, and remained in England for the rest of her life. Una Hale died (March 4, 2005) aged eighty-two.

Halide Edib     see    Adivar, Halide Edib

Halifax, Dorothy Evelyn Augusta Onslow, Countess of – (1885 – 1976)
British courtier
Lady Dorothy Onslow was born at Richmond Terrace, in Whitehall, London, the younger daughter of William, fourth Earl Onslow and his wife Florence, the daughter of Alan Legge Gardner, Lord Gardner. She was baptised at the Chapel Royal, Savoy, in London. Lady Dorothy was married (1909) to Edward Lindley Wood (1881 – 1959), Viscount and later first Earl of Halifax from 1944. The couple had six children, including Charles Courtenay Wood, second Earl of Halifax (1912 – 1980), and Lady Anne Dorothy Wood (1910 – 1995), who became the wife of Charles Duncombe, third Earl of Feversham.
Lady Halifax served at court as Lady of the Bedchamber to the queen mother, Queen Mary, widow of George V (1937 – 1941). During WW II she was a prominent organizer of war hosipitals and was made a Daughter of Grace of St John of Jerusalem (D.G.St.J). Lady Halifax returned to royal service after the war, and was an extra Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Mary until that lady’s death (1947 – 1953). For her years of service she was appointed DCVO (Dame Commander of the Victorian Order) by Queen Elizabeth II (1953).

Halkett, Anne Murray, Lady – (1622 – 1699)
English royalist and writer
Anne Murray was born (Jan 4, 1622), the daughter of Thomas Murray, the provost of Eton College, and tutor to Charles I (1625 – 1649), who came from a cadet branch of the Tullibardine family, and his wife Jane Drummond, who acted as governess to the children of James I. Anne was given an extesive and varied education, including medicine and surgery, and she was later involved with the royalist leader Joseph Bamfield, assisting him in the escape of the Duke of York to Scotland (1650). She acted as a nurse to the Royalist forces until she was married at Charleton (1656) to Sir James Halkett (died 1676).
Lady Halkett received no compensation for her royal service, and as a widow was obliged to establish a school in her own home in Dunfermline, for the children of the aristocracy, in order to maintain herself. Upon his accession (1685) James II granted Lady Halkett a pension in recognition of her former valuable service. Whilst pregnant and apprehensive that she might die, Lady Halkett wrote the tract The Mother’s Will to her Unborn Child. She also wrote her Autobiography (1701) which was published posthumously. Lady Halkett died (April 22, 1699) aged seventy-seven.  

Hall, Adelaide – (1895 – 1993)
Black American jazz vocalist and stage actress
Adelaide Hall sang with Duke Ellington before performing in the Blackbird revue with Josephine Baker in Paris (1925). She was best remembered for the famous song ‘Creole love Call.’

Hall, Amy – (1910 – 1996)
Australian poet
Amy Anderson was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the daughter of Foster Joseph Anderson, of Irish descent, and his wife Elizabeth Higgs, and grew up in the inner-city region of Sydney. Her public school education finished at the age of fourteen, and she then worked as a factory packer. She married (1930) Edward Hall (1908 – 1982) to whom she bore two sons.
A lifelong resident of the suburb of Malabar in Sydney, Amy had written stories in childhood, but later began to write seriously after attending writing workshops for women in Matraville, organized by the Women’s Support Network. A talented poet and writer, in 1990 she also attended writing and publishing workshops for women organized by the Randwick City Council. Eventually frail health and failing sight necessitated a move to retirement living in Manly. Several of her more well known poems included To a Honey Eater, Of Women and Spiders, The Silver, School, Speaking of Prayer, Mr Magpie and Request. Amy Hall died (Sept 25, 1996) aged eighty-six, in Manly.

Hall, Anna Maria – (1800 – 1881)
Irish author
Born Anna Maria Fielding in Dublin, she was married tp the London editor, Samuel Carter Hall (1824). Her written works included Sketches of Irish Character (1829) and nearly a dozen novels. Four of her plays were produced for the stage with some success including The Groves of Blarney (1838). Anna Maria’s best known work Ireland, its Scenery, Characters etc (1840), was co-written with her husband.
Mrs Hall was editor of the St James Magazine (1862 – 1863), and was later granted a pension from the civil list. She founded a hospital for consumptives at Brompton, and an institute for the training of governesses. Anna Maria Hall died in East Mouseley.

Hall, Elizabeth – (1608 – 1670)
English Stuart heiress
Elizabeth Hall was baptized (Feb 21, 1608) at Stratford, the daughter of the physician John Hall (1575 – 1639) and his wife Susanna Shakespeare (1583 – 1649), the daughter of the famous playwright William Shakespeare and his wife Anne Hathaway. Her father cured her of fever and convulsions (1624) and noted that she was then ‘well for many years.’ Elizabeth Hall inherited the plate of her grandfather William and was married firstly (1626) to Thomas Nash (1593 – 1647). The marriage remained childless.
Elizabeth Nash was remarried (1649) to the squire John Bernard from Northamptonshire. Bernard was created a baronet by Charles II (1661) as a reward for his loyalty to the crown and Elizabeth became Lady Bernard (1661 – 1670). Lady Bernard had inherited Shakespeare’s Stratford property but she herself resided at Abingdon Manor in Northampton. With Elizabeth Bernard’s death without issue, the bard’s direct line became extinct. Elizabeth left Shakespeare’s houses in Stratford to the grandson of his sister Joan Hart (1569 – 1646).

Hall, Helen – (1892 – 1982)
American social reformer and director
Helen Hall was born (Jan 4, 1892) in Kansas City, Missouri, the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer, and was raised in Westchester County. She later attended the New York School of Social Work, and served as director of the University Settlement in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1922 – 1933). Hall was best known as the executive director of the Henry Street Settlement in New York, a position she held for over three decades (1933 – 1967) in succession to the founder, Lilian Wald. This led to her being placed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on his advisory committee on economic security (1934). Helen Hall died (Aug 31, 1982) aged ninety, in Manhattan, New York.

Hall, Juanita – (1901 – 1968)
Black American vocalist
Juanita Hall made her debut on Braodway in, Show Boat (1928). A member of the Hall Johnson Choir musical company for several years, during this time she appeared in the production of, Green Pastures (1930). Juanita later established her own company of vocalist who performed for radio (1942) and from 1948 she herself performed in theatre cafes. Hall is best remembered for her performance as the Tonkinese woman in Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Broadway production of South Pacific (1949). This was the first time that a black American had been permitted a major role in al all white Broadway production.

Hall, Marie Paulina – (1884 – 1956)
British violinist
Born Mary Paulina Hall (April 8, 1884) at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, she was the daughter of a harp player. She was taught to play the violin by her father, and played for money on the streets of Bristol as a child. Her talent was discovered and she was sent to study under Hildegarde Werner and then with Sir Edward Elgar (1857 – 1934) and Max Mossel. Though she did win a scholarship to attend the Royal Academy of Music in London, but she was unable to take it up, and was tutored privately by Johann Kruse.
Hall’s talent was such that she won an exhibition at the Royal Academy of Music at the age of only fifteen (1900) and, at the advice of the composer Jan Kubelik (1880 – 1940), she then became the pupil (1903) of the famous Czech violinist and teacher, Otokar Sevcik (1852 – 1934) in Prague, Bohemia. After sufferring a lengthy illness, Hall travelled abraod and performed in successful concert tours in Britain and the USA. The composer Ralph Vaughan-Williams produced his work The Lark Ascending (1921) especially for her. She was the mother of Pauline Baring, the noted pianist. Marie Hall died (Nov 11, 1956) aged seventy-two.

Hall, Pauline Margarete – (1890 – 1969)
Norwegian composer
Pauline Hall was born in Hamar. She studied piano with Johan Backer Lunde (1908 – 1910) and theory and composition with Catharinus Elling, completing her studies in Paris and Dresden, Saxony. Pauline Hall was employed as a music and drama correspondent, and critic in Berlin for the Norwegian newspaper, the Dagbladet for four decades. Her works included ballet and orchestral pieces, and chamber and choral music including Suite for Wind Quintet (1945), The Marquise (1950) and Variations on a Classical Theme for Flute (1961). Pauline Hall died in Oslo, Denmark.

Hall, Radclyffe – (1883 – 1943) 
British novelist and poet
Marguerite Antonia Hall was born in Bournemouth, Hampshire, and received her education at King’s College, London. This was completed by travelling abroad and to study in Germany. Her father’s death (1908) left her financially independent. Radclyffe Hall was best known for her long liasion with Lady Una Troubridge, whom she was introduced (1916) to by her lover, Mabel Batten. Hall wrote several interesting novels including Adam’s Breed (1924), which won her the Femina Vie Heureuse and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize (1926) before she achieved scandalous notoriety and literary fame with her sympathetic study of lesbian characters in her work Well of Loneliness (1928).
Radclyffe Hall published several volumes of verse‘Twixt Earth and Stars (1906) and A Sheaf of Verses (1908). Other published works included The Unlit Lamp (1924), which dealt with the difficult relationship between an unmarried and trapped daughter and her elderly mother, the comedies The Forge (1924) and A Saturday Life (1925), The Sixth Beatitude (1932) and the collection of stories Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself (1934). She received the Gold Medal of the Eichelbergher Humane Award (1930).

Hall, Rosetta Sherwood – (1865 – 1951)
American physician and missionary
Rosetta Sherwood was born (Sept 19, 1865) in Liberty, New York, the daughter of a farmer. She worked as a school teacher before training as a physician at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania in Phuiladelphia. She was married (1892) to the Canadian missionary William James Hall with whom she worked at Seoul in Korea. Mrs Hall founded the Baldwin Dispensary in Seoul which developed into the Lillian Harris Memorial Hospital.
Her husband died of typhus in Pyong Yang (1894) whilst treating sick soldiers during the Japanese invasion and Rosetta returned to the USA. She returned several years afterwards with her children (1897) and resumed her work in Pyong Yang establishing the Edith Margaret Memorial Dispensary in Pyong Yang in memory of her late daughter (1899). Hall remained in Korea for thirty-five years and only returned to the USA upon her retirement (1933). She continued to give lectures and practice as a doctor. She was the author of the Life of Rev. William James Hall, M.D. (1897). Rosetta Hall died (April 5, 1951) aged eighty-five, in New Jersey, New York.

Hall, Ruth (1) – (1858 – after 1903)
American novelist
Ruth Hall was born in Schoharie, New York (April 10, 1858). Her popular novels included The Boys of Scrooby (1899) and The Black Gown (1900).

Hall, Ruth (2) – (1910 – 2003)
American minor film actress
Ruth Hall was born (Dec 29, 1910) in Jacksonville, Florida, and was niece to the famous writer Vicente Blasco Ibanez (1867 – 1928), the author of the novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, which was later adapted for the silent screen under the same title (1921), starring Rudolph Valentino. Hall was married (1933) to Lee Garmes, to whom she bore two daughters. Her first film role was as an extra in Hell Harbor (1930) and her career spaned over two decades before her eventual retirement from films (1953). She appeared as herself in Hollywood on Parade No. A – 9 (1933).  
Other film credits included The Rich Are Always With Us (1932), The Three Musketeers (1933) in which she played Elaine Corday, and The Man from Monterey (1933). She appeared as Gwennie McGill in The Old Grey Mayor (1935), using the name Ruth Blasco. In the film George White’s Scandals (1945) she played a showgirl, as she did in Irving Berlin’s Easter Parade (1948). Hall played an orange seller in the period classic Forever Amber (1947) which starred Linda Darnell and George Sanders as King Charles II. Her last appearance was as a fashion model in How To Marry a Millionaire (1953). Ruth Hall died (Oct 9, 2003) aged ninety-two, at Glendale in California.

Hall, Sarah Ewing – (1761 – 1830)
American religious author and essayist
Sarah Ewing Hall was born (Oct 30, 1761) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of a scholar, and herself received no formal education. Sarah married (1782) and raised a family in Philadephia. In 1816 she began a literary career writing articles for the Port Folio magazine, using the pseudonyms ‘Constantia’ and ‘Florepha,’ and learnt the Hebrew language in order to produce her devotional work Conversations on the Bible (1818), which proved extremely popular. Some of her other work was published posthumously in Selections from the Writings of Mrs Sarah Hall (1833). Sarah Ewing Hall died (April 8, 1830) aged sixty-eight.

Hall, Sharlot Mabridth – (1870 – 1943)
American historian, politician, writer, editor and diarist
Sharlot Hall travelled extensively throughout Arizona (1911) and left a written account of her experiences, which was published posthumously as Sharlot Hall on the Arizona Strip: A Diary Through Northern Arizona in 1911 (1975). Especially remembered for her work Cactus Pine (1910), in which appeared the popular poem ‘Song of the Colorado.’

Hallahan, Margaret – (1803 – 1868)
Irish nun and religious founder
Margaret Hallahan was born in London, England and trained as a governess. She worked in Belgium (1823) and then took vows as a Dominican of the Third Order. She taught at a school in Coventry and founded the Dominican Third Order Sisters in England, with herself as the first superior of the order. The cause for her canonization was later introduced (1963).

Hallam-Hipwell, Hermine    see   Vivenot, Baronne de

Halle, Wilma Neruda, Lady      see      Neruda-Halle, Wilma

Hallinan, Hazel Hunkins – (1890 – 1982)
American women’s activist
Hazel Hunkins was born in Billings, Montana, and studied chemistry at Vassar College. She was married and bore several children. Mrs Hallinan was refused employment in the chemical industry because of her sex and she joined the female suffrage movement (1917), being arrested for chaining herself to the gates of the White House. She later resided in England where she wrote the newspaper column London Letter for the Chicago Tribune (1920). Hazel Hallinan published the collection of feminist essays entitled In Her Own Right. Mrs Hallinan was the guest of honour at the White House (1977) when President Jimmy Carter signed the Women’s Equality Day proclamation. Hazel Hallinan died (May 17, 1982) aged ninety-one, in London.

Hallowes, Odette Marie Celine – (1912 – 1995)
French espionage agent
Born Odette Brailly in France, she was educated at a convent at Amiens. She was employed by the British for their Special Operations Executive during WW II. She was captured and condemned by the Nazis, along with six other women, and all were imprisoned in concentration camps in Germany (1944). Three of the women died at Dachau, and the other three at Natzweiler. Odette was tortured, but revealed nothing. She managed to survive by convincing the Gestapo that she was a relative of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and was unexpectedly released (April, 1945). She was the first woman to be awarded the George Cross for bravery (1946) by King George VI. Odette was married three times, firstly to Roy Sansom, secondly (1947 – 1953) to Captain Peter Churchill, and thirdly to Geoffrey Hallowes. Appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) (1945), the French government awarded her the Legion d’Honneur (1950). Her experiences were later turned into a movie Odette (1950), where she was portrayed by Dame Anna Neagle.

Halpert, Edith Gregor – (1900 – 1970)
American art dealer and collector
Edith Gregorovna Fivosiovitch was born in Odessa, Russia (April 25, 1900), and came to the USA with her widowed mother in 1906, being raised in Manhattan, New York. She studied at the National Academy of Design and was married (1918) to the artist Samuel Halpert, from whom she was afterwards divorced (1930). Edith Halpert became a pioneer in the art world of America, and is credited with the introduction to commercial galleries of American folk and contemporary works of art and established the Downtown Gallery of Contemporary Art in Greenwhich Village (1926).
Her gallery featured works by such contemporary artists as John Marin, Ben Shahn, William Zorach, Max Weber and Yasuo Kuniyoshi amongst many others. She then organized the American Folk Art Gallery with the Downtown complex (1931). Halpert assisted with organizing the collection at Colonial Williamsburg (1940) and the folk art collection of the Shelburne Museum in Vermont. She served as curator of the National Art Exhibition of American Art which visited Moscow in Russia (1959). Edith Gregor Halpert died of cancer (Oct 6, 1970) aged seventy, in New York.

Halpin, Maria – (1838 – after 1895)
American scandal figure, she was born in Brooklyn, the daughter of a police officer. She was left a widow with two small children and little money. She left the children with relatives in New Rochelle, and then travelled to Buffalo to obtain employment. Halpin worked as a cloak room attendant in a department store and resided in a local boarding house. During this time she attracted the attention of Grover Cleveland (1837 – 1908), the future president.
The couple began a liasion, and an illegitimate son was born (1873). However, Cleveland declined to marry her, and her increasing alcoholism forced him to abandon her (1876). However, she continued to trail and harrass him publicly, demanding that he marry her. Finally Cleveland had her kidnapped and placed in an asylum whilst the child was placed in an orphanage where Cleveland paid for his upkeep (1877). Due to the interference of Maria’s brother-in-law, Cleveland agreed to a cash payment of five hundred dollars to Maria in return for giving up their son and never contacting him again. She agreed. Halpin later remarried and removed to reside quietly at New Rochelle, but the scandal of her relationship with Cleveland was revived during his presidential campaign (1884). After a period of twenty years, Halpin contacted the then president twice, demanding money in return for damaging letters which she threatened to publish in the newspapers. Cleveland ignored her demands, and Maria was never heard from again.

Halsband, Ruth Alice – (1901 – 1971)
American chemist and philanthropist
Born Ruth Norman, she attended Smith College where she studied organic chemistry, and then went to Columbia University. She was married (1927) to a stockbroker, to whom she bore several children. Ruth Halsband became the chairman of the Norman Fund (1936), the philanthropic organizarion, which had been established by her late father. Halsband also founded the Hickrill Chemical Research Laboratory in Katonah, New York, the family estate. Also established at Katonah were the kennels, where Mrs Halsband bred the English Lakeland breed of terrier dogs. Ruth Halsband died (Nov 23, 1971) aged seventy.

Halsey, Margaret Frances – (1910 – 1997)
American author
Margaret born in Yonkers, New York (Feb 13, 1910), the daughter of a school superintendent, and was educated at Skidmore College. She was employed as a secretary before she worked with the Simon & Schuster publishing house. She was married to a professor (1935) to whom she bore an only daughter. Having resided with her husband in Devon in England Margaret Halsey became the author of With Malice Towards Some (1938) the best-selling satire of contemporary British customs and social mores.
Her other published works included Color Blind: A White Woman Looks at the Negro (1946), This Demi-Paradise: A Westchester Diary (1960) and Corrupted Giant (1963). She also published the personal memoir No Laughing Matter: The Autobiography of a WASP (1977). Margaret Halsey died (Feb 4, 1997) aged eighty-seven, at White Plains.

Halsted, Anna Roosevelt – (1906 – 1975)
American editor, civil rights supporter and campaigner, and women’s suffrage supporter
Anna Roosevelt was the daughter of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and his wife Eleanor, and was the great-niece of President Theodore Roosevelt (1901 – 1909). Anna was married firstly to Curtis Bean Dall, secondly to John Boettiger, and thirdly to James Addison Halsted, and left children from her first two marriages.

Halt, Marie Robert – (1849 – 1908)
French novelist and author
Born Marie Malezieux (May 30, 1849) at Saint Quentin in Aisne, she was the daughter of a painter. She became the wife of the academic Louis Charles Vieu. Marie adopted her husband’s pseudonym of ‘Robert Halt’, and with him she co-wrote the collection of stories Ladies et gentlemen, Battu par des demoiselles, Les Suites d’un Cook’s tour (Ladies and Gentlemen, Beaten by Young Women, The Result of a Cook’s Tour) (1885). Her novel Histoire d’un petit home (Story of a Small Man) (1883) was acclaimed by the Academie Francaise (French Academy).
A staunch supporter of republican educational reform Madame Halt joined the influential Women’s Committee and established an agricultural school for children at Conde-sur-Vegre. Madame Halt also published a series of manuals for girls entitled Suzette, livre de lecture courante a l’usage de jeunes filles (Suzette, Reader for the Use of Girls) (1889 – 1905), which went through many editions. Madame Marie Halt died (Feb 21, 1908) aged fifty-eight, in Paris.

Hamalainen, Helvi – (1907 – 1998)
Finnish poet and novelist
Hamalainen was born (June 16, 1907) in Hamina. She was forced by necessity to leave school in order to find paying employment and worked as a copyist. Deciding upon a literary career Helvi published the novels Hyvantekija (The Benefactor) (1930) and Katuojan vetta (Gutter Water) (1935). Helvi was influenced by the works of D.H. Lawrence and a supporter of the theories of Sigmund Freud, and these influences are revealed in her subsequent novels such as Lumous (Enchantment) (1934), Kyla vaeltaa (The Village Roams) (1944) and Tuhopolttaja (The Arsonist) (1949).
Her best known work was the novel Saadyllinen murhenayfelma (A Respectable Tragedy) (1941) which dealt with a troubled marriage. Her collections of published verse included Voikukkapyhimykset (Dandelion Saints) (1947), Punainen surupuklu (Red Mourning Dress) (1958) and Sukupolveniunta (Dreams of My Generation) (1987). She was awarded the Pro Finalandia Medal (1959) in recognition of her contributions to literature. Helvi Hamalainen died (Jan 17, 1998) aged ninety.

Hambidge, Alice – (1869 – 1947)
Australian water colour painter and miniaturist
Alice Hambidge was born in Kensington, South Australia. She studied at the South Australian School of Design and later held exhibitions in Sydney, Melbourne, and New Zealand. Alice took part in the exhibition of Australian Art held at the Grafton Gallery in London (1898), as did her two sisters, Helen Hambidge and Millicent Hambidge, both talented oil and water colour artists in their own right. Examples of her work are preserved at the Art Gallery of New South Wales and the Art Gallery of South Australia.

Hambidge, Helen – (1857 – 1937)
Australian painter and portraitist
Helen Hambidge was born in Bendigo, Victoria, and was sister to Alice and Millicent Hambidge. She studied art at Glenelg in Adelaide, South Australia, under John Stood, where she learned watercolour painting, and had further instruction from H.P. Gill. Exhibitions of her work were held around Australia and in London (1898). Examples of her work are preserved in the Art Gallery of South Australia and in the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Hambidge, Millicent – (1872 – 1938)
Australian painter and portraitist
Millicent Hambidge was born in Adelaide, South Australia and was sister to Alice and Helen Hambidge. She studied art under H.P. Gill at the Adelaide School of Design and exhibited her work around Australia and with her sisters in London (1898). Examples of her work are preserved in the Art Gallery of South Australia and in the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Hambleden, Patricia Herbert, Viscountess – (1904 – 1994)
British courtier
Lady Patricia Herbert was the only daughter of Reginald Herbert (1880 – 1960), fifteenth Earl of Pembroke, and his wife Beatrice Eleanor Paget (1883 – 1973), the daughterof Lieutenant Lord Alexander Victor Paget (1839 – 1896). Lady Patricia was married (1928) to William Henry Smith (1903 – 1948), the third Viscount Hambleden, to whom she bore five children including his heir, William Herbert Smith (born 1930) who succeeded his father as the fourth Viscount Hambleden (1948).
Lady Hambleden never remarried and survived her husband for over fifty-five years as the Dowager Viscountess Hambleden (1948 – 1994). As a widow she resided either in London or at Ewelme, Oxon. Lady Hambleden served from 1937 as Lady of the Bedchamber to HM Queen Elizabeth, wife of George VI and mother of Elizabeth II, who stood godmother to her youngest son Philip Reginald Smith (1945). In recognition of this service she was appointed DCVO (Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order) by Queen Elizabeth II (1953) and continued to serve as lady-in-waiting to the Queen Mother.

Hambro, Lady      see      Greathed, Elise Frances

Hamburger, Estelle – (1898 – 1983)
American fashion consultant, executive and writer
Hamburger was employed as the publicity director for the fashion retailer Bonwit Teller and then the advertising director for Sterns. Estelle then worked as the advertising manager for the New York Post and then established her own consulting firm which she ran for three decades. She was the author of It’s a Woman’s Business (1939). Estelle Hamburger died (June 7, 1983).

Hamelin, Fortunee – (1776 – 1851)
French letter writer
Born Jeanne Genevieve Fortunee Lormier Lagrave in Santo Domingo, her correspondence was edited and published posthumously in Paris by A. Guyot under the title Une ancienne muscadine, Fortunee Hamelin.Lettres inedites (1839 – 1851) (1911). Fortunee Hamelin died (April 29, 1851) in Paris.

Hameln, Gluckel von – (1645 – 1724)
Jewish-German writer
Gluckel Pinkerle was born in Hamburg, the daughter of Lob Pinkerle, a wealthy businessman. She was was married firstly (1659) to Chaijm Hameln, to whom she bore fourteen children. With his death (1689) Gluckel maintained his various business ventures and only reluctantly remarried (1700) to a banker, Cerf Levy, of Metz, Lorraine. Gluckel survived her second husband by twelve years, and died at Metz. The famous German poet, Heinrich Heine (1797 – 1856) was one of her descendants. Overcome with grief at the death of her first husband, Gluckel decided to write her memoirs and the history of her family. This was produced in seven volumes Zikhroynes marat glikl hamil 1645 – 1719 (The Memoirs of Gluckel of Hameln 1645 – 1719) and remains the earliest known Yiddish text written by a German woman. It was found amongst her papers and published shortly after her death. Her memoirs were extensively used by the German economist Werner Sombart (1863 – 1941) when he produced his Der Moderne Kapitalismus (1902) and were later translated into English (1932).

Hamer, Fannie Lou – (1917 – 1977)
Black American civil rights leader
Fannie Lou Townsend in Montgomery County, Mississippi, and was the granddaughter of a slave. She had worked on a plantation before she was married (1942) to George Hamer, a farmer. Hamer became increasingly involved with the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee (1962), her own negative experiences contributing to her fight for equality in the civil rights movement. She promoted the registration of black voters, and campaigned against segregation in schools. She co-founded the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (1964) and with the foundation of the the National Women’s Political Caucus, Hamer was elected to the central committee (1971).

Hamill, Cicely Mary     see     Hamilton, C.M.

Hamilton, Alice – (1869 – 1970)
American doctor of industrial medicine
Alice Hamilton was born (Feb 27, 1869) in New York. Her elder sister was the classical scholar Edith Hamilton. She obtained her degree from the University of Michigan (1893) and then joined the project at Hull House in Chiacgo, Illinois. Hamilton later studied pathology and bacteriology in Europe and with her return to the USA was appointed as professor of pathology at the Women’s Medical College at the North Western University (1897). She was responsible for tracing contaminated water during a typhoid outbreak (1902), and for establishing the link between the toxicity of lead and nitrous fumes, and the fatalities with workers in the explosives industry. Alice Hamilton was named as the first professor of the newly formed Department of Industrial Medicine at the Harvard Medical School (1919) and was the author of the textbook manual Industrial Toxicology (1934). Alice Hamilton died (Sept 22, 1970) aged one hundred and one years.

Hamilton, Amy Gordon     see     Hamilton, Gordon

Hamilton, Anna Cunningham, Marchioness of    see    Cunningham, Anna

Hamilton, Anne Hamilton, Duchess of – (1632 – 1716)
Scottish heiress, ruler, philanthropist and letter writer
Lady Anne Hamilton was born (Jan 16, 1632) at Whitehall Palace, London, the eldest daughter of James, third marquess and first duke of Hamilton, and his wife Lady Mary Fielding. King Charles I was her godfather, and she was raised at Wallingford House. The death of her infant brother Charles Hamilton (1640) left Lady Anne as her father’s senior heiress, and her later took her to Scotland, where she spent several years (1642 – 1647) in the household of her paternal grandmother, Anna Cunningham, Dowager Marchioness of Hamilton.
Haer father was executed by Oliver Cromwell (March, 1649), and the dukedom was inherited by Anne’s uncle, William Hamilton, earl of Lanark. He died (1651) without male issue, leaving only daughters, and named Lady Anne in his will as senior heiress to the dukedom of Hamilton. By the terms of this document Anne became Duchess of Hamilton and Chatellerault, Marchioness of Clydesdale, Countess of Arran, Lanark, and Cambridge, Lady Aven, Polmont, Machanshire and Innerdale, but did gain control of her inheritance until the Restoration (1660).
Her husband (1656) William Douglas (1635 – 1694) first Earl of Selkirk, was styled duke of Hamilton in Anne’s right, and assumed the surname of Hamilton in lieu of that of Douglas. Charles II later caused William to be formally created duke of Hamilton for life, as Duchess Anne’s request, and he was appointed as a member of the Privy Council. Though firm Presbyterians, the duchess and her husband maintained their strong Royalist sympathies. Her religious donations and endowments, as well as the financial bequests to foundations such as Glasgow University, earned her the popular epithet of ‘Good Duchess Anne.’ She was described by Bishop Gilbert Burnet (1671) as a woman ‘of great piety and great parts.’
The duchess opposed the union of Scotland and England (1706 – 1707) due to her fears for the established Presbyterian Church. Before and after the death of her husband the duchess was involved in the lavish rebuilding and refurbishment of Hamilton Palace. Duchess Anne later resigned her titles in favour of her eldest son Charles (1698) who then styled himself fourth Duke of Hamilton, though she retained her own position as Duchess of Hamilton in her own right, and continued in her position as head of the family. Her letters and diaries have survived. Her portrait (1679) was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller amd remains in the collection of the dukes of Hamilton.The Duchess of Hamilton died (Oct 17, 1716) aged eighty-four, at Hamilton Palace, and was interred there with her husband. Her children were,

Hamilton, Lady Anne – (1766 – 1846)
Scottish courtier and memoirist
Lady Anne Hamilton was the eldest daughter of Archibald Hamilton, ninth duke of Hamilton, and his wife Harriet Stewart, daughter of the sixth earl of Galloway. She served Caroline of Brunswick, the ill-fated wife of George IV, as lady-in-waiting from the time of her marriage (1796), and remained with her until the princess left England for her European journeys (1813).
When Caroline returned to England as queen (1820), Lady Anne met her at Montbord, and drove to London with her in the same carriage. Anne attended the queen during the thanksgiving service at St Paul’s Cathedral to celebrate her acquittal in court (Nov 30, 1820), and later accompanied her body to Brunswick for burial within the royal vault there. With the death of her kinsman, William Douglas, fourth duke of Queensberry (1810), Lady Anne received a legacy of ten thousand punds, which she gave to her brother, Lord Archibald Hamilton.
Her position in later life was by no means affluent, and a volume of memoirs, purporting to be written by her, but published without her permission, appeared in London (1832) entitled The Secret History of the Court of England from the Accession of George III to the Death of George IV (1832). Lady Anne Hamilton died (Oct 10, 1846) aged eighty, at Islington, London, and was interred in Kensal Green cemetery.

Hamilton, Cicely Mary – (1872 – 1952)
British actress, novelist, suffragist and author
Cicley Hamilton was the daughter of an army officer. She was educated at home in England, and later attended school in Germany. Cicely first worked as a schoolteacher, but despised the profession and resolved to make a career on the stage, becoming an actress and dramatist. Hamilton wrote around twenty plays for the stage, but was better remembered for her play Diana of Dobson’s (1908). Her war novel William –An Englishman, was awarded the Femina Vie Heureuse prize (1919).
Strongly feminist in outlook, believing that women should and could compete with men at their own level and win. During the two world wars Hamilton was closely involved with the activities of the Open Door Council, which worked to improve the legal and economic position of women. Her published works included the autobiography Just to Get Married (1911) and Lament for Democracy (1940), amongst others. Her play The Cutting of the Knot, was published as a novel with the title A Matter of Money (1916), whilst her autobiography was entitled Life Errant (1935).

Hamilton, Dorothea – (c1695 – 1780)
British flower and insect painter
Born Dororthea Forth, she was trained during her youth as a botanical artist and several of her works survive. She later became the daughter-in-law of the noted still-life painter James Hamilton (1640 – 1720).

Hamilton, Dorothy Drumm – (1906 – 1983)
American educator and author
Dorothy Drumm was born (Sept 25, 1906) at Selma in Indiana. She was married and bore a family. Mrs Hamilton worked as a teacher in Selma, and wrote several books for children such as Delaware Indian and Busboys at Big Bend. She also taught classes in creative classes at the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) in Muncie, Indiana. Dorothy Hamilton died (Sept 14, 1983) aged seventy-eight, in Muncie.

Hamilton, Edith – (1867 – 1963)
American classical scholar, writer and translator
Edith Hamilton was born (Aug 12, 1867) in Dresden, Saxony, and was the elder sister to physician Alice Hamilton. She studied at Farmington in Connecticut, and later attended Bryn Mawr College. Edith then studied abroad at the Munich University in Bavaria and Leipzig University in Saxony. She never married and served for twenty-five years as the headmistress of Bryn Mawr preparatory school in Baltimore, Maryland (1896 – 1922). She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. She was the author of such published works as The Greek Way (1930), The Roman Way (1932) and her volume of translated ancient myths entitled Mythology (1942). Edith Hamilton died (May 31, 1963) aged ninety-five.

Hamilton, Elizabeth – (1758 – 1816)
British author
Elizabeth Hamilton was born in Belfast, Ireland, of Scottish ancestry. She spent most of her life resident in Scotland, and later in Bath, employed as a governess. Elizabeth was best remembered for her picture of Scottish rural life The Cottagers of Glenburnie (1808), and she wrote the lyrics for the popular song, ‘My Ain Fireside.’ Hamilton advocated the teaching methods of the Swiss educational reformer, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 – 1827) and this inspired her Hints addressed to the Patrons and Directors of Schools (1815). Elizabeth Hamilton died (July 23, 1816) aged fifty-seven, at Harrogate, London.

Hamilton, Elizabeth Ivy Percy, Duchess of – (1916 – 2008)
British peeress
Lady Elizabeth Percy was born (May 25, 1916) at Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, and was raised at Albury House, Surrey, and at Syon House in Middlesex, London, the elder daughter of Alan Percy, eighth Duke of Northumberland (1880 – 1930). She was married (1937) to the Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale, who later succeeded his father as the fourteenth Duke of Hamilton and the eleventh Duke of Brandon.
Elizabeth survived him as the Dowager duchess of Hamilton and Brandon (1973 – 2008) and held the official title of Deputy Lieutenant (DL). She was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) in recognition of her civic work. She was the mother of Angus Alan Douglas-Hamilton (born 1938), who succeeded his father as the fifteenth Duke of Hamilton and twelfth Duke of Brandon (1973). Duchess Elizabeth died (Sept 16, 2008) aged ninety-two.

Hamilton, Emma Lyon, Lady – (1765 – 1815)
British celebrated beauty and diplomatic figure, the mistress of Admiral Horatio Nelson
Emma was born Amy Lyon, at Great Neston in Cheshire, the only daughter of a local blacksmith, and his wife Mary Kidd, later Mrs Cadogan.  She worked firstly in London as a nursemaid (1778), becoming a shop-assistant and prostitute. Extravagantly beautiful and fascinating, she first called herself Emily Hart, and went to live under the protection of Charles Greville (1781). After a brief acting career, Greville introduced Emily to the painter Romney, whose brilliant portraits of her have survived.
Adopting the more fashionable name of Emma, she later became the mistress of the noted diplomat and archaeologist Sir William Hamilton (1730 – 1803), who later married her (1791). Until 1800 she was a prominent figure at the court of King Ferdinand of Naples and was a favourite of his wife, Queen Maria Carolina. At the Neapolitan court she became famous for her ‘attitudes,’ a series of poses plastiques in which she represented classical figures, amongt other representations.Towards the end of this time she became the mistress of Nelson and then returned to England, where she bore his daughter Horatia Nelson Thompson (1801).
Nelson’s death left her in possession of his estate of Merton, but also left her unprotected (1803) and mounting debts forced her to remove to Calais in France. She became increasingly ill with alcoholism, and was bedevilled by gambling debts. When she was released from prison for debt (1813) an alderman of London helped Emma to escape to France. Her portrait by Madame Vigee-Lebrun was purchased by the Prince Regent (1809). Lady Emma Hamilton died (Jan 15, 1815) aged forty-nine, at Calais in abject poverty. She was portrayed by Vivien Leigh in the film That Hamilton Woman (1941) with Laurence Olivier as Nelson.

Hamilton, Gail – (1833 – 1896)
American writer and humourist
Born Mary Abigail Dodge (March 31, 1833) in Hamilton, Massachusetts, her published works included Country Living and Country Thinking (1862) and the collection of verse Chips, Fragments and Vestiges (1902). Hamilton was the editor of the Our Young Folks magazine (1865 – 1867). Gail Hamilton died (Aug 17, 1896) aged sixty-three.

Hamilton, Gordon – (1892 – 1967)
American social work educator
She was born Amy Gordon Hamilton, in Tenafly, New Jersey (Dec 26, 1892) of Scottish ancestry. She attended Bryn Mawr College where she studied Greek and English, and remained unmarried. She served as the associate director of social service and the as research adviser at the New York’s Presbyterian Hospital. Hamilton was the author of Medical Social Terminology (1927) and also wrote the ground-breaking and influential casebook concerning social reform entitled Theory and Practice of Social Casework (1940). Gordon Hamilton died (March 10, 1967) aged seventy-four, in British Columbia.

Hamilton, Grace Towns – (1906 – 1992)
Black American politician and activist
Grace Towns was born in Atlanta, Georgia, the daughter of a professor at Clark Atlanta University, which she herself attended, as well as gaining a psychology degree from Ohio State University (1927). She was married (1930) to a fellow academic, Henry Hamilton (died 1987), who served as the dean of LeMoyne-Owen College in Memphis, Tennessee.
Hamilton worked as a teacher and was employed by the government to survey a plan for college racial integration. She later returned to Atlanta with her husband (1943) and entered politics, becoming the first black woman to be elected to the Georgia Legislature, where she served for almost two decades (1966 – 1984). Hamilton was able to expand the black membership of the Atlanta City Council, successfully revise the city charter, and amended council elections to enable predominantly black areas to elect their own black candidates. Grace Hamilton died (June 17, 1992) in Atlanta, aged eighty-five.

Hamilton, Kate Waterman – (1841 – after 1900)
American novelist
Kate Hamilton was born at Schenectady, New York. She wrote several works including Chinks of Crannyford (1872), The Hand With the Kings (1890), The Parson’s Proxy (1896) and The Kinkaid Adventure (1900).

Hamilton, Lillias – (1859 – 1925)
British physician
Lillias Hamilton was born into a colonial family stationed in India, and became determined upon a career as a physician. She completed her training successfully and then went into private practice in Calcutta (1890), though she was soon persuaded to serve as physican in charge at the Dufferin Hospital there (1893 – 1894). Hamilton then served the Ameer of Afghanistan as his personal physician for several years (1894 – 1897) and eventually returned to England, where she served as warden of the Studley Horticultural College for Women in Warwickshire (1908 – 1921). Lillias Hamilton died (Jan 6, 1925) at Studley College.

Hamilton, Margaret – (1902 – 1985)
American character actress
Margaret Hamilton had originally been trained as a teacher of kindergarten children. She later abandoned this career for the Broadway stage in New York, where she played unpleasant, spinterish, characters. Hamilton achieved eternal fame for her performance as the Bad Witch in The Wizard of Oz (1939). Other film credits included appearances in Guest in the House (1944), State of the Union (1948) and Thirteen Ghosts (1960). She later appeared as forthright anthropology professor in the telemovie The Night Strangler (1973), with Darren McGavin.

Hamilton, Mary – (1756 – 1816)
British courtier and letter writer
Mary Hamilton served in the household of the daughters of George III and Queen Charlotte as assistant governess from 1777. Some letters addressed to Miss Hamilton from her royal charges has survived. Mary unwittingly became the first love of the future Prince Regent (George IV). Whilst chaperoning her charges during the evening the lovestruck prince wrote impulsive letters to Mary which were smuggled to her. He begged that they exchanged lockets but Mary refused his request. Some of their correspondence has survived, but remains of a completely innocuous nature, and at no time did Mary encourage the prince’s amorous desires.
Eventually he informed Mary by letter (Dec 31, 1779) that he had transferred his affections to the actress Mary Robinson. Despite this embarassing interlude, Mary retained the affection of Queen Charlotte, whose interest in botany she shared, and some of whose letters to her survive. She later retired from royal service (Nov, 1782) on the grounds of ill-health. She later married a man named Dickenson.

Hamilton, Mary Fielding, Marchioness of – (1613 – 1638)
English Stuart courtier
Lady Mary Fielding was the daughter of William Fielding, first Earl of Denbigh and his wife Susan Villiers, the sister of George Villiers, the famous Duke of Buckingham. She was married at thae age of seven (1620) to James Hamilton (1606 – 1649) the third Marquess of Hamilton (later first Duke of Hamilton). When she was grown Lady Hamilton served at court as lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I (1625 – 1649), for whom her eldest daughter was named in honour.
During her husband’s absence abroad, fighting with the army of the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus (1631 – 1632) Lady Mary remained resident with her children at Whitehall Palace in London. With the birth of her second daughter (1632) the christening arrangement were organized by King Charles who stood as godfather. With Lord Hamilton’s return to England the marchioness rented Wallingford House, at Charing Cross, near Whitehall from her aunt the widowed Duchess of Buckingham, and it was here that the family resided and her youngest four children were born.
A quiet and unassuming woman Lady Hamilton was praised by her contemporaries for her dignity and religious piety. Bishop Gilbert Burnet wrote of her ‘Not only was her honour unstained, but even her fame continued untouched by calumny … She was a most affectionate and dutiful wife, and a very devout person.’ After the birth of her youngest child (1636) Lady Hamilton did not make a good recovery and developed a liver infection. Her condition worsened despite the attendance of physicians and Lady Mary died (May 10, 1638) aged twenty-five, at Wallingford House. As she had lain dying she commanded that her children should not be brought before her ‘lest the sight of them might have kindled too much tenderness in her.’
Lord Hamilton was much stricken by his wife’s death and caused her to be interred in the vault of the Countess of Buckingham in Westminster Abbey (May 12). Lady Hamilton was painted by Mytens (c1629) and later by Sir Antony Van Dyck whose portrait reveals her tall and stately figure. Both of these portraits remain in the collection of the present Duke of Hamilton. Her children were,

Hamilton, Mary Leslie, Lady – (1739 – 1816)
Scottish novelist
Lady Mary Leslie was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of Alexander Leslie, fifth Earl of Leven and Melville, and his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of David Monypenny, of Pitmilly. Mary married firstly (Jan 5, 1762) Dr James Walker, of Innerdovot, and secondly to Robert Hamilton, of Jamaica. Lady Mary and her second husband settled in France prior to the Revolution. She was intimate with Sir Herbert Croft (1751 – 1816) who introduced her to Charles Nodier, who became her literary factotum. Nodier rewrote several of her novels. Her work included Letters from the Duchess de Crany (1773), Munster Village (1778), The Life of Mrs Justman (1782) and The Duc de Popoli (1810). Lady Mary died at Amiens, France.

Hamilton, Mary Agnes – (1884 – 1966)
British Labour politician and civil servant
Mary Adamson was the daughter of Robert Adamson, professor of logic at Glasgow University. She graduated in economics from Newnham College, Cambridge, married, and embarked upon a career as a journalist, and wrote several novels such as Dead Yesterday (1916), Murder in the House of Commons (1931) and Life Sentence (1935). Hamilton joined the Labour Party during her youth, and her interest in politics never waned.
After two election failures she was elected to parliament for Blackburn (1929 – 1931) and was appointed as private secretary to Clement Attlee, then the Postmaster-General, and later the prime minister. Hamilton later served as the governor of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (1933 – 1937), and then worked as a civil servant until her retirement (1952). She was awarded the CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1949) and died at Chelsea in London, aged eighty-one (Feb 10, 1966). Mary Hamilton was a prolific writer, and produced biographies of several famous contemporaries, such as Margaret Bondfield, Mary Macarthur, J. Ramsay Macdonald, and Sidney and Beatrice Webb. She also wrote two volumes of autobiography Remembering My Good Friends (1944) and Up-hill All the Way (1953).

Hamilton, Nina Mary Benita Poore, Duchess of – (1878 – 1951)
Scottish reformer and anti-vivsectionist
Nina Poore was born (May 13, 1878) in Salisbury, Wiltshire, the third daughter of Major Robert Poore, from the family of baronets of that name. She became the wife (1901) of Alfred Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1862 – 1940), thirteenth Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, to whom she bore seven children. During WW I the duchess volunteered to organize hospital units, and provided nurses and ambulance services for the soldiers. For this work she was appointed D.G.ST.J (Daughter of Grace of St John of Jerusalem).
The duchess of Hamilton was a strong campaigner for the humane treatment of animals and was the founder (1912) of the Scottish Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisectionist Society, of which organization she became president. She established the Duchess Nina Institute in the village of Quarter, near Hamilton (1910). The duchess was a prominent figure at the court of George V (1910 – 1936) and Queen Mary stood as godmother to her youngest daughter, Lady Mairi Nina Douglas-Hamilton (1914 – 1927). She survived her husband as Dowager Duchess (1940 – 1951). The Duchess of Hamilton died (Jan 12, 1951) aged seventy-two, in London.

Hamm, Margherita Arlina – (1871 – 1907)
American traveller and author
Hamm was born (April 29, 1871) in St Stephens, New Brunswick. She was the author of such works as Chinese Legends (1893) and Ghetto Silhouettes (1902), amongst others. Margherita Hamm died aged thirty-six.

Hammer, Bette Barber – (1911 – 1968)
Southern American editor and photographer
Bette Barber was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and graduated from Belhaven College (1932). Bette became the women’s editor for the New Orleans publication Times Picayune and later became women’s page editor at the Jackson Daily News. Bette’s first husband was killed in action during WW II, and she remarried to Harry J. Hammer, the owner of the Hammer Galleries in New York City.
With the assistance of her second husband she restored she restored the historic Steel Cottage in Vicksburg, and she also assisted with the restoration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s summer home on Campobello Island in Canada. Hammer produced a guide book of her local region Vicksburg: “ Gibraltar of the Confederacy” (1954), and another entitled A Guide Book to FDR’s “ Beloved Island “ (1962). Examples of her photographic work were published in periodicals such as Newsweek and The Saturday Evening Post. Bette Hammer died (cOct 20, 1968) aged fifty-seven, in New York.

Hammer, Ina – (1887 – 1953)
American silent film actress
Hammer played Susan Watson in Crossed Wives (1914), but was best remembered in the role of Goneril in King Lear (1916). This film was directed by Ernest C. Warde, and adapted by Philip Lonergan, with Frederick Warde in the title role. Ina Hammer died at Brattleboro, Vermont.

Hammerton, Dorothy    see    Holden, Fay

Hammond, Barbara – (1873 – 1961)
British social historian
Born Lucy Barbara Bradby, she was the daughter of a clergyman. She attended secondary school in St Andrews, and later studied the classics at Lady Margaret Hall at Oxford. Barbara was married (1901) to fellow author and historian, John Lawrence Hammond (died 1949), with whom she collaborated in writing several works, including the series The Village Labourer (1911), The Town Labourer (1917) and The Skilled Labourer (1919), which etched starkly the lives of poor workers during the industrial revolution. She also wrote The Rise of Modern Industry (1925) as well as biographies of Lord Shaftsbury and James Stansfield. Barbara Hammond died (Nov 14, 1961) aged eighty-eight, at Hemel Hempstead, London.

Hammond, Catherine Elizabeth – (1909 – 1999)
British military officer
Catherine Eddolls was born (Dec 22, 1909), and was educated at Highworth in Wiltshire and at Cirencester in Gloucester. She married and produced two children. Mrs Hammond joined the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service) prior to the outbreak of WW II (1939). She rose through the ranks to become Lieutenant-Colonel and the assistant director of the ATS in Oxford (1943). Her valuable volunteer work was recognized and Hammond was appointed CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1950).
Catherine Hammond was later appointed as Colonel of the WRAC (Women’s Royal Army Corps, formerly the ATS) (1964 – 1967) and served as the chairman of the WRAC Association (1966 – 1970). Hammond served as the president of the women’s section of the Royal British Legion at Highworth (1977 – 1984). Catherine Hammond died (Oct 25, 1999) aged eighty-nine.

Hammond, Emily Vanderbilt – (1874 – 1970)
American philanthropist and society leader
Emily Vanderbilt Sloane was born (Sept 17, 1874) in New York, the daughter of the businessman William D. Sloane, and his wife Emily, herself the daughter of the financier William H. Vanderbilt. Emily was heiress to her father’s fortune, and was married John Henry Hammond, a prominent New York lawyer, banker, and corporate man, who died in 1949, and to whom she bore five children.
Mrs Hammond herself paid for the restoration of Theodore Roosevelt House, the birthplace of the president, and was president for over forty years of the Three Arts Club, which provided a suitable residence for women studying drama, painting and music. She also founded the Parents League of New York in 1914, of which she was also president. In 1950 Mrs Hammond presented her country estate of Dellwood, near Mount Kisco, New York to the Moral Re-Armament movement. Emily Hammond died (Feb 22, 1970) aged ninety-five, in New York.

Hammond, Gertrude Demain – (1870 – 1959)
Australian artist and illustrator
Gertrude Hammond was a resident of London, and specialized in painting flowers. Her work was exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and with the New Water Colour Society, as well as with various important galleries.

Hammond, Henrietta Hardy – (1854 – 1883)
Southern American novelist
Hammond was born in Virginia, and her novel The Georgians (1881) was published anonymously. Her work A Fair Philosopher (1882) was published using the pen-name of Henri Dauge.

Hammond, Hermione – (1910 – 2005)
British painter and artist
Hammond was born (Aug 11, 1910) and received her training in sketching and technique at the prestigious Francis Holland School. She was particulalry remembered for her paintings which depicted the devastation of London during the Blitz in WW II. Her flower work Clematis armandi was exhibited in London at the Rye Gallery (1966). Hermione Hammond died (July 29, 2005) aged ninety-four.

Hammond, Dame Joan Hood – (1912 – 1996)
Australian soprano
Joan Hammond was born (May 24, 1912) in Christchurch, New Zealand of British parents, and trained as a violinist at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, whilst maintaining an extremely active career as a keen sportswoman. An injury forced her to give up her violin and she concentrated on training as a singer in Vienna, where she also studied languages.
Miss Hammond performed in George Frederic Handel’s Messiah in London (1938), and then made her operatic stage debut in Vienna (1939). She sang during WW II to entertain the troops, and afterwards performed leading roles in over two dozen operas. She made many recordings and her version of O mio babbino caro (Oh, my beloved father), from Puccini’s opera Gianni Schicchi, was the first classical record to ever achieve sales of over one million copies. She was the first British soprano to perform the role of Tatiana in the opera Eugene Onegin, in Moscow and St Petersburg.
Joan Hammond received the Coronation Medal from Queen Elizabeth II (1953) in recognition of her talent and her volunteer work with the troops, and appeared with the Elizabethan Trust Opera Company (1957 – 1960). Joan was later appointed CBE (Commander of the British Empire) (1963). Joan Hammond retired from singing (1965) and was then appointed as the artistic director of the Victoria Opera, as well as heading the vocal studies department of the Victorian College of the Arts (1975 – 1989).
Joan was given the Sir Charles Santley Award as musician of the year (1970) and was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1974) in recognition of her lifelong contribution to music. Her autobiography was published as A Voice, a Life (1970). Dame Joan Hammond died (Nov 26, 1996) aged eighty-four, in Bowral, New South Wales.

Hammond, Kay – (1909 – 1980)
British stage and film actress and producer
Born Dorothy Katharine Standing, she was the daughter of the noted actor, Sir Guy Standing, and his wife Dorothy Frances Plaskitt. She attended school at Banstead before entering the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Adopting the stage name of ‘Kay Hammond,’her first stage appearance was in Tilly of Bloomsbury (1927). Hammond was an innately talented commedienne, as well as a seductive beauty, and her film credits included Blithe Spirit (1945).
Her second husband directed her in the long-running stage successes Dryden’s Marriage de la Mode and Farquhar’s The Beaux Stratagem. Kay was married firstly (1932) to Ronald George Leon (later Sir Ronald, third Baronet 1947 – 1964), to whom she bore two sons and from she was divorced. Hammond later became the second wife (1946) of the actor and producer, Sir John Selby Clements (1910 – 1988). She was paralysed after a stroke (1960), and spent the remainder of her life confined to a wheelchair. Kay Hammond died (May 4, 1980) aged seventy.

Hammond, Mahalia Jean – (1866 – 1948)
Southern American poet
Hammond was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi. Edcuated locally and at home, she was noted for her linguistic skills. She married John Butt and was employed as a clerk in Muskogee, Oklahoma. Hammond produced children’s stories such as Sun-Dial (1929), and the collection of verse I Pray You. She alsowrote Lapidary and Sonnets (1934), both works being published under her maiden name. Mahalia Hammond died (Aug 14, 1948) aged eighty-four, at Amarillo in Texas.

Hammond, Natalie Harris – (1861 – 1931)
Southern American memoirist
Born Natalie Munro at Vicksburg in Mississippi, she was educated privately in New York, and then studied music aborad at Dresden in Saxony. It was during this time that she met her future husband (1881) John Hays Hammond. Her husband was arrested whilst they were in South Africa (1895), being suspected of involvement with the infamous Jameson raid. Natalie wrote an account of their experiences entitled A Woman’s Part in a Revolution (1897). She later founded the women’s welfare department of the National Civic Federation (1911) and later served as president of the Women’s Institute (WI) in London. Natalie Hammond died (June 18, 1931) aged sixty-nine, in Washington, D.C.

Hamsun, Marie – (1881 – 1969)
Norwegian actress, poet and children’s author
Born Anne Marie Andersen (Nov 19, 1881) at Elverum, she became the second wife of the writer Knut Hamsun (1859 – 1952). She published two collections of verse and several books for children, which were translated into several languages including Latvian and Dutch. She also published two autobiographical works Regnbuen (The Rainbow) (1953), and Under gullregnen (1959). Politically she was famous for her support of the Nazis and their occupation of Norway. Marie Hamsun died (Aug 5, 1969) aged eighty-seven at Norholm.

Hamutal – (fl. c630 – c620 BC)
Hebrew queen
Hamutal was the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah her name was recorded by Josephus in his Antiquitates Judaicae as Amutal. She became the second wife of Josiah (c647 – 609 BC), King of Judah and was the mother of his two sons, of whom the elder, King Jehoahaz, reigned only for three months (609 BC), before being deposed by Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt. Her younger son Mattaniah was then placed on the throne by order of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, taking the regnal name of Zedekiah. He rebelled and was blinded and carried into captivity by the Babylonians (586 BC).

Hanaford, Phebe Ann Coffin – (1829 – 1921)
American Universalist minister, poet, and author
Hanaford was born (May 6, 1829) on Nantucket, Island, Massachusetts. She wrote Women of the Century (1877) and Daughters of America (1882). Phebe Ann Hannaford died (June 2, 1921) aged ninety-two.

Hanau, Princess Eleonore von – (1925 – 1997)
German royal
A member of the family of the electors of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Eleonore Marie Elisabeth Hildegarde von Hanau was born (May 16, 1925), the only daughter of Count Heinrich von Hanau und zu Horowitz, fifth Prince von Hanau (1917 – 1971) and his wife Countess Maria Theresa Fugger von Babenhausen. She was married firstly (1946) at Hinterhar to Bela Spanyi (1921 – 1997), to whom she bore two daughters, Elisabeth (born 1946) and Ellen Maria Spanyi (born 1952) who remained unmarried. Eleonore was divorced from Spanyi (1954) and then remarried secondly (1959) in Munich, Bavaria to Herbert Joost (1908 – 2001). There were no children of her second marriage. Princess Eleonore von Hanau died (April 13, 1997) aged seventy-one, in Hamburg.

Hanau, Marthe – (1885 – 1935)
French editor and author
Marthe Hanau was born in Paris. She was portrayed by Austrian actress Romy Schneider in the film La Banquiere (1982) directed by Francois Girod. Marthe Hanau died (July 19, 1935) at Fresnes.

Hanau und zu Horowitz, Princess Gertrude von   see   Falkenstein, Gertrude

Hanbury, Ada – (fl. 1875 – 1887)
British artist
Ada Hanbury and her sister Blanche Hanbury specialized in painting flowers. Her work was exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and at the New Water Colour Society, as well as at several notable galleries.

Hanbury, Lily – (1874 – 1908)
British actress
Hanbury was the cousin of actress Julia Neilson, and was educated at the English School in London. She was married (1905) to Herbert Guedala. She made her first stage appearance at the Savoy Theatre (1888). She maintained a highly successful stage career for the remainder of her life. Lily Hanbury died (March 5, 1908) aged only thirty-five, from complications following the birth of a stillborn child.

Hancock, Dame Florence Mary – (1893 – 1974)
British trade unionist
Florence Hancock was born at Chippenham in Wiltshire, the daughter of a textile worker. She left school at twelve in order to work in a kitchen, and later in a milk factory. Hancock joined the local branch of the Worker’s Union (1913) and was promoted as district officer for Wiltshire (1917) and Gloucestershire (1918). From 1929 – 1942 she served as Women’s Officer in Bristol for the TGWU (Transport and General Worker’s Union). After this she became chief officer of the TGWU (1942 – 1958). She was married late in life (1964) to a trade unionist.
A tireless campaigner for fair and equitable pay and working conditions for ordinary women, she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1951) in recognition of her valuable work and contribution to society.  She was later appointed to the Piercey Commission (1953) which dealt with the settlement and housing of disabled people, and then became a director of The Daily Herald (1955 – 1957). Dame Florence Hancock retired in 1958, though she continued to serve as the governor of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (1956 – 1962).

Handan (c1570 – 1605)
Ottoman sultana
Handan was concubine to Sultan Mehmed III (1595 – 1603), and the mother of the Turkish Sultan Ahmed I (1603 – 1617), who accorded her the rank and titles of Valide Sultan (queen mother) upon his accession. A virtuous and respectable woman, the historian Pecevi recorded that Handan ill-advisedly urged her son to follow the advice of Dervish Pasha, being herself ignorant of his duplicitous character. She was a figure of minor political influence, having never been elevated as haseki (favourite) by Sultan Mehmed, and also because of the powerful influence of her mother-in-law, Safiye Baffo, which was resented by her grandson Ahmed, who accordingly limited his mother’s access to power at his court. Sultana Handan died aged about thirty-five (Nov 26, 1605) and left funds in her will for the maintenance of her late husband’s tomb.

Handel-Mazzetti, Baroness Enrica – (1871 – 1955) 
Austrian Catholic historical novelist
Baroness Enrica was born (Jan 10, 1871) in Vienna. She received a thorough Catholic education at Saint Polkten, and this strongly religious upbringing and outlook on life was reflected in her historical novels. She resided with her mother until that lady’s death (1901) and never married. The baroness sometimes used the psuedonym ‘Marien Kind.’ Her published works included Meinrad Helmpergers denkwurdiges Jahr (Meinrad Helmperger’s Memorable Year) (1900), Jesse und Marie (1906), Stefana Schwertner (1913), Das Rosenwunder (1925) and Frau Maria (1929 – 1931). Baroness Handel-Mazzetti died (April 8, 1955) at Linz, aged eighty-four.

Handworth, Octavia – (1887 – 1978)
American silent film actress
Born Octavia Boas in New York, her first film was, The Girl from Arizona (1910), and other film credits included The Lost Necklace (1911), A Brave Little Indian (1912) and The Toll of Mammon (1914), but she was best remembered for her performance in The Forbidden Path (1914), when she played three separate characters, and as Countess Mirtza Charkoff in The Great Ruby (1915). Octavia made over two dozen films and retired after playing the role of Etta in her last movie Footlights (1921). Octavia Handworth died at Hemet, California.

Hanel von Cronenthal, Julia   see    Cronenthal, Julia Hanel von

Hanfstangel, Marie – (1848 – 1917)
German soprano
Born Marie Schroder in Breslau, she was the pupil of Pauline Viardot-Garcia, and made her debut in Paris (1867). Hanfstangel later studied under Vannucini in Paris (1878) and was later employed as a singer with the Stadt-theatre in Frankfurt-am-Main. Marie Hanfstangel died in Munich, Bavaria.

Hani, Motoko – (1873 – 1957)
Japanese journalist and educator
Born Matsuoka Moto in Hachinohe in Aomori Prefecture into a samurai family, she attended the Meiji Girls’ School in Tokyo, where she studied under Iwamoto Yoshisharu and trained as a schoolteacher, and converted to Christianity (1890). Motoko joined the Tokyo newspaper Hochi Shimbun as a journalist, and became Japan’s first full-time female reporter (1897).
Several years later she was married (1901) to fellow journalist, Yoshikazu Hani, and with him became joint-owner of the magazine Katei no tomo (1903), which they transformed into the feminist publication that was renamed Fujin no Tomo. The couple co-founded the progressive Jiyu Gakuen School (1921), which combined ethical precepts of both Christianity and Confucianism. Their daughters were the social critic, Setsuko Hani and the educator, Keiko Hani, and their grandson the famous film director, Susumu Hani.

Hanim, Latife – (1898 – 1975)
Turkish social reformer
Latife Hanim came from a wealthy family in Izmir (formerly Smyrna). Educated in France she worked as a secretary and translator for French and English diplomatic correspondence for her future husband, the Turkish hero Kemal Ataturk, whom she first met in 1922, after his triumphant defeat of the Greeks. Latife offered Ataturk the use of her family’s villa in the Bornova district of Izmir. Latife and Ataturk were married at Izmir in Jan, 1923.
Latife was used by Ataturk as a model for his Turkish social reforms, and when he appeared with her in public she was unveiled, and the wives of Turkish officials were forced to comply. Latife became the public symbol of modern Turkish women, freed from the harem and religious restrictions and dress. The marriage did not last however, and eventually Ataturk resented Latife’s attempts to interfere in policy. He finally divorced her (1925). Latife Hanim never remarried and retired to a reclusive life in the Ayazpasha district of Istanbul, near the Bosphorus. Refusing to give press interviews or provide memoirs, she died in Istanbul.

Hanim, Leyla – (c1805 – 1847)
Turkish poet
Leyla Hanim was trained in Ottoman poetry and literature by the famous poet, Kececizade Izzet Molla. Her arranged marriage lasted only days, after which Leyla hanim joined the Mawlawi sect known to westerners as ‘Whirling Dervishes.’ Some of her verses survive. They encourage pleasure and enjoyable pastimes and were condemned by contemporary moralists.

Hanke, Henriette – (1785 – 1862)
German novelist
Henriette was the third wife of the Protestasnt clergyman Gottfired Hanke. After the early death of her husband Madame Hanke produced of one hundred and twenty volumes of stories and novels, and managed to support her family because of her literary success.

Hanna, Jean – (1902 – 2000) 
Australian matron
Margaret Jean Hanna was born in Walwa, Victoria, and began her nursing training at Alfred Hospital, Melbourne (1927) where she studied midwifery. She joined the Australian Army Nursing Service (1940), being appointed sister-in-charge for the 21st Casualty Clearing Station. Jean Hanna served with the forces in Alexandria, Mersa Matruh in Palestine, and Beirut in Syria, and set up hospitals in Sri Lanka, Borneo and in Queensland.
From 1946 – 1947 she served as matron of the Darley Military Hospital in Victoria and of the Northfield Military Hospital in Adelaide. Joan Hanna was later appointed as lady superintendent and director of nurse training at the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, and was sister-in-charge of the Children’s Health Bureau at Anzac House (1962 – 1974).

Hannah – (c1105 – c1040 BC) 
Hebrew matriarch
Hannah was one of the two wives of Elkanah the Ephraimite, and mother of the biblical prophet Samuel (c1080 – c1020 BC). Though married for several years, and Elkanah’s favourite wife, the couple remained childless. Taunted by her rival Peninnah, Hannah prayed for a son. Her piety at the temple of Shiloh was noticed by the prophet Eli, who eventually blessed her. Hannah subsequently bore her son Samuel, and then five more children. In gratitude to God she devoted Samuel to his service as a Nazirite. Her song of thanksgiving survives.

Hannah, Florence Margeurite    see    Brooke, Sarah

Hannan, Grace Thyrza   see    Kimmins, Dame Grace Thyrza

Hanrahan, Barbara Janice – (1939 – 1991)  
Australian painter and writer
Barbara Hanrahan was born in Adelaide, South Australia, where she attended the South Australian School of Arts, and then travelled to England in order to complete her studies at the Central School of Art in London. A printmaker noted for her folk art and erotic motifs, her works were exhibited in England and Florence, and examples of her work are preserved at the Australian National Gallery. Her autobiographical novel The Scent of Eucalyptus (1973), was well received. Other published works included The Albatross Muff (1977), Where the Queens All Strayed (1978), The Frangipani Gardens (1980), Flawless Jade (1989) and the collection of short stories entitled Dream People (1987).

Hansberry, Lorraine Vivien – (1930 – 1965)
Black American dramatist, prose writer and civil rights activist
Hansberry was born (May 19, 1930) in Chicago, Illinois, and attended the University of Wisconsin and the School of Art Institute in Chicago. She became the first black woman to ever have a play produced when her work A Raisin in the Sun, was performed on the Broadway stage (1959). The work was a semi-autobiographical account of her family’s attempting to integrate in a white neighbourhood. It was awarded the New York Drama Critics Circle award, and led to the musical entitled Raisin (1973).
Hansberry’s other works included The Sign in Sidney Brustein’s Window (1964), set in Greenwhich Village, New York, and The Movement: Documentary of a Struggle for Equality (1964). Her husband published a posthumous collection of her works entitled To Be Young, Gifted and Black: Lorraine Hansberry in Her Own Words (1969). Lorraine Hansberry died young of cancer (Jan 12, 1965) aged only thirty-four.

Hansdotter, Karin – (1539 – 1596)
Swedish courtier and royal mistress
Katarina Hansdotter was the daughter of Hans Klasson Kokkemaster. Both her parents had been religieuse prior to the Reformation, and her mother was the illegitimate daughter of a nobleman. Karin joined the household of Queen Katarina Stenbock, and then became the mistress of Duke Johann of Finland, who later succeeded to the Swedish throne as Johann III. Karin resided with him openly as his mistress at Abo Castle in Finland (1556), and bore the prince several children who bore the surname of Gyllenhielm.
Karin and her children later returned to Sweden (1560) where she was married to one of the duke’s pages, Klas Andersson Westgote (died 1565), prior to his marriage with the Polish princess Catherine Jagiella. Karin was then granted the manor of Waasky in Kangasala, Finland. Her first husband was murdered by King Erik XIV (1563) and she later married a second time (1572) to Lars Henrikson Hordeel (died 1591). She died in Finland and her estate was plundered by rebels shortly after her death. Her eldest daughter, Sophie Johansdotter Gyllenhielm (1559 – 1583), became the wife of Pontus de La Gardie (died 1585).

Hansen, Aase – (1893 – 1981)
Danish novelist, essayist and scholar
Hansen was born (March 11, 1893) at Frederiksvaerk, the daughter of a merchant. She was educated at Frederiksborg prior to attending the University of Copenhagen. She became a teacher at the Alborg Cathedral School, and produced the novels Ebba Berings Studenterdid (The Academic Career of Ebba Bering) (1929) and Et Par Huse om en Station (A Few Houses by a Station) (1930). She resigned her teaching position in order to return to Copenhagen and become a full time writer. She wrote the volumes of memoirs Klip at et Billedark (Clippings from a Picture Sheet) (1973) and Fra den gronne Provins (From the Green Province) (1952) which were written in essay form, and her last work was I Forvitringens Aar (In Years of Decline) (1977). Aase Hansen died in Copenhagen.

Hansen, Cecilia – (1897 – 1989)
Russian-Anglo violinist
Born Stanitza Kamenska (Feb 17, 1897), she was trained under the Hungarian violin virtuoso Leopold Auer (1845 – 1930). Cecilia Hansen performed as an orchestral soloist and appeared in recitals throughout Europe with great success. She made a successful tour of the USA (1923 – 1924) with the pianist, Basil Sacharoff. Hansen recorded work with the Russian pianist Nicolai Medtner (1880 – 1951) including the First Violin Sonata (1946), which was first recorded in London, England. This remains the only extended recording on discography, of any of Hansen’s work. Cecilia Hansen died in London, aged ninety-two.

Hansford-Johnson, Pamela     see    Johnson, Pamela Hansford

Hanska, Evelina Constanze Victoire Rzewuska, Countess – (1801 – 1882)
Polish literary figure, patron and salonniere
Countess Evelina Rzewuska was born (Jan 6, 1801) at Pohrebyszcze, the daughter of Adam Laurent, Count Rzewuski and his wife Justyna Rdultowska. Countess Eveline was married firstly to Count Wenceslas Hanski, to whom she bore a daughter Anna Hanska (1828 – 1915) who became the wife of Count Georges Mniszech (1823 – 1881). Countess Hanska later became the second wife (1850) of the French novelist and author Honore de Balzac (1799 – 1850).
The countess first met de Balzac in 1833, after which they corresponded regularly. With the death Count Hanski (1841) Balzac travelled to St Petersburg in Russia where the countess was then residing, and Evelina accompanied him on several sea voyages throughout Europe. Their child was stillborn (1846) and they were married only three months prior to Balzac’s death. Countess Hanska died (April 10, 1882) aged eighty-one in Paris. Her correspondence with Balzac was edited and published posthumously as Lettres a l’Etrangere.

Hanson, Jean – (1919 – 1973)
British physiologist, biophysicist and zoologist
Emmeline Jean Hanson was born in Newhall, Derbyshire, and attended Bedford College in London. After WW II she was employed by the Biophysics Research Unit of the Medical Research Council at King’s College, London. Jean Hanson’s specific field of research was the skeletal muscle, in which she was much aided by the use of the electron miscroscope. She was appointed as Professor of Biology at the University of London (1966), and was then a director of the Muscle Biophysics Unit (1970 – 1973).

Hansteen, Aasta – (1824 – 1908)
Norwegian painter, writer and feminist
Aasta Hansteen was born (Dec 10, 1824), the daughter of Christopher Hansteen the professor of astronomy at the University of Oslo. She was educated in Copenhagen in Denmark and at Dusseldorf in Germany. Hansteen produced portraits and her work was exhibited at the World’s Fair in Paris (1855). With her return to Norway she established her career as a portraitist in Kirstiania. Her best known work was the portrait of her father Professor Hansteen which is preserved in the National Gallery of Norway.
Hansteen later studied the various Norwegian dialects, and pursued linguistic studies under Ivar Aasen. Her anonymously published work in the nynorsk language (1862) was the first to be produced by a woman in Norway. Miss Hansteen later resided in the USA (1880 – 1889) and with her return to Norway she became actively involved with The Norwegian Association for Women’s Rights. She was the model for the character of Lona Hassel in the play The Pillars of Society (1874) by Henrik Ibsen. Aasta Hansteen died (April 13, 1908) aged eighty-three. The bust which adorns her grave in Oslo was executed by Gustav Vigeland.

Hanzade Osmanoglu, Zehra – (1923 – 1998)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Princess Zehra Hanzade Osmanoglu was born at the Dolma Bagce Palace (Sept 12, 1923), the granddaughter of Sultan Abdulmecid II. She was married to Mehmed Ali Ibrahim, Prince of Egypt. Princess Hanzade Osmanoglu died (March 19, 1998) aged seventy-four, in Paris, France.

Hanzade Sultan Osmanoglu – (c1610 – after 1648)
Ottoman princess of Turkey
Princess Hanzade Sultan Osmanoglu was the daughter of Sultan Ahmed I (1603 – 1617), and of his chief wife Mahpeyker (Kosem, Kiusem), and was granddaughter to Mehmed III (1595 – 1605) and his concubine Handan. Hanzade was half-sister to the sultans Mustafa I and Osman II (1618 – 1622) and full sister to sultans Murad IV (1623 – 1640) and the mad Ibrahim (1640 – 1648). She was married (1623) to Bayram Pasha, the agha of the Janissaries, and sultanic governor of Egypt. The marriage ceremony was conducted amidst rich and splendid celebrations in Istanbul, and the event was noted by foreign visitors.
During the reign of her deranged brother Sultan Ibrahim, Hanzade, together with her sisters, and niece, Kaya, had their wealth and estates taken by the sultan, who forced the princesses to act as ladies-in-waiting upon his favourite concubine, Humasah. Hanzade survived these humiliating events, and her estates were later restored.

Hapsburg, Charlotte von – (c1591 – 1662)
Austrian royal
Charlotte von Hapsburg was the illegitimate daughter of Rudolph II, Holy Roman emperor (1576 – 1612) and his mistress Euphemia von Rosenthal. Recognized by her father she was legitimated and then granted the rank and titles of Margravine of Austria (1607). She was married (1608) to the French peer Francois Thomas de Bourgogne (1589 – 1629), Prince de Cantecroix who died at Besancon in Burgundy. Their son Eugene Leopold de Grandvelles d’Oiselet (c1610 – 1637) succeeded his father as Prince de Cantecroix but left no surviving issue. Charlotte von Hapsburg died (Jan 22, 1662) at Malines (Mechelin).

Harben, Mrs Hubert    see   Jerrold, Mary

Harcourt, Agnes d’ – (1224 – 1291)
French nun and saint
Agnes de Harcourt was the daughter of Comte Jean d’Harcourt (c1199 – 1288) and his wife Alice de Beaumont (c1205 – 1275). Agnes never married and became a nun at the abbey of Longchamps, founded by Princess Isabelle, daughter of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile. With the princess’s death (1270), Agnes ruled as abbess. She was regarded a saint at her death.

Harcourt, Anne Paget, Lady    see   Waller, Anne Paget, Lady

Harcourt, Marie Francoise de Brancas d’Oise, Princesse d’ (1648 – 1715)
French courtier
Marie Francoise de Brancas was the daughter of Henri de Brancas, Comte d’Ornano and his wife Margeurite de Royans de Mormoiron de Montlaur, the daughter of Guillaume Louis de Royans de Mormoiron (died c1607), Comte de Montlaur and seigneur de Maubec. She became the wife (1667) of Alphonse Henri Charles de Lorraine (1648 – 1718), Prince d’Harcourt. She bore him eight children, the first four of whom died in infancy. The prince and princess accompanied Marie Louise d’Orleans, the niece of Louis XIV, to the Spanish court in Madrid for her marriage with Carlos II of Spain (1679). Husband and wife later separated (1687), Harcourt retiring to his estates in Lorraine whilst the princess lived at the court of Versailles as a friend of Madame de Maintenon.
Possessed of distinctly venemous character the famous Duc de saint-Simon recorded of the princess in his Memoires that she ‘ was a great favourite of Madame de Maintenon for unpleasant reasons, and she went everywhere with the court. She wanted to get her husband invited to Marly, to which husbands generally went automatically when their wives were received. She stayed away in the hope that Mme de Maintenon would miss her enough to obtain royal permission for the pair of them. But she was wrong: Mme de Maintenon while making a duty of looking after her, was often embarrassed, and got on very well without her. Fearing that Mme de Maintenon would learn to do without her altogether, she went back to Marly by herself.’ Of her looks and general character Saint-Simon continued (1702); ‘She had once been beautiful and very free with her favours, but now, although she was not old (fifty-four), her grace and beauty had gone to seed. She had become a big, fat creature, always in a bustle, with a muddy complexion, thick ugly lips and tow-coloured hair which was always coming undone and untidy like her dirty, squalid clothes – always intriguing, pretentious, pushing, quarrelling; either in a fit of deepest dejection or high as the sky according to the state of her latest affair. She was a blonde fury – indeed, a harpy: she was shameless, ill-natured, and deceitful: violent, avaricious, and greedy.’ Cruel to her servant she was feared and loathed for both her vile nature and filthy habits alike, Madame d’Harcourt became the victim of practical jokes perpetrated by the Dauphin Louis, and Madame de Bourgogne (mother of Louis XV). His final description of her ended with this observation; ‘ Such was the favourite Mme de Maintenon – insolent and impossible to everyone, who was always shown favour and preference, grew rich on the families she had ruined, and made herself dreaded by the whole court up to the Princesses and the King’s Ministers.’ The Princesse d’Harcourt died (April 13, 1715) aged sixty-six. Her four surviving children were,

Harcourt, Mary Danby, Countess – (1749 – 1833)
British Hanoverian courtier and diarist
Mary Danby was the eldest daughter of a clergyman, William Danby, of Farnley, near Swinton, Yorkshire. She was married firstly to Thomas Lockhart of Craig House, Scotland, a legal counsellor. After his death Mary became the wife (1778) of Field-Marshal William Harcourt (1743 – 1830) who succeeded as third Earl Harcourt. Mary Harcourt served at court (1789 – 1791) as lady-in-waiting to Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III (1760 – 1820) and to her elder daughters. The famous novelist Fanny Burney shared her time at court and Mrs Harcourt (as she was then) kept a diary of her activities at the royal court (Feb, 1789 – March, 1791), which was later edited and published as Mrs Harcourt’s Diary (1871 – 1872) by the Philobiblon Society of London. Lady Harcourt was chosen to escort Princess Caroline of Brunswick to England (1795) for her marriage with the Prince of Wales (George IV). Lady Harcourt died (Jan 14, 1833) aged eighty-three, at St Leonard’s Hill, Berkshire.

Hardcastle, Charlotte – (fl. 1852 – 1866)
British painter
Charlotte Hardcastle was a native of London, and specialized in painting fruit and still-lifes. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy, the British Institution, and the Suffolk Street Gallery.

Hardcastle, Mary – (1901 – 1966)
British educator
Mary Hardcastle was the daughter of a churchman, and was educated privately at home under the supervision of a governess. She later attended Charlotte Mason College, and Ambleside, where she graduated as a teacher, and obtained a diploma in theology. Mary Hardcastle soon returned to join the staff of her old alma mater Charlotte Mason College, as a lecturer (1923 – 1938) she later served as vice-principal (1938 – 1942) and then as principal (1955 – 1962). She also served as secretary to the Bishop of Sheffield, and was a tutor in adult religious education in Sheffield (1945 – 1953). She retired in 1962. Mary Hardcastle died (Nov 7, 1966) aged sixty-three, at St Monica’s, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol.

Hardin, Frieda Mae Green – (1896 – 2000)
American navy yeoman
Hardin was born in Eden Valley, Minnesota, the daughter of a railway worker. She was originally employed in a department store in Portsmouth, Ohio, when she decided to enlist in the Naval Reserve. Formally designated Yeoman (F) for female, they were popularly referred to as ‘Yeomanettes.’ Frieda performed clerical duties at the Norfolk Navy Yard in Virginia (Sept, 1918 – March, 1919), being one of the earliest, and longest-lived female member of the American armed forces. She married a chef and settled in California, where she raised her family. Eighty years later (1997) Frieda participated in the Women in Military service for America Memorial held at the Arlington National Cemetery. Frieda Hardin died aged 103 years.

Hardin, Lil     see    Armstrong, Lil

Harding, Mary (1) – (fl. c1580 – c1600)
English Tudor courtier
Mary Hardinge served at court as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth. As a member of the queen’s inner household, Mary was approached by many people who wished favour from the queen. One of her letters in reply to the Countess of Rutland survives.

Harding, Mary (2) – (fl. 1880 – 1893)
British Victorian painter and artist
Mary Harding was a resident of Blackheath, near London, and specialized in painting flowers. Her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and at various important galleries.

Harding, Sarah – (fl. c1710 – 1728)
Irish printer
Sarah was the wife of John Harding, who ran his printing business in Dublin. With John’s death, Sarah oversaw the continued running of the family printing business, near Crown in Copper Alley. Mrs Harding printed the newsletter The Intelligencier, as well as some pamphlets written by Jonathan Swift. She sufferred a period of imprisonment after printing a satirical poem (1728) aimed at highly place persons, who took offence. She appears to have retired from the printing business after this incident.

Hardinge, Winifred Selina Sturt, Lady – (1868 – 1914)
British Vicereine of India (1910 – 1914)
The Hon. (Honourable) Winifred Sturt was the daughter of Gerard Sturt, first Baron Alington, and his first wife, Lady Augusta Bingham, the daughter of George Charles, third Earl of Lucan. She was married (1890) to Charles Hardinge, first Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858 – 1944). Lady Hardinge served at court at extra lady-in-waiting to Queen Alexandra, the wife of Edward VII. She was later awarded the CI (Crown of India) and the Kaisar-I-Hind gold medal for her social work in that country, during her husband’s presidence as Viceroy (1910 – 1914). Her eldest son, Edward Charles Hardinge (1892 – 1914) served as a page to Edward VII, and was killed in action during WW I.  Her second son Alexander (1894 – 1960) succeeded as second Baron Hardinge. Lady Hardinge died aged forty-six (July 11, 1914).  

Hardman, Amy Elizabeth – (1909 – 1990) 
British nurse and matron
Amy Hardman was born (Dec 23, 1909), the daughter of Charlton Hardman, and attended school at Hammersmith in London and at Epsom prior to training as a nurse and midwife at St Bartholomew's Hospital in London (1930 - 1934). Miss Hardman served as matron of various important hospitals including The Guest Hospital at Dudley in Worcestershire (1942 - 1949) and St Margaret’s Hospital in Epping (1949 – 1953). She was the author of An Introduction to Ward Management (1970).

Hardman, Emma – (fl. 1888 – 1895)
British Victorian artist
Emma was the wife of Thomas Hardman, and specialized as a flower painter. Her work was exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and the New Water Colour Society.

Hardreshull, Margaret de – (1345 – 1367)
English Plantagenet heiress
Margaret de Hardreshull was the daughter and only child of William de Hardreshull (died 1349), the son and heir of Baron Hache, and his wife Katherine, the daughter of Sir Nicholas Molemayns. With her father’s death, Margaret inherited the manor of Coleby, whilst her future marriage was granted by the Crown to Nicholas de Loveyn, a royal yeoman. At her death when she was still unmarried, Soleby was resettled upon her grandfather, Lord Hache, and his wife for their lives, with remainder to their surviving grandchildren. Margaret de Hardreshull died (before May 1, 1367).

Hardwick, Bess – (1527 – 1608)
English political figure
Elizabeth Hardwick was the daughter of John Hardwick, of Hardwick, Derbyshire, and is usually referred to as ‘Bess of Hardwick’ due to her series of wealthy marriages. She was raised in the household of Susan Welby, the wife of John, eighth Baron Zouche of Haryngworth. Bess was married firstly (1532) to Robert Barlow, of Barlow, near Dronfield (died 1533),  secondly (1549) to Sir William Cavendish (c1505 – 1557), thirdly to Sir William St Loe, captain of the guard to Queen Elizabeth I, and fourthly (1568), she became the second wife of George Talbot, sixth Earl of Shrewsbury. All of her children were born from her third marriage to William Cavendish, she being also his third wife.
Bess is famous for her friendship with Mary, Queen of Scots, who was placed in confinement at Tutbury Castle under the guardianship of Lord Shrewsbury (1569 – 1584). However, the friendship did not last, and Bess played Mary and Elizabeth off against one another, even accusing Shrewsbury of having amorous designs upon the imprisoned queen. She and Lord Shrewsbury remained estranged until his death (1590). The countess later intrigued with Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, a kinswoman of Queen Elizabeth, and they arranged the secret marriage of Margaret’s younger son Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox (brother to Lord Darnley, the murdered husband of the Scottish queen) to Bess’s daughter, Elizabeth Cavendish (1574), which resulted in both countesses sufferring a period of imprisonment in the Tower of London. Through this marriage, Bess was the grandmother of Lady Arbella Stuart, though the two women later fell out, and Bess disinherited Arbella before her own death.
Bess was also famous as a builder of large and lavish residences, most notably of Chatsworth House, which she purchased from the Cavendish family, and which remains the principal seat of the dukes of Devonshire to the present. Other projects included Bolsover, Worksop and a new Hardwick Hall. Bess Hardwick died aged eighty (Feb 13, 1608). Her Cavendish children were,

Hardwick, Elizabeth Bruce – (1916 – 2007)
American novelist, essayist and literary critic
Hardwick was born (July 27, 1916) in Lexington, Kentucky. She studied firstly at the University of Kentucky and at then at Columbia in New York (1939). Elizabeth Hardwick first achieved favourable attention with the essays she published in the Partisan Review, where she was involved in a liasion with the editor, Philip Rahv, but really became famous with the publication of the novel The Ghostly Lover (1945), which dealt with the relationship between a white woman and her black servant. Hardwick was married (1949) to the noted poet, Robert Lowell (1917 – 1977), from whom she was later divorced (1972), and published collections of essays included Seduction and Betrayal: Women and Literature (1974) and Bartleby in Manhattan (1983). Her other publications included Sleepless Nights (1979), and a biography of the novelist Herman Melville (2000). Hardwick was the founder and editor of the New York Review of Books (1963). Elizabeth Hardwick died (Dec 2, 2007) aged ninety, one, in New York.

Hardwicke, Sophie Georgiana Robertine Wellesley, Countess of – (1840 – 1923)
British society leader
Lady Sophie Wellesley was the younger daughter and coheiress of Henry Richard Charles Wellesley, first Earl Cowley, the British ambassador to Paris, and his wife Olivia Cecilia Fitzgerald, the daughter of Lord Henry Fitzgerald and of Charlotte, Baroness de Ros. She was married (1863) at the British Embassy in Paris, to Charles Philip Yorke (1836 – 1897), Viscount Royston, the son and heir of the fourth Earl of Hardwicke and became the Viscountess Royston. There were three children.
Lord and Lady Royston were considered as brilliant members of the younger set of society which followed the Prince and Princess of Wales. When her husband succeeded his father as the fourth Earl of Hardwicke Sophie Royston became the Countess of Hardwicke (1873 – 1897). Lady Battersea, who knew her, described the countess in her Reminiscences as ‘a singularly beautiful woman.’ Sophie survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Hardwicke (1897 – 1923), and as a widowed peeress she attended the coronations of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1902) and that of George V and Queen Mary (1911). Lady Hardwicke died (June 3, 1923) aged eighty-three, at her residence in Regent’s Park in London. Her children were,

Hardwicke, Susan Liddell, Countess of – (1810 – 1886)
British Victorian peeress
The Hon. (Honourable) Susan Liddell was born (Jan 11, 1810) the sixth daughter of Thomas Henry Liddell, first Baron Ravensworth and his wife Maria Susanna Simpson. She was married (1833) at Ravensworth Castle, to Charles Philip Yorke (1799 – 1873), fourth Earl of Hardwicke. The Countess was a woman of admirable character and Lady Battersea recorded in her Reminiscences that ‘Lady Hardwicke was a true and good helpmeet to her husband, and enjoyed her life spent in devotion to her family, her home, and her village. She was a brilliant musician.’
Benjamin Disraeli wrote of her vocal gifts that she was; ‘without exception the most dramatic singer I have ever listened to.’ He also observed of the personal relationship between husband and wife; ‘I have never met persons who seemed to enjoy life more, or who seemed fonder of each other than the Hardwickes.’ She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Hardwicke (1873 – 1886). The countess died (Nov 12, 1886) aged seventy-six, at Sydney Lodge, in Hamble, Hants. Her eight children were,

Hardy, Emma Lavinia – (1840 – 1912)
British literary figure and diarist
Born Emma Giffard, she was the first wife (1874) to the poet Thomas Hardy (1840 – 1928) with whom she resided at their estate of Max Gate, near Dorchester. She travelled extensively in Europe and left letters and diaries which were edited and published posthumously as the Emma Hardy Diaries (1985).

Hardy, Harriet Louise – (1905 – 1993)
American medical academic and pioneer in the field of occupational medicine
Hardy was born (Sept 23, 1905) in Arlington, Massachusetts. Harriet first attended Wellesley College, before gaining her medical degree from Cornell College (1932) and working as an intern at the Philadelphia General Hospital. Harriet Hardy became the first woman to become a full professor at Harvard Medical School. She wrote papers which detailed the effects of acute and chronic beryllium poisoning (1946 – 1947), which had caused a mysterious respiratory illness amongst workers producing fluroescent lamps at General Electric. Hardy worked with the Atomic Energy Commission in Loas Alamos, New Mexico, where she conducted researchconcerning the hazards of nuclear energy. She also studied the effects of the bacterial disease, anthrax, amongst farm workers. Harriet Hardy died (Oct 13, 1993) aged eighty-seven, in Boston.

Hardy, Iza Duffus – (c1849 – 1923)
British author
Miss Hardy was the author of such works as Oranges and Alligators and The Silent Watchers. Iza Hardy died (Aug 30, 1923).

Hardy, Lulu Daniel – (1877 – 1966)
Southern American writer and poet
Lulu Daniel was born (Oct 10, 1877) in Carroll County, Indiana and attended the Southwestern University. After graduating she trained as a schoolteacher at the Georgetown Teachers College in Texas. Lulu was married to fellow academic James Chappell Hardy (1877 – 1924), who established the Gulf Park College in Gulfport, Mississippi. Mrs Hardy taught at this school for many years and wrote articles for the local newspaper the Daily News. Her collection of lyric verse entitled The Love Cycle (1924), was published in Boston, Massachusetts. Lulu Hardy died in Gulfport (Dec 20, 1966) aged eighty-nine.

Hardy, Violet Agnes Evelyn Leigh, Lady – (1875 – 1972)
British author and memoirist
Violet Leigh was the daughter of Sir Edward Chandos Leigh, and his wife Katherine Fanny Rigby. Violet was married (1899) to Sir Bertram Hardy, third Baronet (1877 – 1953), to whom she bore two sons. Lady Hardy was the author of Touched by the Sun and the autobiographical As it Was. Lady Hardy died aged ninety-eight.

Hare, Dora    see   Gordine, Dora

Harford, Lesbia Venner – (1891 – 1927)
Australian novelist and poet
Born Lesbia Keogh, she studied arts and the law, graduating from the University of Melbourne (1916). She worked as a teacher, a clerk, and in a clothing factory, but suffered for much of her short life from ill-health which left her a semi-invalid. Harford is best remembered for her novel The Invaluable Mystery written in 1924, but published only sixty years after her death (1987). The central theme of the novel reinforces the importance of the private life over that of the public. Her poems were collected by Nettie Palmer, and published posthumously as Poems (1941). They were later edited by Drusilla Modjeska and Marjorie Pizer and republished as the The Poems of Lesbia Harford (1985).

Hargicourt, Louise Marie Michelle Fumel, Comtesse d’ – (c1756 – before 1799)
French courtier
Louise Fumel was the daughter of Joseph Fumel (1720 - 1794), Seigneur de Haut-Brion and his wife Marie Elisabeth de Conty d'Hargicourt. She became the wife of the Comte Joseph d' Hargicourt and was a prominent figure at the court of Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) and Marie Antoinette at Versailles.
Madame d'Hargicourt was attached to the household of the king’s unmarried sister Madame Elisabeth, to whom she was a childhood friend. Madame d’Hargicourt and her children emigrated after the fall of the Bastille (1789) and went into exile, though her father and husband perished on the guillotine. She is mentioned in the correspondence of the noted British antiquarian Horace Walpole and some of her own letters have survived.

Hargreaves, Alison – (1962 – 1995)
British mountaineer
Alison Hargreaves was born in Belper, Derbyshire and attended the local secondary school. Upon leaving school she and her future husband, Jim Ballard, joined together in an outdoor climbing business. Alison Hargreaves became the first British woman to climb the north wall of the Eiger, and this when six months pregant (1988). Later in the Alpine mountains, she scaled six north faces in a single season, including the Matterhorn, Grandes Jurasses, and Cima Grande. She became the first woman to ever climb Mt Everest solo, without carrying oxygen (May, 1995). Alison Hargreaves died in Scotland (Aug 13, 1995) whilst climbing in a blizzard.

Hargreaves, Margaret – (1913 – 1986)
British courtier
The Hon. (Honourable) Margaret Lane-Fox was born (April 15, 1913) in London, the daughter of George Richard Lane-Fox, first and last Baron Bingley and his wife the Hon. Mary Agnes Emily Wood, the daughter of Sir Charles Lindley Wood (1839 – 1934), second Viscount Halifax of Monk Bretton. She was married firstly (1939) to Major Charles William Christopher Packe who died during WW II, to whom she bore two daughters. She remarried (1951) to James Edward Hunter who died in 1957. As a widow she served at court as lady-in-waiting (1964 – 1965) to HRH the Princess Royal, Countess of Harewood, daughter of King George V. The Hon. Mrs Hunter then remarried a third time (1969) to Brigadier Kenneth Hargreaves (1903 – 1990). The Hon. Mrs Hargreaves died (Oct 27, 1986) aged seventy-three.

Hargreaves-Liddell, Mrs     see   Liddell, Alice Pleasance

Hari, Mara     see     Mata Hari

Harington, Anne Kelway, Lady – (c1563 – 1620)
English Tudor and Stuart courtier
Anne Kelway was the daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Kelway, of Minster Lovel, Oxon, the surveyor of the Wards and liveries, and his second wife Cecily Bulstrode. She became the wife (1581) of Sir John Harington of Exton (1540 – 1613). Their estate of Combe Abbey, near Coventry in Warwickshire was Lady Harington’s inheritance. The couple received the Princess Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I, at Combe Abbey (1603) and soon afterwards Sir John was created first Baron Harington of Exton. The princess was then placed in their care, to be educated in their household with their own children. When Elizabeth later received her own establishment (1608) Lady Anne and her husband received the first places in her household.
Lord and Lady Harington later escorted Elizabeth and her husband, the elector Frederick of the Palatine, to Germany (1613), remaining for four months in the royal household in Heidelburg. Lord Harington died at Worms (Aug 23, 1613) and his body was returned to England for burial, accompanied by Lady Anne. A woman of distinguished gentleness and refinement, the death of her surviving son (1614) left her in great poverty, and she returned to the household of Princess Elizabeth in Heidelburg where she served as lady-in-waiting. Lady Harington died (May 25, 1620) in St Botolph, Bishopsgate in London. She was interred with her husband at Exton. Her four children were,

Harington, Lucy     see    Bedford, Lucy Harington, Countess of

Harisijades, Kleopatra – (1914 – 1989)
Serbian film editor
Harisijades was born at Nis and her career in films began after the war (1948). She worked on over one hundred and twenty films during an impressive career which lasted over three decades, some of which were released with English titles. These works included Barba Svane (Uncle Svane) (1948), Bila sam jaca (I Was Stronger) (1953), Pod sumnjom (The Suspected One) (1956), Tri cetrtine sonca (Three Quarters of a Sun) (1959), Osmjeh 61 (Smile 61) (1961), Nizvodno od sunca (Downstream from the Sun) (1969), Bube u glavi (This Crazy World of Ours (1970) and Bestije (Beasts) (1977). Harisijades also edited the television mini-series Od svakog koga sam volela (1971). Kleopatra Harisijades died in Belgrade aged seventy-four (Aug 31, 1989).

Harit – (fl. c1600 BC)
Egyptian princess
Harit was the daughter of King Apepi, of the XVth Dynasty, and was closely related to Pharoah Khyan of the XIVth Dynasty. Harit’s name and titles ‘King’s Daughter,’ were found inscribed upon a vase which was uncovered in the tomb of Queen Ahmose Nofreteroi, the wife of Ahmose I of the XVIIth Dynasty, at Dira Abu’l-Naga. It is preserved in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

Harkness, Georgia Elma – (1891 – 1974)
American theologian and religious scholar
Georgia Harkness was born (April 21, 1891) in Harkness, New York. She studied successivelt at prominent universities such as Harvard and Cornell, amongs others, before taking classes at the Union Theological Seminary in New York. Harkness taught for several decades at Elmira College at the Mount Holyoke College and Garrett Biblical Institute, and was then appointed as Professor of Applied Theology at the Pacific School of Religion (1950 – 1961).
Harkness was herself ordained as a Methodist deacon. Her published works included the autobiographical work The Dark Night of the Soul (1945) and Grace Abounding (1969). Georgia Harkness died (Aug 21, 1974) aged eighty-three at Pomona Valley.

Harlech, Beatrice Mildred Edith Gascoyne-Cecil, Lady – (1891 – 1980)
British courtier
Lady Beatrice Cecil was born (Aug 10, 1891) the elder daughter of James Gascoyne-Cecil (1861 – 1947), fourth Marquess of Salisbury and his wife Lady Cicely Alice Gore, the daughter of Sir Arthur Saunders Fox Gore (1839 – 1901), fifth Earl of Arran. Lady Beatrice was married (1913) to William Ormsby-Gore (1885 – 1964) who succeeded as fourth Baron Harlech (1938 – 1947). She bore him six children including, William David Ormsby-Gore (1918 – 1985) who succeeded his father as fifth Baron Harlech.
Lady Harlech served as Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, the wife of George VI for five years (1941 – 1946), after which she served as an Extra Lady. In recognition of this service she was created DCVO (Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order) by George VI (1947). She survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Harlech (1964 – 1980). Her second daughter, Katharine Ormsby-Gore (born 1921) became the wife of Maurice Macmillan (1921 – 1984) and left issue. Lady Harlech died (Dec 3, 1980) aged eighty-nine, in London.

Harlech, Margaret Ethel Gordon, Lady – (1858 – 1950)
British civic activist
Lady Margaret Gordon was the daughter of Charles Gordon, tenth Marquess of Huntley and his second wife Maria Antoinette Pegus, the daughter of a clergyman. Lady Margaret was married (1881) to George Ormsby-Gore (1855 – 1938), third Baron Harlech, and was the mother of William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore (1885 – 1964), fourth Baron Harlech who left issue.
Involved with Red Cross work and active in causes to promote the welfare of servicemen and their families, Lady Harlech became the president of the Shropshire Branch of the British Red Cross Service and of the Shropshire Branch of the Soldiers’, Sailors’ and Airmen’s Families Association. She survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Harlech (1938 – 1950). Lady Harlech died (April 25, 1950).

Harleman, Madame    see    Liewin, Henrika Juliana von

Harley, Brilliana Conway, Lady – (1598 – 1643)
English Civil War heroine and letter writer
Brilliana Conway was born in Brill, Holland, the daughter of Sir Edward Conway, of Ragley. She was brought to England with her family as a child (1606). She later became the third wife (1623) of the noted politician, Sir Robert Harley, of Brampton Bryan, Herefordshire, to whom she bore seven children. During the civil war her family sided with the Parliamentarians of Olliver Cromwell, and hundreds of her letters from this period survive.
Lady Harley supervised the education of her children at Brampton Bryan, and remained there by order of her husband, though she herself preferred the safety of London. Lady Harley refused to allow Royalist troops to garrison the house, and she was virutally confined there with her children and servants. Sir William Vavasour led a full siege against her but Lady Harley refused to surrender, and survived eight weeks till she was relieved by Parliamentary troops led by Lord Essex. Lady Harley died (Oct, 1643) soon afterwards. Her personal correspondence was edited and published during the reign of Queen Victoria (1854).

Harlind – (c690 – 718)
Flemish nun
Harlind and her sister Relindis were the daughters of a nobleman named Adelard and his wife Grinnara. They were educated at a convent at Valenciennes, on the Scheldt River. Possessing a religious vocation, her parents built them the abbey of Maasech, on the Meuse River in Liege. Harlind and Relindis were later consecrated as abbesses of that house by saints Boniface and Willibrord, and their parents were interred there. Harlind translated copies of the gospel and died young (Oct 12, 718). Harlind was venerated as a saint.

Harling, Katharine von – (1624 – 1702)
German courtier
Katharine Offeln became the wife of Christian Friedrich von Harling (1632 – 1724) who served at the royal Hanoverian court of Elector Ernst Augustus as Royal Master of the Horse (Oberstallmeister). Madame von Harling served as governess to the elder sons of Ernst Augustus and his wife Electress Sophia including George Ludwig (later George I of England). After her charges grew to adulthood Madame von Harling remained a member of the household of the Electress Sophia and was mentioned in her correspondence.

Harlow, Jean – (1911 – 1937)
American film actress and movie star
Born Harleian Carpentier (March 3, 1911) in Kansas City, Missouri, she was educated at the Hollywood School for Girls in Los Angeles, California, where she appeared in her first film Moran of the Marines (1928). Carpentier was employed as a film extra before the film director Howard Hughes signed a contract with her. She then divorced her husband and adopted the stage name of ‘Jean Harlow,’ Harlow being her mother’s maiden name (1929) and appeared using that name in Hell’s Angels (1930).
With platinum blonde hair, combined with an easy humour and extremely sexual manner, Harlow became a screen legend after appearing in films such as Platinum Blonde (1931), Red-Headed Woman (1932) and Red Dust (1932). Harlow was contracted to MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) from 1932, and it was during this part of her career that her innate talent for comedy was developed in films such as Dinner at Eight (1933) and Libelled Lady (1936). Her private life was unhappy and confused, and she died tragically (June 6, 1937) at the age of only twenty-six, after sufferring a cerebral oedema.

Harmon, Lily – (1912 – 1998)
American portraitist and book illustrator
Lily Harmon was born in New Haven. She studied art in New York and Paris, at the Academie Colarossi, and maintained a Social Realist style. Her subjects included the artist Helen Frankenthaler and her own relatives. Her first solo exhibition at the Associated American Artists Gallery in New York in 1944 won her the patronage of the millionaire collector Joseph H. Hirschhorn whom she eventually married (1945 – 1956) as her third husband.
Lily exhibited regularly in New York, Washington, and Pittsburgh, and in 1982 a fifty year retrospective of her work was organized by the Wichita Art Museum in Kansas. Samples of her work are displayed in many public collections, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum. From 1945 – 1976 Lily illustrated books, including works by Jean-Paul Sartre, Andre Gide, Edith Wharton, and Franz Kafka. Her autobiography Free hand was published in 1981. Her second husband (1934 – 1940) was the film and theatrical producer Sidney Harmon.

Harnett, Cynthia Mary – (1893 – 1981)
British children’s novelist
Cynthia Harnett was born in London and educated privately. She studied at the Chelsea School of Arts, and later collaborated with her cousin G. Vernon Stokes, also an artist of considerable merit, on several picture books for children such as Junk, the Puppy (1937). Harnett then turned her talents to writing historical novels for children, which she illustrated herself, her first being the story of an eighteenth century architect was entitled The Great House (1949).
Cynthia Harnett was awarded the Carnegie Medal for her novel The Wool-Pack (1951), which concerned the life of a sixteenth century wool merchant, and which had been reprinted eleven times in hardback by 1974. Her next work Ring Out, Bow Bells! (1953) presented the story of the historical Dick Whittington. Later works included Stars of Fortune (1956) and The Load of Unicorn (1959), which dealt with the professional rivalry between the fifteenth century scriveners, and the new printing phenomemnon.

Harnoncourt, Anne Julie d’ – (1943 – 2008)
French-American modern art historian and museum curator
Comtesse Anne d’Harnoncourt was born (Sept 7, 1943) in Washington, DC, the daughter of the French peer Comte Rene d’Harnoncourt (1901 – 1968) and his American wife, the fashion designer Sara Carr. She attended The Brearley School, Radcliffe College, and the Courtauld Institute of Art. Anne d’Harnoncourt was appointed as the assistant curator of the modern art collection at the Chicago Art Institute (1969). She was later appointed as director of the Philadelphia Museum of Art (1982 – 2008) and was a specialist concerning the works of the artist Marcel Duchamp (1887 – 1968). Anne d’Harnoncourt died (June 1, 2008) aged sixty-four, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Harper, Edith Alice Mary     see    Wickham, Anna

Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins – (1825 – 1911) 
Black American poet and abolitionist
Frances Harper was a native of Baltimore, Maryland. She was the daughter of former slaves, and was educated at a local black school. She worked as a maid and a seamstress before being able to have some of her work published, the first being the collection Forest Leaves (1845). Harper was the first known African American novelist, and she was active in campaigns for women’s suffrage and abolitionism.
Her first volume of verse Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (1854) went through twenty editions. Her novels included Moses, A Story of the Nile (1869) and ‘Iola Le Roy, or, Shadows Uplifted (1892), which dealt with the life of an octoroon Negro during the Civil war period. She later became one of the organizers of the National Association of Colored Women (1896).

Harper, Ida Husted – (1851 – 1931)
American suffragist and journalist
Ida Husted was born (Feb 18, 1851) in Fairfield, Indiana. She left her studies at Indiana University in order to take up an appointmnet as a school principal. After her marriage (1871), she and her husband removed to Terre Haute. Ida Husted wrote articles for pulbication in local newspapers, despite the disapproval of her husband. They were finally divorced two decades later (1890), after which she joined the staff of the Indianapolis News in order to support herself.
Harper later resided in New York, where she wrote articles for Harper’s Bazaar, but from 1897 she resided in the household of the famous suffrage leader, Susan B. Anthony. She wrote and published (1922) the final two volumes of famous Anthony’s work the History of Women’s Suffrage (1902) and later wrote her biography. Ida Harper died (March 14, 1931) aged eighty.

Harrach, Augusta von – (1800 – 1873)
German courtier
Countess Augusta von Harrach was born (Aug 30, 1800) the daughter of the Count Ferdinand von Harrach, and his first wife, Johanna Christiane Sophie von Rayski. Countess Augusta became the second wife (1824) at Charlottenburg, of the widowed Frederick William III (1770 – 1840), King of Prussia. The marriage was morganatic and the king granted her the rank of Princess von Leignitz and Countess von Hohenzeollern. She bore the king no children, and was stepmother to King Frederick William IV (1840 – 1861) and Kaiser Wilhelm I (1871 – 1888). The Princess von Liegnitz died (June 5, 1873) aged seventy-two, at Homburg.

Harraden, Beatrice – (1864 – 1936)
British novelist and suffrage campaigner
Harraden was born in Hampstead, in London, the daughter of a musical importer. Beatrice attended school in Dresden, Saxony, and in Cheltenham, before graduating in mathematics and the classics from London University. Beatrice Harraden became a leader of the Women’s Social and Political Union, and was an active and forceful campaigner for female suffrage. Her published works included the best-seller Ships That Pass in the Night (1893) and the collection of short stories entitled In Varying Moods (1894).

Harragan, Betty Lehan – (1921 – 1998)
American advocate for women’s rights in the workplace
Betty Harragan was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and graduated from Marquette University in 1944. After a career which included an employee publication editor and advertising agency publicist, in 1972 she formed Betty Harragan & Affiliates, a consultation company that specialized in women’s wok place issues and problems. For nearly thirty years Betty was a member of the National Organization for Women, and she testified before legislative committees on behalf of equal rights and opportunities for working women. Her book Games Mother Never Taught You (1977), was extrememly popular and sold well over a million copies.

Harrell, Irene Burk – (1927 – 1992)
American theological writer and poet
Harrell was the editor of Logos International (1969 – 1979) and then the president of Star Books, Inc., in Wilson, North Carolina (1982 – 1992). Her religious works include Prayerables: Meditations of a Homemaker (1967), Ordinary Days with an Ordinary God: Prayerables II (1971), Multiplied by Love: Lessons Learned Through the Holy Spirit (1976), God and I: A Book About Faith and Prayer (1978), Hopeless? Never! (1981) and God’ s in Charge Here (1982).

Harriers-Wippern, Louise – (1837 – 1878)
German operatic soprano
Born Louise Wippern at Hildesheim, her stage name incorporated her married name. She established herself as a successful public performer. Louise Harriers-Wippern died aged only forty, at Grobersdorf in Silesia, Poland

Harriman, Florence Jaffray Hurst – (1870 – 1967)
American politician, social reformer and civil servant
Florence Hurst was born (July 21, 1870) in New York, the daughter of English emigrants. She was married (1889) to J. Borden Harriman, a New York banker, to whom she bore a surviving daughter. Mrs Harriman served as minister to Norway (1937 – 1940) and was awarded the Citation of Merit for Distinguished Service and the Medal of Freedom by President John F. Kennedy (1963), when aged over ninety.
Actively involved and supportive of social reforms from early in her career, notably the abolition of child labour and suffrage for women, she left letters and memoirs which were edited and published as From Pinafores to Politics (1923) and The Reminiscences of Florence Jaffray Harriman (1950). Florence Hurst Harriman died (Aug 31, 1967) aged ninety-seven, in Washington.

Harrington, Caroline Fitzroy, Countess of – (1722 – 1784)
British Hanoverian peeress
Lady Caroline Fitzroy was born (April 8, 1722) in London, the eldest daughter of Charles Fitzroy (1683 – 1757), second Duke of Grafton, the grandson of King Charles II (1660 – 1685), and his wife Lady Henrietta Somerset, the daughter of Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester. Lady Caroline was married (1746) to William Stanhope (1719 – 1779), Viscount Petersham, who succeeded his father a decade later as the second Earl of Harrington (1756 – 1779). Considered to be one of the great beauties of the period, as Lady Petersham she mourned over the corpse of the infamous highwayman James Maclaine (1750) with a female friend. She made a spectacular appearance at the coronation of George III and Queen Charlotte (1761) absolutely covered in diamonds and jewels.
A rather insulting account of Lady Harrington appears in The Abbey of Kilkhampton (1780) by Sir Herbert Crofts, which is considered to be far from accurate, though Mary Delany wrote of her in 1768 as having given her “ ... whole life up to vanity, and folly” and Horace Walpole in his Journal (March, 1778), stated that she had a very bad character. She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Harrington (1779 – 1784) and controlled the family finances until her death. In 1783 she caused her grandson, the seventh Earl of Barrymore, to be sent to Eton College for his education, giving him the enormous sum of one thousand pounds to last the duration of his schooling there. Her portrait in middle age by Hudson is preserved at Elvaston, as is the double portrait with her daughter, the Duchess of Newcastle by Cotes. Lady Harrington died (June 28, 1784) aged sixty-two, in London. She was buried in Kensington. Her children were,

Harrington, Dorothy Way    see   Eggan, Dorothy Way

Harrington, Etheldreda    see    Malte, Audrey

Harrington, Isabella – (1527 – 1579)
English Tudor courtier, she was born (March 28, 1527) at Allerton in Nottinghamshire, the daughter of Sir John Markham (1500 – 1559), and his wife Anne Neville. She was attached to the household of the Princess Elizabeth, as a lady-in-waiting. Isabella Markham became the second wife (1559) of the widowed landowner, John Harrington (1525 – 1582), of Kelston, near Bath, Somerset, and of Stepney, London, to whom she bore five children.
With the accession of Mary Tudor (1553) Isabella and her husband spent a period of time as prisoners in the Tower of London. Her second son, the poet, Sir John Harrington (1561 – 1612), was godson of Queen Elizabeth I, whilst her fourth son, Francis Harrington (1564 – 1639) inherited the estate of Kelston in Somersetshire. Isabella Harrington died (May 20, 1579) aged fifty-two, in London.

Harris, Bernice Kelly – (1892 – 1973)
Southern American novelist and dramatist
Bernice Kelly was born (Oct, 1892) near Raleigh in Wake County, North Carolina, the daughter of a Baptist farmer. She graduated from Meredith College (1913), and taught school for over a decade before she became the wife (1926) of Herbert Kavanaugh Harris, himself a farmer. The Harrises produced Folk Plays of Eastern Carolina (1940) some of which Bernice wrote herself.
Her other written works included the novel Purslane (1939), the first of seven which were set in North Carolina, and based on her childhood experiences. The others of this series were Portulaca (1941), Sweet Beulah Land (1943), Sage Quarter (1945), Janey Jeems (1946), Hearthstones (1948) and Wild Cherry Tree Road (1951). From 1963 Harris was engaged as a teacher of creative writing at Chowan College, and during this period she produced and edited two further collections Southern Home Remedies (1968) and Strange Things Happen (1971). Bernice Harris died (Sept 13, 1973) aged eighty.

Harris, Corra Mae – (1869 – 1935)
Southern American novelist
Born Corra Mae White (March 17, 1869) at Farm Hill in Elbert County, Georgia, she was educated at home and at the Elberton Female Academy. She became the wife (1887) of the Methodist clergyman Lundy Howard Harris. Mrs Harris became a contributor to the Independent periodical, and her first novel The Jessica Letters (1904), was co-written with Paul Elmer More.
Her works included A Circuit Rider’s Wife (1910), which drew upon her own personal experiences as a roving minister’s wife in Georgia. This work was followed by thirteen novels, written in sixteen years, all popular in their day, which included Eve’s Second Husband (1911), The Recording Angel (1912) which revealed the backwardness of small rural communities, My Son (1921), The House of Helen (1923), My Book and Heart (1924), As a Woman Thinks (1925) and The Happy Pilgrimage (1927). Corra Mae Harris died (Feb 9, 1935) aged sixty-five, in Atlanta.

Harris, Dorothy Mary Crookes, Lady – (1898 – 1981)
British peeress (1932 – 1981) and ATS officer
Dorothy Crookes was the daughter of John William Crookes, vicar of Bordern, near Sittingbourne, Kent, and was married (1918) to George St Vincent Harris, who succeeded as fifth Baron Harris (1932) to whom she left a son. She served with the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service) and was a commandant during WW II (1938 – 1940). Due to her volunteer work during the war Lady Harris was awarded the Order of the League of Mercy.

Harris, Elizabeth Forsling – (1922 – 1999)
American publisher
Harris was born (Jan 8, 1922) in Greeneville, Tennessee, and attended Mount Vernon College in Washington. Elizabeth first worked in New York, and became an iditor in the fields of television and radio. She later joined the ABC (American Broadcasting Union) (1951), where she worked with Walter Winchell and became a network programming executive. Harris later worked for the Peace Corps and the Democratic National Committee (1963).
Elizabeth Harris was briefly, the first publisher of Ms the feminist magazine (1971), which she had helped to establish. A susequent action brought against her successor as editor, Gloria Steinem, failed in the courts (1975). Harris later became the publisher of Working Woman magazine. Elizabeth Harris died (July 14, 1999) aged seventy-seven, in Manhattan, New York.

Harris, Frances Elizabeth Louise – (1822 – 1873)
British flower and genre painter
Frances Rosenberg was born (Aug 28, 1822), the daughter of Thomas Elliot Rosenberg, of Bath, the noted lanscape painter and miniaturist. Many of her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy, and from 1845 at the New Water Colour Society, of which she became a member (1846). Her marriage to John Dafter Harris took place at this time. Two of her works, which flowers and dead birds arepreserved in the Victoria & Albert Museum. Frances Harris died aged fifty (Aug 19, 1873).

Harris, Jane Elizabeth – (1852 – 1942)
Anglo-New Zealand writer and poet
Harris was born in St John’s Wood, London, and immigrated with her family to New Zealand. She was author of the collection of verse Leaves of love (1890). Jane Harris died (Sept 18, 1942) aged ninety, at Paeroa.

Harris, Margaret Frances – (1904 – 2000)
British theatrical designer
Margaret Harris was born (May 28, 1904) and was educated at Downe House. In conjuction with Sophia Devine and Elizabeth Montgomery, Harris established the Motley Company (1931) which designed stage sets and costumes for drama, opera and ballet in London and New York. Her best known productions were Richard of Bordeaux (1932) for John Gielgud and the sets and costumes for Prokofiev’s production of War and Peace (1972) and the English National Opera’s production of Tosca (1976).
Margaret Harris published the works Designing and Making Costume (1965) and Theatre Props (1976), and served as the director of the Theatre Design Course, and her valuable contirubtion to the theatre was recognized when she was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1975). Margaret Harris died (May 10, 2000) aged ninety-five.

Harris, Mary Belle – (1874 – 1957)
American prison administrator
Mary Belle Harris was born (Aug 19, 1874) in Factoryville, Pennsylvania, the daughter of a Baptist minister. Mary Belle studied music, Latin and the classics, and then went on to the University of Chicago to study eastern philology. She remained unmarried and her friendship with Katharine Bement Davis steered Harris towards prison work as a career. Davis was appointed her as the first superintendent of women and the Workhouse on Blackwell Island (1914).
Harris then became the first superintendent (1924 – 1941) of the Federal Industrial Institution for Women in Alderson, West Virginia, which was remodeled of the idea of a boarding school for girls, and promoted all sorts of educational opportunities and well as some degree of self-government for the inmates. She published the autobiographical work I Knew Them In Prison (1936). Mary Belle Harris died (Feb 22, 1957) aged eighty-two, in Lewisburg.

Harris, Mary Packer – (1891 – 1978)
Australian painter and educator
Mary Harris studied at the Edinburgh College of Art in Scotland, and also studied wood engraving under Sir Morley Fletcher. With her return to Adelaide in South Australia she taught at the South Australia School of Arts and Crafts, and became the first Australian teacher of art history. She gave lectures and wrote reviews and examples of her work are preserved in the Art Gallery of South Australia.

Harris, Patricia Roberts – (1924 – 1985)
Black American lawyer and politician
Patricia Roberts was born in Mattoon, Illinois, the daughter of a waiter, and attended several prominent universities including Chicago (1947) and George Washington (1960). She was married (1955) to William Harris. Patricia Harris was appointed as dean of the Howard University Law School (1969), and then served as US ambassador to Luxemburg (1965 – 1967) during the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnsons. She was later appointed as secretary to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (1977 – 1979), before the first ever black woman to be appointed to a US Cabinet post. Harris was then appointed as secretary of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (1979 – 1981).

Harrison, Anne Tuthill Symmes – (1775 – 1864)
American First Lady (1841)
Anna Symmes was born (July 25, 1885) at Morristown, New Jersey, the daughter of Judge John Cleves Symmes. During the Revolutionary war she was raised by her grandoparents on Long Island. She later resettled with her father and new stepmother in North Bend, Ohio. There she was married (1795) to William Henry Harrison (1773 – 1841), then an army officer. The couple had ten children. When her husband was appointed as governor of Indiana, Anna and her children were established at the plantation mansion at Vincennes. When her husband became the ninth President of the United States (1841), her daughter-in-law, Jane Irwin Harrison went to Washington to acte as the White House hostess, as Anna was suffering from illness. Several weeks afterwards, when she had recovered, as Anna was preparing to leave to William in Washington, she received the news of his death, after only one month in office. As a widow, Mrs Harrison resided with her son, John Scott Harrison, and his family, in North Bend. She was the grandmother of Benjamin Harrison (1833 – 1901), the twenty-third President (1889 – 1893). Anna Symmes Harrison died (Feb 25, 1864) aged eighty-eight, at North Bend.

Harrison, Beatrice – (1892 – 1965)
British cellist
Beatrice Harrison was born at Roorkee, in north-western India, the daughter of a military officer. Trained and proficient since early childhood, Beatrice was awarded the senior gold medal of the Associated Board in London (1902) and then became an exhibitor at the Royal College of Music (1903). Beatrice then studied abroad at the Hochschule in Berlin, where she won the Felix Mendelssohn Prize, becoming the first cellist, and the youngest student to ever do so. She then took further intruction under Hugo Becker and W.E. Whitehouse. She made her public debut at the Bechstein Saal in Berlin (1910).
Miss Harrison later made successful tours of through Europe and to the USA, and worked in broadcasting for the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) at Savoy Hill. Beatrice Harrison died (March 10, 1956) aged seventy-two, in Smallfield, Surrey.

Harrison, Constance Cary – (1843 – 1920)
Southern American popular novelist and essayist
Constance was born (April 25, 1843) in Lexington, Kentucky, the daughter of a prominent landowning family, the Carys. With her father’s death (1854), she returned to the Cary family home at Vaucluse, in Fairfax County, Virginia, with her mother and siblings.  Constance was educated at home and at a boarding school in Richmond. During the Civil War period she remained with her family in Richmond as refugees, and it was during this period that Constance wrote articles for the Richmond newspapers under the pseudonym of ‘Refugitta.’ Auburn haired and beautiful, with the end of the war, Constance studied abroad in Europe for a year, and then returned to America where she married Burton Harrison, the former secretary of Jefferson Davis. With the death of her husband (1904), Harrison retired to live in Washington, D.C.
Constance Cary Harrison’s works included Golden-Rod: An Idyl of Mount Desert (1879), The Story of Helen of Troy (1881), Bar Harbor Days (1887), The Anglomaniacs (1890) which was drawn form her own personal experiences of life in New York City, Flower de Hundred: the Story of a Virginia Plantation (1890) drawn form her own childhood experiences, A Daughter of the South (1892), Sweet Bells Out of Tune (1893) and A Bachelor Maid (1894). However, she is best remembered for her autobiography Recollections Grave and Gay (1911) which provided full and detailed accounts of daily life in Richmond during the Civil War. Constance Cary Harrison died (Nov 21, 1920) aged seventy-seven.

Harrison, Elizabeth – (1849 – 1927)
American pioneer of the kindergarten movement
Harrison was born (Sept 1, 1849) in Athens, Kentucky, and was a follower and supporter of the methods espoused by Italian educator Maria Montessori. She was the author of A Study in Child Nature (1890) and Montessori, and the Kindergarten (1913). Her autobiography was published posthumously as Sketches along Life’s Road (1930). Elizabeth Harrison died (Oct 31, 1927) aged seventy-eight.

Harrison, Hazel Lucile – (1883 – 1969)
Black American pianist and conceret performer
Hazel Harrison was born (May 12, 1883) in La Porte, Indiana, a descendant of former slaves. She began piano lessons under the organist Richard Pellew at the age of four (1887) at their local church before being discovered by the German musician Victor Heinze. After graduating from high school (1902) Hazel trained as a concert pianist in Chicago, Illinois. Her debut concert took place in Berlin, Prussia (1904) with the Philharmonic Orchestra under August Scharrer.
The Italian pianist and composer became Hazel’s mentor in Berlin, and she also studied keyboard technique with his assistant the Dutch pianist Egon Petri. She returned to the USA and was married but this union quickly ended in divorce. Harrison performed many concert tours throughout the USA prior ro returning to Germany briefly (1927).
Hazel Harrison played with the Minneapolis Symphony under Eugene Ormandy (1932) and performed in concert with the Hollywood Bowl Symphony under Izeler Solomon (1949) during a convention of the National Association of Negro Musicians. She established the Olive J. Harrison Paino Scholarship Fund (1945) at Howard University in Washington D.C. in memory of her mother. Hazel Harrison died (April 28, 1969) aged eighty-five.

Harrison, Jane Ellen – (1850 – 1928)
British classical scholar, archaeologist and writer
Harrison was born (Sept 9, 1850) at Cottenham in Yorkshire, and was educated at Cheltenham College and Newnham College in Cambridge. Intensely interested in the study of ancient Greek art and religion, she retained an enthusiastic and humanistic approach to her study and research, which she retained all of her life, taking up the study of Persian at the age of fifty.
Jane Harrison was a fellow of Newnham College, where she lectured in classical archaeology for twenty-five years (1898 – 1922) and was also one of the college’s first Research Fellows (1900 – 1903). She was an active supporter of the female suffrage movement. Her most famous work was Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1903) whilst others included Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Literature (1882), Ancient Art and Ritual (1913) and Epilegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1921). Jane Harrison left memoirs entitled Reminiscences of a Student’s Life (1925). Jane Harrison died (April 15, 1928) aged seventy-seven, in London.

Harrison, Maria – (fl. 1845 – 1893)
British water colour artist and painter
Maria Harrison specialized in the painting of flowers. Her work was displayed at various exhibitions and at the Royal Academy, and the Old Water Colour Society. She was elected as an ARWS (Associate of the Royal society of Painters in Water Colours).

Harrison, Mary – (1788 – 1875)
British wild flower painter
Born Mary Rossiter in Liverpool, Lancashire, she was the daughter of a hat manufacturer. She became an amateur painter during childhood, and was later married (1814) to George Henry Harrison, to whom she bore twelve children. When her husband suffered several ruinous financial disasters, Mary took up pianting professionally in order to support her large family. She specialised in the painting of wild flowers, and her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the British Institution.
Mary Harrison was one of the co-founders of the New Society of Painters in Water Colours, which was later styled the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours. Her work was particularly admired in France, and though she exhibited more than three hundred pictures during her long career, Mary was best remembered for her work The History of a Primrose which was produced in three panels entitled Infancy, Second Maturity and Decay. Mary Harrison died in London.

Harrison, Mary St Leger     see      Malet, Lucas

Harrison, May – (1890 – 1959)
British violinist
May Harrison was born (Aug 23, 1890) at Roorkee in India, and was sister to the cellist Beatrice Harrison. She was sent to England, where she studied under Livarde and Enrique Arbos at the Royal College of Music in London and received a gold medal for her performance at the age of ten (1901). Frederick Delius dedicated one of his violin works to her (1930) and she performed regularly at the Royal College of Music (1935 – 1947). May Harrison died (June 8, 1959) aged sixty-eight, at South Nutfield, Surrey.

Harrod, Billa Cresswell, Lady – (1911 – 2005)
British preservationist and heritage campaigner
Born Wilhelmine Margaret Eve Cresswell (Dec 1, 1911) at Hunstanton, Norfolk, during her youth she was briefly engaged to the struggling poet, John Betjeman, but instead was married (1938) to the economist, Sir Roy Harrod (died 1978) to whom she bore two sons. Billa Harrod became involved in a campaign, assisted by Sir John Betjeman, to preserve dozens of Britain’s historic Gothic mediaeval churches within the city of Norwich, which became in danger of being demolished entirely after the passing of the Pastoral Measure (1968).
With several supporters she established the Friends of Norwich Churches (1970) which arranged for a charitable trust to be set up to take of the freehold of such churches. Lady Harrod then extended this program and was appointed as chairman iof the Council for the Protection of Rural England which developed into the Norfolk Churches Trust (1976) of which she served as president. Lady Harrod died (May 9, 2005) aged ninety-three.

Harrowby, Susan Juliana Maria Hamilton Dent, Countess of – (1838 – 1913)
British Victorian peeress
Lady Susan Hamilton was the only daughter of Villiers Dent, of Barton Court, Hants. She became the wife (1859) of the Hon. (Honourable) Henry Dudley Ryder (1831 – 1900), who four decades later briefly succeeded (March – Dec, 1900) as fourth Earl of Harrowby. Mrs Ryder was actively interested in the Cripples nursey and other philanthropic activities. She survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Harrowby (1900 – 1913). Lady Harrowby died (March 17, 1913) at Bournemouth. Her children were,

Harry, Myriam – (1875 – 1958)
Jewish-French woman of letters
Born Myrian Perrault-Shapira in Jerusalem, Harry was the author of Passage des Bedouins (1899) and Petites Espouses (1902). Myriam Harry died at Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris.

Hart, Emily    see   Hamilton, Emma Lyon, Lady

Hart, Frances Newbold Noyes – (1890 – 1943)
American writer
Hart was born (Aug 10, 1890) in Silver Springs. Her published works included The Bellamy Trial (1927) and The Crooked Lane (1934), whilst some of her articles were published in Scribner’s Magazine. Frances Hart died (Oct 25, 1943) aged fifty-three.

Hart, Jennifer – (1914 – 2005)
British civil servant and suspected spy
Though originally liberal in outlook, Jennifer became a socialist, and then joined the Communist Party, becoming the wife of Herbert Hart. Prior to WW II she had a career as a civil servant, but later removed to Oxford where she became a lecturer at the university. Once suspected of being a spy for the Soviet Union she published the autobiography Ask Me No More: An Autobiography.

Hart, Dame Judith Constance Mary – (1924 – 1991)
British Labour politician
Judith Hart was born in Birnley, Lancashire, and attended the London School of Economics. Judith Hart entered the House of Commons as the Labour candidate for Lanark (1959). Five years later she joined the government of Prime Minister Harold Wilson (1964). She was later promoted to the Cabinet as paymaster-general (1968 – 1969).
Judith Hart served three terms in one decade as the minister for Overseas Development (1969 – 1979), and then served as the front bench sopkesperson on Overseas Aid (1979 – 1980). A fervent anti-apartheid campaigner, Hart was later appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1979) in recognition of her contributions to public and political life. Judith Hart later retired from parliament (1987) and was made a life peer as Baroness Hart of South Lanark (1988).

Hart, Nancy – (1735 – 1830)
American colonial frontierswoman
Born Ann Morgan, she was related to such famous colonial figures as Daniel Boone and General Daniel Morgan. Sometimes referred to as ‘Aunt Nancy,’ Nancy accompanied her family to Georgia (c1771) but she refused to flee from the British during the Revolution. According to tradition five British soldiers demanded food and wine at the family’s cabin, but Nancy eventually got them all drunk, killed one of them, and held the rest at gunpoint, till her daughter could flee and raise the alarm.

Hartington, Kathleen Agnes Kennedy, Lady (Kick Kennedy) – (1920 – 1948)
American-Anglo aristocrat
Kathleen Kennedy was born (Feb 20, 1920) in Boston, Massachusetts, the second daughter of Senator Joseph Kennedy and his wife Rose Fitzgerald. She was sister to President John F. Kennedy (1961 – 1963) and Robert Kennedy (1925 – 1968). Possessed of beauty, a winning personality, and elegant style, Kathleen was convent educated and worked with the American Red Cross during WW II and was married (May, 1944) to William John Robert Cavendish (1917 – 1944), Marquess of Hartington, heir to the British Duke of Devonshire. He was killed in action fourth months afterwards (Sept 10, 1944). There were no children.
Lady Hartington never remarried and was herself killed in an aircrash (May 13, 1948) over Valence in France, aged twenty-eight. Her body was recovered near the village of Privas, near the Rhone River. She was interred in the church of Edensor, near Chatsworth House in England.

Hartland, Beryl – (1906 – 2006)
Australian fashion journalist and artist
Born Beryl Mavourneen Goldby Hartland (Sept 15, 1906) at Creswick in Victoria, she was the daughter of a horticulturalist. As a young woman she began working with the Daily Telegraph in Sydney, New South Wales, as an illustrator. She then travelled to England (1946) where she joined the staff of The Daily Telegraph, and worked as an artist for that paper for over four decades. Beryl Hartland died (May 14, 2006) aged ninety-nine.

Hartlaub, Geno – (1915 – 2007)
German novelist and writer
Genoveva Hartlaub was born (June 17, 1915) in Mannheim, the daughter of the art historian, Friedrich Gustav Hartlaub. She attended school in Heppenheim.Denied the right to attend university by the Nazis, when her father suffered from their political interest, she spent time working in Scandinavia. After the war she became the editor of, The Conversion magazine, in Heidelberg, and was an editor with various publishing firms. Hartlaub was a member of the PEN centre of the Federal Republic of Germany, and of the German Academy for language and Literature in Darmstadt, Hesse. She was awarded several prestigious literary prizes including the Irmgard Heilmann Prize (1992).
Her earlier novels such as Noch im Traum (Still Dreaming) (1943) and Anselm, der Lehrling (Anselm, the Apprentice) (1947) were especially noted for her use of myth and psychological analysis. Other works included Mothers and their Children (1962), Not Everyone is Odysseus (1967) and The Man Who Wanted to Go Home (1995). Her novel Lokaltermin Feenreich (Fairyland in local Terms) (1972), dealt with the theme of Nazism, and its effect on German society. Hartlaub was the author of the autobiography Jumping on the Shade. Places, People, Years, Memories and Experiences (1984). Her novel Living with the Sex (1970) was published under the pseudonym Muriel Castorp. Gen Hartlaub died (March 25, 2007) aged ninety-one, at Hamburg.

Hartley, Catherine Gasquoine – (1869 – 1928)
British author, feminist and joiurnalist
Hartley was born at Antananarivo in Madagascar, the daughter of a clergyman, Richard Griffiths Hartley. Catherine educated at home under the supervision of a governess, and was married firstly to Walter Gallichan, and secondly to Arthur Lewis. Catherine Hartley went to England with her family, where she was trained as a teacher and was appointed as headmistress of the Babington House School at Eltham, in Kent (1894 – 1902).
From 1903 she began to write professionally. Besides writing books on educational and social reform subjects, Hartley produces several volumes concerning Spain and Spanish art such as The Story of Santiago de Compostela, The Cathedrals of Southern Spain, History of Spanish Painting and Moorish Cities. Her other written works included books concerning the rising feminist and suffrage movement including The Truth about Woman,The Position of Woman in Primitive Society: a study of the matriarchy, and Motherhood and the Relationships between the Sexes. Catherine Gasquoire Hartley died (June 7, 1928) aged fifty-eight.

Hartley, Elizabeth – (1751 – 1824)
British actress
Born Elizabeth White at Berrow, Somerset, she made her stage debut at the Haymarket Theatre (1769), and then had great success playing the title role in, Jane Shore (1772), at Covent Garden. Under her married named of Hartley, Elizabeth made successful tours of the provinces, and was also very successful playing Shakespearean heroines such as Lady Macbeth, Desdemona, and Queen Cleopatra.
Mrs Hartley appeared as Rosamund Clifford in Hull’s, Henry II, and was the original Lady Touchstone in Hannah Cowley’s The Belle’s Stratagem (1780). Tall, stately, and auburn-haired, contemporaries did not believe that she excelled in the more extreme tragic roles. Her portrait was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds for whom she was a favourite model. Elizabeth Hartley died at Woolwich.

Hartley, Vivien Mary    see      Leigh, Vivien

Hartman, Elizabeth – (1941 – 1987)
American actress
Hartman appeared in The Group (1966) and in You’re a Big Boy Now (1967) with Clint Eastwood, the first film directed by Francis Ford Coppola. Hartman later teamed up again with Clint Eastwood in The Beguiled (1971), with Geraldine Page. She was nominated for an Oscar for her role in Patch of Blue (1966) in which she played opposite Sydney Poitier. Her last film was Walking Tall (1973). During her later years she made no films and was recieiving treatment for clinical depression. Elizabeth Hartman committed suicide in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by jumping from an apartment building.

Hartman, Dame Marea – (1920 – 1994)
British athlete and sports administrator
Marea Hartman was born in London. She enjoyed running at school and then became a serious amateur competitor with the Spartan Ladies’ Athletic Club and other sporting societies. Marea was present at the international meeting against Germany, held in Cologne (Koln), a week prior to the declaration of WW II (1939). Hartman worked continuously to improve the position of women within established sports, and was successful in ensuring that events such as the 400 hundred metre hurdles and the marathon be included for women. She arranged for lucrative sponsorship deals, and was a team manager of the Women’s Amateur Athletic Association for over three decades (1960 – 1994).
Marea Hartman was the leader of the British team at seven Olympic Games, and was chairman of the International Athletics Federation (1958 – 1991). She received the Prince Chichibu Award in Japan (1993) because of her contributions to women’s sport, and was likewise honoured at home by being appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1994).

Hartman, Rachel – (1920 – 1972)
American author
Rachel Hartman was born at Hunan in China, the daughter of missionaries. Brought to America in early childhood (1926) she later graduated from Wheaton College. Involved with the Pioneer Girls movement, Rachel joined the staff of the Christian Herald magazine (1954) where she eventually served as associate editor and managing editor. She was also the author of a novel The Gifts of Christmas and of Days of Grass, a fiction anthology.

Hartrick, Rose    see   Walker, Rose

Harty de Pierrebourg, Margeurite Thomas-Galline, Baronne – (1856 – 1943)
French salonniere and novelist
Maergeurite Thomas-Galline was married firstly to Baron Aimery Harty de Pierrebourg, and secondly to Comte Georges de Lauris. By her first husband she left a daughter, Madeleine de Pierrebourg, who became the wife of Louis Georges, Comte Seguin de la Salle (1872 – 1915). Madame Harty de Pierrebourg was a member of fashionable Parisian society in pre WW I France, and a member of the circle that was frequented by the novelist Marcel Proust (1871 – 1922). The baroness wrote novels using the pseudonym ‘Claude Ferval.’

Haruspicia Demo – (fl. c190 – c210 AD)
Graeco-Roman patrician
Haruspicia Demo was attested by a surviving inscription from Lydia in Asia Minor as consularis femina. Haruspicia was the wife of Curtius, who is most probably to be identified with Curtius Julius Crispus, who served as archon of Sardinia during the reign of the Emperor Septimius Severus (193 – 211 AD). She was the mother of two daughters, Curtia Julia Valentilla, and Curtia Julia Priscilla.

Harvey, Alice – (fl. 1580 – 1600)
English Tudor gentlewoman and verse writer
Alice Harvey was the sister of Gabriel Harvey. Her brother quoted some of her work in his Commonplace Book (c1581).

Harvey, Ethel Browne – (1885 – 1965)
American embryologist and cell biologist
Ethel Browne was born (Dec 14, 1885) in Baltimore, Maryland and attended Bryn Mawr College and Columbia University. She was then married (1916) to Edmund Harvey, a professor of biology at Princeton University. Ethel Harvey worked mainly as an independent researcher, and used sea urchins as the models for her work in cytology. She was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the New York Academy of Sciences. Ethel Harvey died (Sept 2, 1965) aged seventy-nine, in Falmouth, Massachusetts.

Harvey, Lilian – (1906 – 1968)
German-Anglo stage and film actress
Born Helen Lilian Pape in London, of German parents, Harvey appeared in the silent film Princess Trulala (1926). She was best remembered for her roles in films such as La Chaste Suzanne (1936). Lilian Harvey died at Cap d’Antibes.

Harvie Anderson, Betty – (1914 – 1979)
Scottish Conservative politician
Betty Harvie Anderson was born in Stirlingshire, into a well established political family, and attended secondary school at St Andrews.  She joined the civil service as a district councillor for Stirlingshire (1938), and during WW II she served as a commander of the Heavy anti-Aircraft Brigade (1943 – 1946). Elected to Stirlingshire County Council (1945), she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George VI (1945) in recognition of her work in politics and education. She was later elected as Member of Parliament for East Renfrewshire (1959). Harvie Anderson studiously avoided becoming emeshed in popular women’s issues, and concentrated on working for the entirety of her consitituency, rather than powerful groups within it.
Betty was married to a hospital consultant, John Skrimshire. She became the first woman to be appointed as Deputy Speaker (1970), proving more than equal to the task. She oversaw the passing of the Industrial Relations Act, and was later appointed a Privy Councillor to Queen Elizabeth II (1974). She retired in 1973, and died soon after being appointed a life peer as Baroness Skrimshire (1979).

Harvuot, Inez    see   Manning, Irene

Harweben – (fl. c1000 BC)
Egyptian princess
Harweben was the daughter of King Pinudjem II of the XXIst Dynasty (1064 – 940 BC) and his sister-wife Isetemkheb. She may have been the wife of an unidentified high-priest. Princess Harweben herself served as a senior priestess of the cult of Amun, and bore the titles of ‘Chief of the Harem of Amen-Re.’ She was interred at Bab-el-Gasus, where her funerary furniture and papyri were discovered, and later placed in the Cairo Museum.

Harwood, Elizabeth Jean – (1938 – 1990)
British concert soprano
Elizabeth Harwood was born (May 27, 1938) in Barton Seagrave, near Kettering. She spent her early life in Yorkshire and studied at the Royal Northern College of Music in Manchester, Lancashire. Harwood made her debut at Gyndebourne (1960) and she then joined the Sadler’s Wells Opera (1961). Several years afterwards she removed to Covent Garden, appearing at her debut there in Arabella (1967). Miss Harwood was best remembered for her renditions of Mozart and Strauss. She often appeared with Herbert von Karajan (1908 – 1989) at the Salzburg Festival of Austria. Elizabeth Harwood died (June 22, 1990) aged fifty-two.

Harwood, Gwen (Gwendoline Nessie) – (1920 – 1995)
Australian lyric poet and librettist
Gwen was a native of Taringa, Queensland. She studied music and was a church organist. She was married (1945) to the linguist William Harwood, and then resided in Tasmania. Some of her early poems were published in magazines under the pseudonyms ‘Miriam Stone’ and ‘Walter Lehmann.’ Gwen Harwood did not begin seriously writing and publishing her work until middle age and these works included Poems (1963), Poems: Volume Two (1968) and New and Selected Poems (1975) which was followed by the highly acclaimed Bone Scan (1989). Some of her work portrays controlled observations of the despair of middle class life. Harwood wrote librettos for several important opera written by Australian composers such as Larry Sitski. These works included The Fall of the House of Usher (1965), The Golem (1979) and Choral Symphony, composed by James Penberthy. She was the recipient of the Robert Forst Award (1978) and the Patrick White Literary Award (1978). Her last volume of verse The Present Tense (1995) was published shortly before her death.

Hasalda of Saxony – (c758 – before 819)
Carolingian princess
Hasalda was the daughter of the Saxon hero, Duke Widukind, and his wife Geva Eysteinsdotter, the daughter of the Viking leader, Eystein, Lord of Vestfold in Norway. After her father submitted to the Emperor Charlemagne, and the family accepted Christianity, Hasalda was married, at the emperor’s behest (c776), to Bruno II (c756 – c813), Count of Engern in Westphalia, whom she survived. Her children included Bruno III, Count of Saxony (c813 – c843), who left descendants, and Heilwig of Engern, the wife of Welf II, Count of Altdorf. Through this marriage, hasalda was the maternal grandmother of the Empress Judith, second wife of Louis I the Pious (816 – 840) and the great-grandmother of Emperor Charles II the Bald (875 – 877).

Hasedu, Iulia (Julia) – (1869 – 1888)
Romanian poet, essayist and dramatist
Iulia Hasedu was born in Bucharest, the daughter of the writer Bogdan Petriceicu, and learned French, German and English as a child. She went to Paris with her mother in order to study at the Sevigne College (1880), and later attended the Sorbonne and the Ecole des Hautes Etude. Her career was cut short when she was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Treatment in Switzerland proved ineffective, and Iulia returned to Romania and died at Bucharest aged only eighteen.
Her two collections of poems included Bourgeons d’Avril (April Burgeons) (1889), which included the poems ‘L’ami de Trajan’ (The Friend of Trajan) and ‘Les Heldiques’ (The Outlaws). She wrote several works for children Madamoiselle Maussade (Miss Gloomy) (1970) and La princesse Papillon (Princess Butterfly) (1972).

Haseley, Dorothy Julia    see   Tester, Doll

Haser, Charlotte Henriette – (1784 – 1871)
German soprano
Charlotte Haser was born at Leipzig in Saxony, the elder sister of August Friedrich Haser (1799 – 1844), the noted composer, conductor, and musical theorist. She had a long and impressive career as a vocalist, and eventually married a lawyer named Vera.

Hashim, Fatimah - (1924 - 2010)
Malaysian nationalist and Cabinet minister
Tun Fatimah Hashim was born (Dec 25, 1924) and became the wife of Tan Sri Abdul Kadir Yusuf (1915 - 1992). As a young woman she joined the UMNO (United Malays National Organization), and was then appointed to head the women's section, the Wanita Umno (1956 - 1972).
With her husband she worked tirelessly for the improvement of Malaysia's poor after the end of British colonial rule (1957). With her husband's encouragement Fatimah became involved in politics, becoming a member of parliament then as welfare minister. With him was elected to the Malaysian cabinet, the only married couple since independence to both serve as ministers at the same time.
Fatimah founded the Malaysia National Council of Women, and was elected to serve as president of that organization. Fatimah Hashim died (Jan 9, 2010) aged eighty-five.

Haskil, Clara – (1895 – 1960)
Romanian pianist
Haskil was born (Jan 7, 1895) in Bucharest. She was a child prodigy, and made her stage debut in her native city at the early age of nine years (1904). Clara went on to study in Vienna, Austria, and later in Paris. She became her successful career as a concert pianist in 1910, and was internationally admired for her interpretations of the works of Mozart, Schubert, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Clara Haskil died (Dec 7, 1960) aged sixty-five, in Brussels, Belgium.

Haskins, Minnie Louise – (1875 – 1957)
British writer and educator
Minnie Haskins was born (May 21, 1875), the daughter of Joseph Haskins and was attended Clarendon College at Clifton before going on to study at the London School of Economics, where she majored in sociology and philosophy. Haskins joined the faculty at the London School of Economics and later became a tutor (1934).
During WW I she ran a hostel for munition workers before she was appointed to organize a factory. She published the popular collection of verse entitled The Desert (1908), which contained the famous poem ‘The Gate of the Year’ which was read to the nation by King George V during his Christmas radio broadcast (1939). Other published works included Through Beds of Stone (1928) and A Few People (1932).

Haslett, Dame Caroline Harriet – (1895 – 1957)
British electrical engineer
Caroline Haslett was born in Sussex, the daughter of a railway worker. She attended secondary school at Haywards Heath, and was then employed as a secretary with an engineering company. During WW I, at her own request, Haslett was transferred to the engineering works, she became the first woman in equality as an electrical engineer. Haslett joined the Women’s Engineering Society (1919), and the Electrical Association for Women (1924), which had branches all over Britain.
Caroline Haslett was editor of the manuals The Electrical Handbook for Women and Household Electricity. She later served as the president of the Federation of Business and Professional Women. In recognition of her valuable work, Haslett was created CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1931) and DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by George VI (1947).

Haslip, Joan – (1912 – 1994)
British novelist and biographer
Joan Haslip was born (Feb 27, 1912) in London, and was educated privately being raised in Florence, Italy. She was an editor with the London Mercury publication (1929 – 1939) and then for the European Service on the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (1941 – 1945). After WW II, Haslip lectured abroad in Italy and the Middle East for the British Council and had work published in various newspapers and periodicals.
Joan Haslip’s works included the novels Out of Focus (1931) and Grandfather Steps (1932). Her biographies included Lady Hester Stanhope (1934), Lucrezia Borgia (1953), The Sultan, Life of Abdul Hamid (1958), The Lonely Empress, a Life of Elizabeth of Austria (1965) which was translated into ten languages, Imperial Adventurer (1971) which dealt with the tragic career of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, Catherine the Great (1976), and The Emperor and the Actress (1982) which concerned the relationship between the Emperor Franz Josef and Katharina Schratt. She was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature (1958). Joan Haslip died (June 19, 1994) aged eighty-two.

Hasluck, Dame Alexandra Margaret Martin – (1908 – 1993)
Australian writer and historian
Born Alexandra Darker (Aug 26, 1908) in Perth, Western Australia, she attended Perth College and the University of Western Australia. She became the wife (1942) of Sir Paul Hasluck (1905 – 1993), who served as the Governor-General of Australia (1969 – 1974).
During her husband’s term of office Lady Hasluck was the national president of the Girl Guides Association and the Red Cross Society. She wrote several historical works including Portrait with Background (1955) a biography of the noted Australian botanist and naturalist, Georgina Molloy. She published her autobiography Portrait in a Mirror (1981) and was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her public service. Dame Alexandra Hasluck died (June 18, 1993) aged eighty-four, in Perth.

Hassal, Joan – (1906 – 1988)
British painter, illustrator and wood engraver
Hassal was born in Notting Hill, London. She attended the Royal Academy of Art before studying wood engraving under Ralph Beedham at the London Central College School of Photo Engraving and Lithography. Joan Hassal’s art was mainly book illustrations, with a great variety of subject matter, and her cache of work was considerable. She was the first woman master member of the Art Workers Guild and she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1987) in recognition of her contributions to art.

Hassan, Margaret – (1944 – 2004)
Anglo-Iraqi aid worker
Born Margaret Fitzsimmons in Dublin, Ireland, and was raised in Dalkey, near Dublin. She went to live in London with her family and attended a convent school there before studying sociology at Leicester University. Fitzsimmons was then employed as a youth and community worker with the Catholic Youth Service Council. She later married (1972) an Iraqi national, Tasheen Ali, who was then studying in London. Mrs Hassan was later appointed as the director of the British Council in Baghdad, and converted to Islam and learnt Arabic.
When the British Council closed down this office (1990) Margaret Hassan remained in Baghdad and was appointed as the director of CARE International (1991 – 2004) which provided technicians to restore the electrical supplies. She continued to work for the people of Iraq after many expatriates had alread fled the turmoil which followed the eventual removal of the dictator Sadam Hussein. Mrs Hassan was later taken prisoner by armed gunmen (Oct 19), and harrowing footage of her being terrorized by her captors was released to the world media through the Arab station Al-Jazeera. Despite organized protests by Iraqi citizens who adored her as ‘Madam Margaret’ and orders from Abu Musab al-Zarqawi that she be released, she was brutally murdered by her captors (Nov, 2004) aged fifty-nine.

Hasse, Faustina – (1693 – 1781)
Italian mezzo-soprano
Born Faustina Bordoni into a Venetian parrician family, she received vocal training, and was considered to be one of the most cultivated and talented of all popular contemporary Italian singers. She was married (1730) to famous tenor Johann Adolf Hasse (1699 – 1783) and she collaborated with the successes of her husband’s own brilliant career.

Hasso, Signe – (1910 – 2002)
Swedish film actress
Signe Eleonora Cecilia Larsson was born (Aug 15, 1910) in Stockholm, and began her training at the Royal Dramatic Theatre School at the aged of twelve (1922). She kept the name of her second husband Harry Hasso. Signe Hasso made films in Sweden from 1933 and during WW II she was contracted to RKO Studios. Her film credits included Heaven Can Wait (1943), The Seventh Cross (1944), Johnny Angel (1945) and A Double Life (1947).
Hasso continued to make films sporadically throughout the 1950’s to 1970’s in Sweden and in the USA. Her later film credits included Picture Mommy Dead (1966), The Black Bird (1975) and I Never Promised You a Rose Garden (1977). She was awarded the Royal Order of Vasa (1972) by King Gustavus VI Adolf of Sweden and made the equivalent of a British dame. Signe Hasso died (June 7, 2002) aged ninety-one, in Los Angeles, California.

Hastie, Grace – (fl. 1874 – 1903)
British painter
Grace Hastie was a resident of London and specialized in painting flowers and still-lifes of fruit. She was a member of the Society of Lady Artists and her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and the New Water Colour Society over a period of three decades.

Hastings, Ada de – (c1225 – 1266)
Scottish heiress
Ada was the daughter of David de Hastings, who was styled Earl of Atholl by the right of his wife Forflissa, countess of Atholl. She was married to John de Strabolgi, who was styled earl of Atholl in Ada’s right, after she succeeded her mother (c1250). The countess, together with her husband, confirmed a gift made by her father to the monks of Cupar (1254). She was the mother of Sir David de Strabolgi, eighth Earl of Atholl (c1245 – 1270), who left issue by two marriages. Countess Ada had died before Christmas of 1266.

Hastings, Barbara Yelverton, Marchioness of    see    Yelverton, Barbara

Hastings, Lady Elizabeth – (1682 – 1739)
English philanthropist
Lady Elizabeth Hastings was the daughter of Theophilus Hastings, seventh Earl of Huntingdon and his first wide Elizabeth Lewis, the daughter of Sir John Lewis of Ledstone Hall in Yorkshire. Beautiful in person and possessed of grace and courtesy, Elizabeth succeeded to the family seat of Ledstone Manor (1704) where she resided permanently. She remained unmarried and devoted her life to the dispensation of chairy and to devotional exercises.
Lady Elizabeth was a liberal contributor to Mary Astell’s design for a ‘Protestant nunnery’ and she was visited by Ralph Thoresby. Robert Nelson applied to Elizabeth the text ‘Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all.’ She always valued education and scholarship and bequeathed a large stipend to the provost of scholars at Queen’s College, Oxford, as well as a considerable sum for charitable and pious works. Most of her estates passed to her nephew Lord Francis Hastings. Lady Elizabeth died (Jan 2, 1739) aged fifty-six, at Ledstone Hall.

Hastings, Lady Flora Elizabeth – (1806 – 1839)
British courtier
Lady Flora Hastings was the born (Feb 11, 1806), the eldest daughter of Francis Rawdon Hastings (1754 – 1826), first Marquess of Hastings, and his wife Flora Mure Campbell, Countess of Loudoun. Lady Flora Hastings was appointed to serve at court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria’s mother, the Duchess of Kent (1837 – 1839). She remained unmarried. Her appointment had been a political one and Lady Flora innocently became the focus of scandalous stories and rumours, which wrongly accused her when she was ill, of being pregnant either as the result of a secret marriage, or by Sir John Conroy, the comptroller of the household of the Duchess of Kent. Lady Tavistock (later Anna Maria, Duchess of Bedford) and Baroness Lehzen had confided their suspicions to the queen, who ordered her physician, Sir James Clark, to interview Lady Flora. He refused to believe that she was anything other than pregnant. When a subsequent examination by Sir Charles Clark proved the pregancy gossip to be utterly groundless, Sir James Clark was dismissed from office. Her relatives demanded some public restoration of Flora’s reputation, but this was made in vain. Her illness was exacerbated by this mental anguish. Just prior to her death Charles Greville had written “ It is inconceivable that Lord Melbourne can have permitted this disgraceful and mischievous scandal, which cannot fail to lower the character of the court in the eyes of the world.” Lady Flora died (March 2, 1839) aged thirty-three.

Hastings, Forflissa de – (c1205 – c1250)
Scottish heiress
Sometimes called Fernelith or Forueleth, Forflissa de Hastings inherited the ancient earldom of Atholl. She was the younger daughter of Henry, third Earl of Atholl, and his wife Margaret. Forflissa was married to David Hastings (died after 1244), who was styled Lord Atholl in her right, after she inherited the earldom of Atholl as sixth countess on the death of her childless elder sister Isabella (1237). Forflissa’s only child was Ada de Hastings, who succeeded as seventh Countess of Atholl.

Hastings, Lady Mary – (1552 – c1589)
English Tudor courtier
Lady Mary Hastings was the fifth and youngest daughter of Sir Francis Hastings, second Earl of Huntingdon (1545 – 1561), and his wife Catherine Pole, who was the granddaughter of Margaret Planatagenet, Countess of Salisbury, the niece to the Yorkist kings, Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and Richard III (1483 – 1485). Named in honour of Queen Mary Tudor, her cousin, Lady Mary attended the court of her successor, Queen Elizabeth I, where she served for many years as one of her ladies-in-waiting. Though originally betrothed to Lord Bolbec, the son and heir of John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, she never married and died before the queen.
The Russian tsar, Ivan III the Terrible, who had already diovrced or otherwise removed several wives, sent an embassy to the English court, where they petitioned permission from Queen Elizabeth, to solicit the hand of her kinswoman, Lady Mary, on behalf of their master. Tsar Ivan’s decision for an English bride was not merely a whim as he had trade plans behind his desire for an alliance with England. The queen arranged for the Russian ambassadors to meet Lady Mary, with an impressive, assembled court, in York Place Garden in London.
Lady Mary was now aged over thirty but despite her lack of youth, the Russians were more than impressed with her looks and regal bearing, and they expressed hope that she would agree to become the new empress. Because of this solicitation Lady Mary enjoyed the nickname of ‘Empress of Muscovia’ at the queen’s court. However, the interest of the queen and Lady Mary herself, were merely curious and not serious, as they had knowledge of the manner in which Ivan had treated his former wives. The matter was ended when Queen Elizabeth refused to consider further overtures for Lady Mary’s hand, and the Russians returned to Moscow empty-handed. Lady Mary died about 1589 when a bequest in her will was being contested.

Hastings, Selina     see     Huntingdon, Selina Shirley, Countess of

Hastings, Susannah   see   Johnson, Susannah Willard

Haszard, Rhona – (1901 – 1931)
New Zealand painter and printmaker
Haszard was born at Thames, and was raised at Hokitika and Invercargill, the daughter of a civil servant. She studied art under Archibald Nicoll at the Canterbury College School in Christchurch. Rona Haszard established herself as a talented painter, and held exhibitions of her work, which included landscapes, still-lifes, and portraits, with several prominent New Zealand societies. She was best known for her post-impressionistic ‘mosaic’ style.
Her work Finistere, Spain (1926), is retained by the National Art Gallery, whilst Sardine Fleet, Brittany (1927) was exhibited at the Paris Salon. Her second husband (1925) was the British painter Leslie Green, with whom she studied at the Academie Julien in Paris (1926) and went on painting trips in the Marne Valley region. She later accompanied him to Alexandria, Egypt (1928 – 1931). After suffering a serious spinal injury, Haszard turned to printmaking, together with her husband. Her most well known work in this field was The Road to Little Sark (1930). Haszard died following an accidental fall from the Victoria College Tower in Alexandria.

Hatfield, Emma – (c1322 – c1383)
English medieval chandler
With the death of her husband, Emma Hatfield took over the running of his candle-making business in London. However, her apprentice, Roger Gosse, proved reluctant to be taught his trade by a woman. Emma sent a petition of protest to the London courts, and Gosse was sent for a period in Newgate Prison until he agreed to continue his appointed trade.

Hathamunda     see     Hadamunda

Hathaway, Anne – (1555 – 1623)
English literary figure
Anna Hathaway became the wife of the famous playwright William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616). She was the daughter of Richard Hathaway, a yeoman, of Shottery, near Stratford-on-Avon. Anne Hathaway was married to Shakespeare (1582), he being eight years her junior, she being already pregnant. She bore him to whom a daughter Susanna (1583), and twins Judith and Hamlet (1585). Little else is factually known of her. At William’s death he left her, ‘my second-best bed with furniture,’ in his will. Her own will survives.

Hathaway, Dame Sibyl Mary – (1884 – 1974)
British landowner and ruler
Sibyl Collings was born (Jan 13, 1884) in Guernsey, the daughter of William Collings, and was the hereditary Dame of Sark, in the Channel Islands, and ruled for almost fifty years (1927 – 1974) being the twenty-first ruler of the island. Hathaway was married twice, firstly to Dudley Beaumont (1901 – 1918), and secondly to Robert Hathaway (1929 – 1954), an American who became a naturalized British subject. She remained on the island throughout the Nazi occupation during WW II (1940 – 1945), though her second husband sufferred internment in a concentration camp in Germany.
With the death of her husband (1954) Sibyl regained full control as Dame of Sark, and was for the great part, highly respected and admired by the islanders. She was later awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) (1949) by King George VI, and then DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) (1965) by Queen Elizabeth II. She published the novel Maid of Sark (1939), and also wrote her autobiography Dame of Sark (1961). Dame Sibyl Hathaway died (July 14, 1974) aged ninety, at Sark.

Hathburga of Merseburg (Hathburgis) – (c875 – after 909)
Saxon princess
Hathburga was the daughter of Erwein of Merseburg. The identity of her first husband remains unknown but after his death Hathburga became a nun. Prince Heinrich of Saxony (876 – 936) the son and heir Duke Otto I of Saxony, desired Hathburga and persuaded her to marry him. A son Thankward was born to the couple (906) but Bishop Sigismund of Halberstadt denounced the union as unlawful due to Hathburga’s religious vows, and they were forced to separate (June 21, 909). Her son was regarded as illegitimate and died childless being killed at the battle of Merseburg (938). Hathburga was forced once again to retire to a convent. The ancient tradtion that she was drowned because of her crime against the church is untrue.

Hathorhetepet – (fl. c1850 – c1800 BC)
Egyptian princess
Hathorhetepet was possibly the daughter of King Amenemhat III, of the XIIth Dynasty. A fragment of one of her caopic jars was uncovered at her father’s funerary complex at Dashur.

Hato, Ana – (1906 – 1953)
Maori soprano
Hato was born at Ngapuna in Rotorua, a descendant of the Tuhourangi and Ngati-Whakaue tribes. She was taught to sing by a British schoolteacher’s wife, but otherwise had no formal musical training, and could not read music herself. Ana Hato worked at Whakarewarewa, the popular tourist resort, but became established as a world performer, after she sang before the Duke and Duchess of York (George VI and Queen Elizabeth) (1927), when recordings of her singing were made by The Parlaphone Company, and sold wideley.  She performed Maori music on the radio, and was a particulaely admired performer, though none of her recordings survive. Ana Hato died (Dec 9, 1953) aged forty-seven, at Rotorua.

Hatshepsut – (c1520 – c1469 BC) 
Queen regnant of Egypt
Hatshepsut was the daughter of Tuthmosis I and his wife Ahmose, and was married to her half-brother Tuthmosis II. She was stepmother and aunt to King Tuthmosis III, to whom she married her surviving daughter, Merytra Hatshepsut. She may have ruled as co-regent with her father, after the death of her stepmother, Queen Isis. With the death of her husband Tuthmosis II (1504 BC), Hatshepsut permitted the coronation of her stepson, but completely overshadowed him, whilse she usurped his rights and acted as pharoah. Her titles of ‘King’s Daughter,’ ‘King’s Sister,’’God’s Wife,’ and ‘King’s Great Wife,’ testify to the enormous extent of her power after the accession of Tuthmosis III, who remained in obscurity until her death.
Queen Hatshepsut’s reign was peaceful and consisted mainly of building activities. She built the great temple at Der el-Bahri in western Thebes, behind which she excavated her rock tomb, in which surviving heiroglyphic inscriptions recorded the expeditions to Aswan for the red granite for her obelisks, and to the land of Punt on the Somali coast, for incense and myrrh to be used in temple rituals. She also caused the building of the four great obelisks at Karnak. Her death at the age of about fifty, which may have been murder, enabled her co-ruler Tuthmosis III, to finally assume full power, and, resentful of her former pre-eminence, he ordered all her monuments to be defaced and her name removed. Her large tomb in the Valley of the Kings was left uncompleted.

Hatsheret – (fl. c1375 BC)
Egyptian priestess
Hatsheret was a chantress of the god Aten-Re during the XVIIIth Dynasty. She is attested by a surviving ushabti figure bearing her name which was found at Abydos and is now housed in the British Museum in London.

Hatto, Jane see Frere, Margeurite Jeanne

Hatto, Joyce – (1928 – 2006)
British pianist
Hatto was born in London (Sept 5, 1928) and in her youth performed with Sir Thomas Beecham, Wilhelm Furtwangler, and Victor de Sabata. Especially known for her renditions of Liszt, Chopin, and Beethoven, she was equally expressive playing the works of Brahms, Schubert, Rachmaninov, Rawsthorne, and Bliss. Joyce Hatto was one of the few contemporary pianists to treat seriously the transcriptions made by Franz Liszt of the symphonies of Ludwig von Beethoven.
During the decade of the 1950’s Hatto performed all nine of these symphonies in concerts in London, and toured Scandinavia, Russia, and Poland as a concert pianist. She performed the entire nocturne cycle of Chopin’s work in concert performances and began a cycle of Beethoven’s piano music at Wigmore Hall (1972). Hatto retired from concert performances in 1976 due to continuing ill-health, and retired to Hertfordshire with her husband, the artist and manager, William Barrington-Coupe.
Joyce Hatto died of cancer (June 30, 2006) aged seventy-seven, and her recordings from the Gramophone label quickly became cult collections, after being released by her husband.
However, within a year of Hatto’s death (Feb, 2007) surprising claims were forwarded which led to the discovery that several of her recorded discs were acutally identical to the works of other composers such as Yefim Bronfman, Laszlo Simon, Carlo Grante, and Minoru Nojima. Her husband later confessed to perpetrating the fraud (2007), claiming that his wife had had absolutely no knowledge of the hoax.

Hatton, Fanny – (1870 – 1939)
American dramatist
Born Frances Cottinet Locke in Chicago, Illinois, Fanny became the wife of the critic and dramatist Frederic Hatton, who was almost a decade her junior, with whom she collaborated in the writing of several popular plays such as Years of Discretion (1912), Lombardi, Lt (1917), The Indestructible Wife (1918), Playthings (1925) and Treat ‘Em Rough (1926) which were all produced on the stage. Fanny Hatton died aged sixty-nine (Nov 27, 1939).

Hatton, Ragnhild Marie – (1913 – 1995)
Norwegian-Anglo historian
Ragnhild Hanssen was born (Jan 10, 1913) in Bergen, where she received her secondary education. Hanssen then attended the Bergen Cathedral School and the University of Oslo. She became the wife (1936) of Harry Hatton, a British businessman and merchant seaman, to whom she bore two sons. After her marriage she and her husband removed to England and resided in London. Ragnhild Hatton then studied at the University College in London and became a teacher. Hatton was appointed as the lecturer at the London School of Economics (1950).
Hatton established herself as a leading specialist in the history of the seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe and was appointed as the professor of International History at the LSE (1968). She later became professor emeritus (1981) and was a fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities. She received many distinguished honours including the Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav (1983) and was appointed as a senior fellow of the British Academy (1993).
Apart from articles published in such journals as The New Cambridge Modern History, the European Studies Review and the Journal of Modern History, Hatton’s many published works included Charles XII of Sweden (1968), Europe in the Age of Louis XIV (1969), Louis XIV and his World (1972) and George I: Elector and King (1978). Ragnhild Hatton died (May 16, 1995) aged eighty-two, in London.

Hatzerlin, Clara – (c1430 – 1476)
German illustrator
Clara Hatzerlin resided at Augsburg in Bavaria, and was employed as a professional book copyist and illuminator. She is remembered for her compilation of German folk-songs entitled Volkslieder, which she also illuminated. Hatzerlin died in Augsburg.

Hatzimichali, Angeliki – (1895 – 1956)
Greek writer and folk-lorist
Angeliki Hatzmichali was the daughter of a university academic, and was edcuated in the culture of both ancient and modern Greece. She worked amongst the rural Greek populations, preserving details of folk-lore, including oral traditions, regional customs, and textile designs, in an effort to preserve them. She established school that taught the traditional handicrafts, which provided much work for emigrant women, and organized the first folk exhibition ever to be held in Greece (1921).

Hauch, Renna – (1811 – 1896)
Danish novelist
Born Frederikke Elisabeth Brun Juul (June 13, 1811) in Elsinore, she was the daughter of the city magistrate. Raised by an uncle after the deaths of her parents, Renna was married (1828) to the poet Carsten Rauch. A member of the literary group established at Soro on the island of Sjaelland, Madame Hauch wrote two novels Tyrolerfamilien (1840) and Frue Werner (1844). She was a friend of the scholar Georg Brandes and an admirer of the educational precepts advocated by Jacques Rousseau. She was a member of the Dansk Kvindesamfund (The Danish Society of Women) and of the Social Democratic Movement. Renna Rauch died (March 24, 1896) aged eighty-five, in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen.

Hauck, Minnie – (1852 – 1929)
American dramatic soprano
Hauck was born in New York, and was sent to Europe to train under the tenor Achille Errani, and under Moritz Strakosch. Minnie made her successful debut in New York in the role of Norma (1866), and from 1868 – 1872 she performed with the Vienna Imperial court opera. Hauck performed in Berlin, Prussia, in 1875, and made successful tours of Europe and America, ultimately gaining an appointment as singer to the Prussian court. A member of the Roman Music Academy and the Paris Academie, she later retired to Switzerland. Minnie Hauck died (Feb 6, 1929) aged seventy-six, at Villa Triebschen, Lucerne.

Haudebourt-Lescot, Antoinette Cecile Hortense – (1784 – 1845)
French painter
Antoibette Lescot studied under Lethiere in Italy, where she met and married her husband, the architect Haudebourt.  She was later appointed official painter to the Duchesse de Berry, the mother of Henry V. Madame Haudebourt-Lescot specialized in the rural genre, having observed the customs and dress of the Italians whom she portrayed in national dress. Her work achieved great popularity, and her work A Good Daughter was engraved by S.W. Reynolds. Her self-portrait is preserved in the Louvre in Paris, whilst many other examples of her work survive notably in collections at the palaces of Versailles and Fontainebleau.

Haughton, Aaliyah   see   Aaliyah

Haughton, Crystene – (fl. 1488 – 1491)
English Tudor prostitute
Crystene Haughton was originally expelled from London for plying her trade. After quietly returning and resuming her former activities she was apprehended, place in the public pillory and then imprisoned for a year.

Haun, Mildred Eunice – (1911 – 1966)
American folk-lorist, editor and compiler
Haun was born in Hambleden County in Tennessee, and raised at Haun Hollow in the Appalachian community in Cocke County. She attended high school at Franklin, near Nashville from the age of sixteen (1927), desiring to study medicine so she could serve her own hill community as a midwife. Haun studied at Vanderbilt University from 1931, and compiled a collection of Cocke County Ballads and Songs (1937), which preserved many hitherto unrecorded types of Appalachian folk-tales.
After further studies at the University of Iowa, Haun produced a fictionalized chronicle of her childhood home in Cocke County, which was published as The Hawk’s Done Gone (1941). After her death, some ten other of her hitherto unpublished stories were collated with her original novel, and republished as The Hawk’s Done Gone and Other Stories (1968). Haun later worked as the book review editor of the Nashville newspaper the Tennessean, was editorial assistant on the Sewanee Review, and was also employed as an information specialist at the Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma. For over a decade she also served as a public relations editor for the Separtment of Agriculture in Memphis and Washington, D.C. Mildred Haun died (Dec 20, 1966) aged fifty-five, in Washington.

Hausset, Nicole du – (1713 – 1801)
French courtier and memoirist
Born Nicole Colleson into a noble, but impoverished family, she became the personal attendant to Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV, and was herself much trusted by the king on that account. Madame de Hausset survived her mistress almost forty years and left detailed Memoires of Louis XV, and of Madame de Pompadour (1802), published posthumously, which dealt with her life at the court of Versailles. She survived the horrors of the Revolution. Madame duHausset appears in the historical romance The Road to Compiegne (1959) by Jean Plaidy.

Haussonville, Pauline d’Harcourt, Comtesse d’ – (1846 – 1922)
French salonniere
Pauline d’Harcourt was the eldest daughter of George Trevor Douglas Bernard d’Harcourt-Beuvron, Marquis d’Harcourt (1808 – 1883) and his wife Paule de Beaupoil de Saint-Aulaire (1817 – 1893). She was sister to Bernard Pierre Louis, Marquis d’ Harcourt (1842 – 1914), who left descendants. Pauline became the wife (1865) of Joseph Othenin Bernard de Cleron, Comte d’Haussonville (1843 – 1924), member of the Academie Francaise (1888), and the great-grandson of Madame de Stael, to whom she bore two daughters.
Madame d’Haussonville was famous salonniere in the rue Saint-Dominique in Paris, during the late Second Empire and the following pre-WW I period, and attended those of Madame Straus and Madame Lemaire. She was a particular friend and patron of the novelist, Marcel Proust (1871 – 1922), who wrote the article, ‘Le Salon de la comtesse d’Haussonville,’ which was published in Le Figaro (1904). The Comtesse d’Haussonville died (Nov 6, 1922) aged seventy-six, in Paris.

Haustede, Margerie de – (c1263 – 1338)
English Plantagenet courtier
Margerie de Haustede served in the household of Eleanor of Castile, the first wife of Edward I (1272 – 1307). Her parentage remains unknown but she was married (prior to 1280) to Robert de Haustede who served as butler to Queen Eleanor, and in that year they received a joint grant of lands in Derby. Margerie had served in the queen’s household from 1280 or before and was entrusted with the safe keeping of the queen’s jewels.
The extent of her favour with her royal mistress is revealed by the fact that a room was prepared for her in Westminster Palace to reside during the Christmas celebrations of 1289. Queen Eleanor interceded on Margerie’s behalf in a legal dispute (1286 – 1289). Her husband was knighted in 1289. With Queen Eleanor’s death (1290) Margerie remained in service to the royal family and was later attached (1295) to the household of Eleanor’s son Edward, Prince of Wales (II). She then assisted in the household of the king’s children by his second wife Margaret of Valois. The known details of her life are gleaned from the Liber Garderobe, the surviving wardrobe accounts of Queen Eleanor. Margerie was widowed in 1322 and survived another sixteen years. Her children were,

Haute, Anne – (fl. 1468 – 1479)
English mediaeval noblewoman
Anne was the daughter of William Haute and his wife Joan Woodville (Wydeville), the sister of Sir Richard Woodville, first Earl of Rivers. Her first cousin was Elizabeth Woodville, the queen of Edward IV (1461 – 1483). She was long betrothed to John Paston II (1442 – 1479), which brought Paston the patronage of the powerful Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers the queen’s brother. However, they never married, Paston breaking the betrothal in 1472, and he left only an illegitimate daughter. The reason for the ending of the engagement remains unknown, though it was perhaps due to his association with one Constance Reynforth, a relationship which endured for some time. The breaking of Paston’s betrothal with Anne Haute caused legal problems in the ecclesiastical courts which continued until Paston’s death. She is mentioned in the famous, Paston Letters.

Haute, Eleanor Roos, Lady – (c1430 – c1486)
English Plantagnet courtier
Eleanor Roos served as court as maid-of-honour to Margaret of Anjou, the wife of the Lancastrian king Henry VI (1422 – 1461) before her marriage with the Yorkist Sir Richard Haute (c1417 – 1492), cousin to Queen Elizabeth Woodville, the wife of Edward IV (1461 – 1483). Her husband remarried after her death.

Hautefort, Francoise Claire d’Harcourt, Marquise de – (1718 – 1751)
French courtier and diplomatic figure
Francoise d’Harcourt was married to the Bourbon courtier Emanuel Dieudonne, marquis de Hautefort (died 1777), who served as ambassador of Louis XV to the Imperial court of Maria Theresa in Vienna. Madame de Hautefort accompanied her husband as French ‘ambassadress.’ Madame de Hautefort died in Vienna.

Hautefort, Marie de – (1616 – 1691)
French courtier and memoirist
Marie de Hautefort was born at Hautefort in Perigord, the daughter of Francois, marquis de Hautefort (died 1640) and his wife Louise, the daughter of Francois de Perusse, Comte d’Escars and de Segur, the sister of Charles de Perusse, Vicomte de Segur. Marie was the sister of Marquis Charles de Hautefort, and was a descendant of the mediaeval troubadour, Bertrand de Born.
Marie was brought to court by her family, where she became lady-in-waiting (dame d’atour) to Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII and mother of Louix XIV. There Marie became involved in a conspiracy with Cardinal Richelieu (1639), and was exiled from the court (1639 – 1643) for speaking ill of the new favourite, Henri de Ruze d’Effiat. She returned to the court after the death of Cardinal Richelieu and was then married (1646) to the widowed Duc de Schomberg-Halluin, Charles de Schomberg (died 1656) she was visited by Louis XIV on her deathbed.

Haven, Emily Bradley Neal – (1827 – 1863)
American magazine editor and author
Born Emily Hudson (Sept 13, 1827) in New York, she was married (1846) to Joseph Neal, editor of the Saturday Gazette. Emily wrote articles for the Gazette using the pseudonym ‘Aunt Alice.’ With her husband’s death she succeeded him for several years as editor (1847 – 1853). Emily Bradley Haven died (Aug 23, 1863).

Havergal, Frances Ridley – (1836 – 1879)
British poet, lyricist and hymn writer
Frances Ridley was born at Astley in Worcestershire, the daughter of the composer clergyman William Henry Havergal (1793 – 1870), and sister to the musician and composer, Henry East Havergal. An accomplished verse writer and a classical scholar, she travelled to Germany with her stepmother, and attended school in Dusseldorf (1852 – 1853). A devout Christian, her published collection of verse was entitled Kept for the Master’s Use. She wrote many famous and moving religious hymns, but was particularly remembered for ‘Take my life and let it be’ and ‘O Saviour, Precious Saviour.’ Her other published works included Loyal Responses (1878), whilst Life Chords (1880) and Life Echoes (1883) were published posthumously.

Haversham, Matilda de – (fl. 1274 – 1290)
English Plantagenet courtier
Matilda de Haversham was a wealthy minor heiress from Buckinghamshire. When she was a baby of six months of age (1274) her custody and marriage was granted to Eleanor of Castile, the first wife of Edward I (1272 – 1307). Matilda served as a lady (domicilla) (1287 – 1290) to the queen’s eldest daughter Eleanor (later Queen of Aragon and Countess of Bar).
The Liber Garderobe, the surviving household accounts of Queen Eleanor, revealed that Matilda was married by arrangement of the queen (1289) to the squire James de La Plaunche, whose mother Alice was a lady-in-waiting to the queen. At the time of this marriage Matilda’s inheritance was handed over to her and her husband. Matilda left the court prior to the queen’s death (Nov, 1290). Details of her later life remain unrecorded.

Haviland, Virginia – (1911 – 1988)
American children’s historian and critic
Virginia Haviland was appointed to head the first Children’s Book Section of the Library of Congress (1963). She was the author of Children’s Literature: views and reviews (1974), and compiled an anthology of American children’s books, all published prior to 1900 entitled Yankee Doodle’s Literary Sampler of Prose, Poetry, and Pictures (1974), which she edited with her assistant, Margaret Coughlan. Haviland also compiled The Fairy Tale Treasury (1972) the illustrations for which were done by Raymond Briggs (born 1934).

Hawarden, Clementina Elphinstone-Fleming, Lady – (1822 – 1865)
Scottish amateur photographer
Clementina Elphinstone-Fleming was born in Cumbernauld House, the daughter of Hon. Charles Elphinstone-Fleming, Member of Parliament for Stirlingshire. She was married (1845) to Cornwallis Maude, fourth Viscount Hawarden, and thereafter resided in England. Near the end of her short life, Lady Hawarden was a friend of the children’s witer Lewis Carroll (1832 – 1898) author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865). Most of her photographic work consists of the inside of English country houses and of women of her acquaintance, and are unique in her use of light, instead of the more sombre tones usually associated with Victorian photography.

Hawes, Elizabeth – (1903 – 1971)
American fashion designer, feminist and writer
Elizabeth Hawes was born (Dec 16, 1903) in Ridgewood, New Jersey, the fgranddaughter of the railroad executive Theodore Houston. She studied economics at Vassar and then travelled to Paris where she hoped to become a fashion designer. She worked for the coutouriere Nicole Groult and wrote about French fashion for The New Yorker. She opened her own fashion business in conjunction with Rosemary Harden, which Hawes fully controlled from 1931 as Hawes Inc.
Elizabeth Hawes was the first American to hold a fashion show in Paris (1931) which was followed by an exhibition of her garments in Russia (1935), the first by an American female designer since 1917. Known for her insistence on style and simplicity Hawes was the author of Fashion Is Spinach (1938) which became a best-seller, and the follow up It’s Still Spinach (1954). Her other works were Men Can Take It (1939) and But Say It Politely (1951). During WW II Elizabeth Hawes worked in an aeronautical plant and joined the United Auto Workers, which led to her memoirs entitled Why Women Cry (1943) an Hurry Up Please It’s Time (1946).
Hawes returned to the fashion industry after the war (1948) and established Elizabeth Hawes Inc. on Madison Avenue in New York, but proved unsuccessful, and briefly lived in the Virgin Islands. Her last years were spent living at the Hotel Chelsea in New York. Elizabeth Hawes died (Sept 6, 1971) aged sixty-seven.

Hawise of Brittany – (fl. 1110 – 1119)
French mediaeval princess
Hawise was the daughter of Alan IV Fergeant, Duke of Brittany and his second wife Ermengarde of Anjou, the divorced wife of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (1086 – 1127), and was sister to Duke Conan III of Brittany (1114 – 1148). The Chronicon Briocensis named the two children of Alan and Ermengarde as Conanum et Hazevisiam. Hawise was married (1110) to Baldwin VII (1092 – 1119), Count of Flanders (1111 – 1119).
The Genealogica Comitum Flandriae Bertiniana recoreded the marriage of Count Baldwin with filiam Alani Fregani comitis Brittaniae but did not name her. The marriage was also recorded by the Flandria Generosa but again the countess is not mentioned by name. The marriage remained childless and Pope Paschal II ordered the couple to separate, the marriage being annulled on the grounds of consanguinity.

Hawise of Powys – (1290 – 1346)
Welsh princess and heiress
Princess Hawise was born (July 25, 1290), the sister if Gruffyd ap Owain, Prince of Powys, the representative of the ancient lines of the Princes of Upper Powys. Gruffyd died childless (June, 1309) leaving Hawise as his heiress. Soon afterwards she was married to the marcher lord John Charlton (c1290 – 1353) who then received livery of the castle of Welshpool (Powys Castle) and of Hawise’s extensive domains which she had inherited from Gruffyd. Hawise and Lord Charlton was besieged at the Castle of Pool (1312) by her uncle, Lord Gruffud de La Pole, due to the fact that Lord Charlton regarded Hawise’s property as his own, to which Gruffud took unnatural offence. Hawise’s organization of the spirited defence of castle caused the Welsh to give her the epithet of Godam (mighty) though the siege was raised due to the intervention of Roger Mortimer, the Justiciar of Wales. With Gruffud de La Pole’s death (1330) all his claims to Lord Charlton’s lands passed to Hawise. Princess Hawise founded the Church of the Grey Friars in Shrewsbury, which she greatly endowed and was buried there. She was the mother of John Charlton (1310 – 1360), the second feudal Baron Charlton who left descendants.

Hawk, Grace – (1905 – 1983) 
American educator and author
Hawk was born at Reading, Pennsylvania. An expert in seventeenth century English literature, she became a specialist concerning the poet John Milton. She taught at Wesley College for over thirty years, and held the Katharine Lee Bates professorship for thirteen years. The author of Pembroke College in Brown University: The first Seventy-Five Years, 1891 – 1966. Grace Hawk died (Sept 22, 1983) aged seventy-eight, in Wellesley, Massachusetts.

Hawke, Cassandra Turner, Lady – (1746 – 1813)
British Hanoverian novelist
Cassandra Turner was born (Feb 28, 1746), the daughter of Sir Edward Turner, second baronet of Ambrosden in Oxon and his wife Cassandra Leigh. She became the wife of Martin Bladen (1744 – 1805) the second Baron Hawke of Towton and became the Baroness Hawke. She published two novels Julia De Grammont (1788) and Mausoleum of Julia (before 1796) using the pseudonym of ‘Lady H.’ Lady Cassandra survived her husband as the Dowager Baroness Hawke (1805 – 1813). Lady Hawke died (Nov 19, 1813) aged sixty-seven.

Hawker, Mary Elizabeth     see    Falconer, Lanoe

Hawkes, Jacquetta – (1910 – 1996)
British archaeologist and writer
Born Jacquetta Hopkins in Cambridge, she was the first woman to obtain a degree in archaeology and anthropology at Newnham College, Cambridge. She was married firstly (1933) to Christopher Hawkes, the noted archaeologist, and secondly (1953) to John Boynton Priestley (1894 – 1984), the novelist and dramatist. Jacquetta Hawkes’s published works included The Archaeology of Jersey (1939) and Early Britain (1945), which assisted in making archaeology a popular study. She co-wrote Prehistoric Britain (1944), with her first husband, and published a collection of poetry entitled Symbols and Speculations (1948). Together with her second husband, Hawkes co-wrote the fictional work Journey Down the Rainbow (1955). Jacquetta was a co-founder of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (1957) and served (1966 – 1979) on the Central Committee of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).

Hawkins, Alma – (1903 – 1998)
American dance educator
Alma Hawkins was born in Rolla, Missouri and then studied at the Teachers College at Columbia University. Hawkins studied dance at Bennington College, earned her doctorate from Columbia. Dr Hawkins joined the dance program at UCLA (University of California in Los Angeles), of which she served as chairman (1953 – 1977). She established the dance department at the university’s College of Fine Arts (1962) and was a pioneer educator in modern dance. Her department offered degrees in dance therapy, choreography and dance history, and Hawkins founded the Council of Dance Administrators which was sponsored by the United States Office of Education. Hawkins established the West Coast Dance Film Archives (1967) and published Standards for Dance Major Programs (1979). Alma Hawkins died (Jan 8, 1998) aged ninety-four, in Santa Monica.

Hawkins-Whitshed, Sophia Henrietta von Bentinck, Lady – (1765 – 1852)
British aristocrat
Sophia von Bentinck was born (June 21, 1765), a relative of the Earls of Portland, and was the descendant of Charlotte Sophia, the famous Countess von Aldenburg. Sophia was married to Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed, a British baronet, and her portrait was painted by James Northcote (1746 – 1831). Some of her correspondence survives. Her descendant was the mountaineer and author, Elizabeth Le Blond. Lady Hawkins-Whitshed died aged eighty-six (Jan 20, 1852).

Hawksley, Dorothy Webster – (1884 – 1970)
British water colour painter and portraitist
Hawkesley was born in London. She studied art at the Royal Academy Schools, where she was awarded a silver medal and obtained a Landseer scholarship. Dorothy Hawksley exhibited her work at the Royal Academy (1909), and received the silver medal at the Paris Salon (1931). Examples of her work are preserved in the Walker Art Gallery at Liverpool and Brighton, and in the National Gallery of Canada. Hawksley remained unmarried. Dorothy Hawksley died (July 1, 1970) aged eighty-five, in London.

Haworth, Betsy Ellen – (1924 – 2007)
British Anglican deaconess and churchwoman
Betsy Kenyon was born (July 23, 1924) and was educated at a religious college. She was licensed as a lay worker in the diocese of Manchester (1952) and was married (1953) to a clergyman from Lancashire, Frederick Haworth. She worked alongside her husband in ministering to the various needs of their parish, and was later elected to the Church Assembly (1965 – 1970) and the General Synod (1970 – 1985). Mrs Haworth was created a deaconess (1980) and was closely associated with the administration of the Church of England, serving as Third Church Estates Commissioner (1981 – 1988). Betsy Haworth died (July 17, 2007) aged eighty-two.

Hawstyl – (c480 AD – c520)
Welsh nun
Hawstyl was the twenty-fifth daughter of King Brychan of Brecknock and his wife Ribrawst. She was famous for her religious sanctity, though she was not actually called a saint. Hawstyl is believed to be identical with St Austell (Awstle), another daughter of Brychan who was venerated on Trinity Sunday.

Hawtrey, Hortense Emilia – (1887 – 1953)
Hungarian-Anglo society figure
Hortense d’Aranyi was the eldest sister of Jelly d’Aranyi and Adila Fachiri, the famous violinists, and all were great-nieces of the Hungarian violinist Joseph Joachim. She was married (1915) to the British economist and civil servant Ralph George Hawtrey (1879 – 1975) who was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II (1956).

Haxton, Elaine Alys – (1909 – 1999)
Australian artist, illustrator, printmaker and costume designer
Elaine Haxton was born in Newmarket, Melbourne, Victoria, and studied art under Raymond Hoff, at the East Sydney Technical College. Employed firstly as a fashion artist with David Jones’ department store, she then moved to London (1931) to work in advertising. Returning to Sydney prior to the war (1939), Elaine became part of the artistic circle that surrounded William Dobell and Russell Drysdale. She studied mural painting in New York after the war, and print making in London, Paris, and Kyoto in Japan. Haxton was appointed a member of the first cultural delegation sent by Australia to China (1957). Made a member of the Order of Australia for her services to printmaking (1986), a mural painted by her at St Catherine’s School, in Melbourne, has been heritage listed by the National Trust. William Dobell’s portrait of Elaine was his 1941 entry for the Archibald Prize, and she herself was awarded the Sulman Prize for the mural she painted at the Coq D’Or restaurant in Ash Street, Sydney. Elaine Haxton died in Adelaide, South Australia.

Hay, Lucy    see   Carlisle, Lucy Percy, Countess of

Hay, Margaret Katharine Seymour, Lady – (1918 – 1975)
British courtier
Margaret Seymour was born (May 9, 1918), the only daughter of Brigadier-General Lord Henry Seymour (1878 – 1939), and his wife Lady Helen Grosvenor, daughter of Hugh Lupus Grosvenor (1825 – 1899), first Duke of Westminster.  During WW II Margaret Seymour served as a volunteer nurse. When her brother Hugh Edward Conway-Seymour (born 1930), succeeded his uncle as the eighth Marquess of Hertford (1940), Margaret was raised to the rank of the daughter of a Marquess, with the courtesy title of ‘Lady’ before her name. She was married (1948) to Sir Philip Hay (1918 – 1986) to whom she bore three sons. Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Marina, the Duchess of Kent stood sponsors at the christening of her eldest son Edward (1949), whilst HRH Princess Alexandra stood sponsor to her youngest son Simon (1955). Lady Hay served at court as lady-in-waiting to Princess Elizabeth, daughter of George VI (1947 – 1953). With her accession to the throne, Lady Hay continued as a Woman-of-the-Bechamber (1953 – 1975). Her service was recognized by Queen Elizabeth II who appointed her CVO (Commander of the Royal Victorian Order) (1953) and then DCVO (Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order) (1971). Lady Hay died (May 24, 1975) aged fifty-six.

Hay, Nicola de la – (c1153 – 1230)
Norman castellan and royalist
Nicola (Nicholaa) de la Hay was the eldest daughter and coheiress of Richard de la Hay of Lincolnshire, and was married firstly to William fitzErneis to whom she bore a daughter. Widowed (1178) Nicola remarried secondly (before 1185) to Gerard de Camville, royal sheriff of Lincolnshire, to whom she bore three children. Her second husband accompanied King Richard the Lionheart to Palestine on the Third Crusade as the admiral of his fleet. Nicola became the hereditary castellan of Lincoln Castle and remained a loyal supporter to King Richard I and then to his brother, King John who appointed Nicolas as sheriff of Nottinghamshire for five months (1216). She successfully defended Lincoln against the army of the rebel Earl of Lincoln (1215 - 1217) with the assistance of William Marshal. She was confirmed in her office by John’s son Henry III (1218).

Hay, Sophia – (c1610 – 1642)
Scottish patrician
Lady Sophia Hay was the daughter of Francis Hay, ninth earl of Erroll, and his third wife Elizabeth Douglas, the daughter of William Douglas, earl of Morton. She was married (1626) to John Hay, Lord Melgum, the son of George, Marquess of Huntley. Her husband was burnt to death by treachery in Frendraught Tower (1630), and the event was comemorated in the Lament of Sophia Hay. Sophia Hay never remarried and died childless.

Hayashi, Fumiko – (1903 – 1951)
Japanese writer
Fumiko Hayashi was the daughter of intinerant pedlars. Looking for security that had been denied her in childhood, Fumiko was drawn towards the bohemian set in Tokyo. She worked abroad as a war correspondent in China for the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper (1937 – 1945). Hayashi wrote prolifically, and produced over two hundred separate works, the first of which was Horoki (Journey of a Vagabond) (1922 – 1927), which was semi-autobiographical. However her most famous and best remembered work was the tragically stark Ukigumo (Drifting Cloud) (1951) set in the aftermath of Japan’s defeat in WW II.

Hayden, Anna Tompson – (c1648 – c1720)  
American poet
Anna Hayden was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, and was the half-sister to the poet Benjamin Tompson (1642 – 1714). She came of Puritan stock and left consolatory devotional verses, her most memorable work was the memorial poem she penned in memory of her late brother ‘Verses on Benjamin Tompson.’

Hayden, Esther Allen – (c1713 – 1758) 
American colonial poet and matron
Esther Allen was the daughter of Samuel Allen. Esther became the wife of Samuel Hayden, of Braintree in Massachusetts, and bore him nine surviving children. After her death was published A Short Account of the life, Death, and Character of Esther Hayden, the Wife of Samuel Hayden of Braintree (1759), which included her poem, ‘Composed About Six Weeks Before Her Death, When Under Distressing Circumstances.’

Hayden, Sophia Gregoria – (1868 – 1953)
American architect
Sophia Hayden was born (Oct 17, 1868) in Santiago in Chile, the daughter of a dentist. She came to reside in the USA with her paternal grandparents (1874) and later studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, being the first woman admitted to study architecture. Sophia Hayden designed the Woman’s Building of the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois (1892) which was her most famous work, and for which she received the Artist’s Medal from Daniel Burnham and a gold medal from the organizers of the exhibition. It was designed in the Italian Renaissance style but was later dismantled. Another design for a memorial for American women’s clubs was never built. Sophia Hayen died (Feb 3, 1953) aged eighty-four, in Winthrop, Massachusetts.

Haye, Alice de la – (c1215 – 1283)
English nun
Alice de la Haye became a nun at the Abbey of St Mary at Chester in Cheshire which had been founded during the reign of King Stephen (1135 – 1154). With the death of the abbess Alice de Stockport, Alice de la Haye was elected to succeed her in office. At the time of her election to office the abbey had fallen on hard times and a letter was sent to Eleanor of Provence, the wife of Henry III, around the time of Alice de la Haye’s election to office, implored the queen for help and stated that the nuns were reduced to begging for their food. Alice de la Haye remained abbess for three decades (1253 – 1283) and died in office. She is listed as abbess in the Victoria Counties of England (1980).

Hayes, Catherine – (1825 – 1861)
Irish soprano
Hayes was born (Oct 25, 1825) in Limerick and took vocal lessons with Antonio Sapio in Dublin, and then under Manuel Garcia in Paris (1842 – 1844) and Felice Ronconi in Milan, where she made her operatic debut in the role of Elvira in Vincenzo Bellini’s I Puritani (1845). Catherine Hayes performed with much success at La Scala in Milan and then travelled to England (1849 – 1851), where she performed the role of Linda in Gaetano Donizetti’s opera Linda di Chamounix (1849). She then toured America with resounding success, and tickets to her performances were said to reach phenomenal prices. She toured Australia, the Dutch East Indies, and South America before returning to England (1857). Despite her great international successes she was chiefly remembered for her renditions of famous Irish ballads. Catherine Hayes died (Aug 11, 1861) aged thirty-five, at Sydenham, London.

Hayes, Evie – (1911 – 1988)
Australian vocalist and entertainer
Eva Hayes was born (June 1, 1911) in Seattle, Washington, and educated by nuns. She was drawn to the theatre from a young age and later came to Australia (1938) with her husband the comedian William Mahoney. They were forced to remain in Australia during to the outbreak of WW II and performed at the Cremorne Theatre in Brisbane, Queensland.
Evie Hayes established both her stage credentials and her lasting popularity with Australian audiences when she appeared in the title role of the musical Annie Get Your Gun (1947). She later worked in televison appearing with the legendary Graham Kennedy in In Melbourne Tonight, and appeared as a judge in Young Talent Time hosted by Johnny Young. Evie Hayes died (Dec 26, 1988) in Elsternwick in Melbourne, Victoria.

Hayes, Helen – (1900 – 1993)
American stage, film and television actress
Born Helen Brown in Washington, D.C., she first appeared on stage at the age of five (1905). She was married to the dramatist and screenwriter Charles MacArthur (1895 – 1956), and they were the parents of actor James MacArthur (born 1937). Helen Hayes twice received an Academy Award, for her performances in A Farewell to Arms (1932) and in Airport (1970), twice received an Antoinette Perry Award (Toni) (1947) and (1958) and also won an Emmy (1952).
Hayes was known for her performance as the Russian empress dowager, Maria Feodorovna, mother of Nicholas II in the film Anastasia (1956), opposite Ingrid Bergman and Yul Bryner. She was also remembered for her roles in Herbie Rides Again (1973), One of Our Dinosaurs in Missing (1975) and the television film Victory at Entebbe (1976). Honoured as a veteran actress, Hayes returned to the screen to appear in, Airport (1970) and also appeared in the popular television series The Snoop Sisters (1973 – 1974). She left three volumes of autobiography A Gift for Joy (1965), On Reflection (1969), and Twice Over Lightly (1981).

Hayes, Henry    see   Kirk, Ellen Warner Olney

Hayes, Patricia – (1909 – 1998)
British television and film actress
Patricia Lawlor Hayes was born (Dec 22, 1909) at Camberwell, of Irish background. Hayes was educated by Catholic nuns at Wandsworth in London, and made a name for herself in television comedy, specializing in character and comic roles. She appeared in such popular programs as Hancock’s Half Hour, Hugh and I (1962 – 1964), The Benny Hill Show, Till Death Do Us Part (1981) and Spooner’s Patch (1982). She was best known on television for appearing in the title role of the play Edna, The Inebriate Woman (1971) for which she received as BAFTA (British Academy of Film and Television Arts) award.
Hayes played the role of the good sorceress Fin Raziel in the film Willow (1988) produced by George Lucas, where her antagonist the evil Queen Bavmorda was played by Jean Simmons, and also appeared as the annoying old woman with her dogs in A Fish Called Wanda (1988) with John Cleese and Jamie Lee Curtis. Her other film credits included Candles at Nine (1944), Nicholas Nickleby (1946), Goodbye Mr Chips (1969), The Never Ending Story (1984), Little Dorrit (1987) and The Steal (1995). Hayes also appeared in the television movie The Corn Is Green (1979).
Miss Hayes was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of her contribution to the industry and to theatre. She was mother of the British actor Richard O’Callaghan (born 1945). Patricia Hayes died (Sept 19, 1998) aged eighty-eight.

Haynau, Edythe von     see    Rosa, Rosa

Haynes, Elizabeth Ross – (1883 – 1953)
Black American YWCA official, social researcher and civic leader
Elizabeth Ross was born (July 30, 1883) in Lowndes County, Alabama, the daughter of former slaves. She attended school in Motngomery before going on to study at Fisk University. She worked as a school teacher at Galveston in Texas before finishing her education at the University of Chicago. Ross became involved with the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association) in college, and was married (1910) to George Edmund Haynes, a member of the sociology department at Fisk. Mrs Haynes bore her husband one son.
When George Haynes was appointed as the director of the Negro Economics Division in the Department of Labor in Washington (1918) he appointed Elizabeth as his assistant director. Mrs Haynes assisted with the re-organization of the Domestic Service Section of the US Employment Service (1920 – 1922) and wrote the study entitled Negroes in Domestic Service in the United States (1923).
Mrs Haynes worked as a volunteer with the Department of Race Relations of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, and was a member of the National Association of Colored Women. Elizabeth later entered Democratic politics and supported the New Deal which led to her being appointed to the New York State Temporary Commission on the Condition of the Urban Colored Population (1937) by the governor of New York, Herbert H. Lehman, the only woman to serve on the commission. She published the biography the banker Richard Robert Wright entitled The Black Boy of Atlanta (1952). Elizabeth Haynes died (Oct 26, 1953) aged seventy

Haynes, Margery – (c1405 – c1460)
English medieval businesswoman
Haynes was left a wealthy widow by the death of her successful villein husband (1435). She refused to be forced into a second marriage, and paid a substantial sum in order to be able to choose her own second husband. Margery Haynes took over the organisation of her late husband’s three mills, and was successful enough to build herself two new houses, and acquire several shops and tenement buildings, from which she accrued revenues.

Hayranidil – (1846 – 1898)
Ottoman sultana (1866 – 1876)
Hayranidil was born (Nov 2, 1846) at Kars, and originally entered the harem of Sultan Abdulazziz I as a slave-girl. Sultan Abdulazziz married her (1866) as his first wife, and she received the rank of haseki sultan (favourite) after the birth of their son, the future sultan Abdulmecid II (1868 – 1944). Her daughter, Princess Nazima Osmanoglu (1867 – 1947) became the wife of General Ali Halid Pasha (1860 – 1948). She survived her husband over two decades. Sultana Hayranidil died (Sept 9, 1898) aged fifty-one, at Ortakeuy.

Hays, Mary – (1760 – 1843)
British feminist and writer
Mary Hays was born in Southwark, London and had a haphazard education. She wrote the pamphlet Cursory Remarks (1791) in defence of dissenters, in which persuasion she herself had been raised, and was the author of the notoriously popular Memoirs of Emma Courtney (1796) and The Victim of Prejudice (1799). Her bold depiction of women led to Hays being satirized by various contemporary writers, most nobtably as Bridgetina Botherim in Elizabeth Hamilton Memoirs of Modern Philosophers (1800 – 1801), and as Lady Gertrude Sinclair by Charles Lloyd in his, Edmund Oliver (1798).
Mary Hays was a member of that literary circle which included Mary Wollstonecraft, William Godwin, and the radical publisher, Joseph Johnson. The best known of her own radical works was her Appeal to the Men of Great Britain on behalf of the Women (1798), which was published anonymously, and her Letters and Essays, Moral and Miscellaneous (1793). She also published her Female Biography (1802), in six volumes and Memoirs of Queens, Illustrious and Celebrated (1821). Mary Hays died (Feb 20, 1843) aged eighty-two, at Camberwell.

Hayward, Jane Elizabeth – (1946 – 2000) 
British judge
Jane Hayward was the daughter of Joseph Hayward. She was educated at Marlborough Grammar School and later the University College of Wales, where she studied law and graduated (1967). Called to the Bar, at Gray’s Inn, London (1968) Hayward became a circuit judge in Wales and Chester, and practised at the Bar from (1970 – 1991). She acted as Stipendiary Magistrate for Greater Manchester, Lancashire (1991 – 1998), and was then appointed a Recorder (1996 – 1998). She remained unmarried.

Hayward, Susan – (1917 – 1975)
American film actress and film star
Born Edythe Marrener (June 30, 1917) in Brooklyn, New York, she worked in a handkerchief factory in Manhattan until she could raise enough money to afford to enroll at the Feagin School of Dramatic Arts. Marrener began her career in modelling before being offerred a screen test for the part of Scarlett O’Hara in Gone With the Wind (1939). She remained in Hollywood and changed her name to ‘Susan Hayward,’ and then took elocution lessons to modify her accent. She made her screen debut as Isobel Rivers in the remake of Beau Geste (1939) opposite Gary Cooper, but had her first taste of success opposite Willaim Bendix in The Hairy Ape (1944).
Hayward nominated for an Academy Award (Oscar) for best actress for her brilliant performance as an alcoholic in Smash-Up: The Story of a Woman (1947) and would be nominated for five more including her role in the film I Want To Live! (1958), dealing with the story of the first woman in California to go to the gas chamber. Hayward portrayed actress Lillian Roth in I’ll Cry Tomorrow (1955) with actress Jo Van Fleet, playing her mother. Hayward was the original choice of the producer Walter Wanger for the title role of Cleopatra (1962) which was instead taken by Elizabeth Taylor. During her later years she sufferred constant ill-health and her last public appearance was as a presenter at the 1974 Academy Award Ceremony. Susan Hayward died (March 14, 1917) aged fifty-seven, in Beverly Hills, California.

Haywood, Carolyn – (1898 – 1990)
American children’s author and illustrator
Haywood was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she attendeed school and eventually taught at the privately run Friends Central School (1922 – 1923). After winning a scholarshop, Haywood studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (1923 – 1926). She later worked as an assistant to the mural painter Violet Oakely in Harrisburg, and had been herself a student of the noted author and illustrator Howard Pyle (1853 – 1911). Haywood is best remembered for her series of books concerning the children ‘Betsy’ and ‘Eddie,’ the first in each series being entitled respectively ‘B’ is for Betsy (1939) and Little Eddie (1947). Other titles in the series included Eddie and His Big Deals (1955), Annie Pat and Eddie (1960) and Eddie the Dog Holder (1966). Her later works, written during the 1970’s, were illustrated by Victor Ambrus, and her works have been translated into various languages, including Swedish, Japanese, Norwegian, and French. Carolyn Haywood died (Jan 11, 1990) aged ninety-two.

Haywood, Eliza – (1693 – 1756)
British novelist and dramatist
Born Eliza Fowler in London, she was the daughter of a tradesman. She appeared on the stage early in her life (1715), and then eloped to make an unhappy marriage she would regret. Haywood’s first novel Love in Excess (1719), was the most popular work of fiction for two decades. She revised the play The Fair Captive (1721), originally written by Captain Hurst for the stage, and then embarked upon on a successful literary carrer, producing about seventy salacious novels, which were extremely popular. In her work Memoirs of a certain Island adjacent to Utopia, written by a celebrated author of that country. Now translated into English (1725) she provided an index in which the characters in her tale were explained by initials which denoted persons then living on whom these characters were based. Her other work The Secret History of the Present Intrigues of the Court of Caramania (1727) was presented in the same manner. The poet Alexander Pope attacked Haywood and her work, along with other writers of the female sex in his work, The Dunciad. Haywood’s later works included Fortunate Foundlings (1744), Female Spectator (1744 – 1746), The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless (1751) and The History of Jemmy and Jenny Jessamy (1753). Eliza Haywood died (Feb 25, 1756) aged sixty-two.

Hayworth, Rita – (1918 – 1987)
American film actress and dancer, born Margarita Carmen Cansino in Brooklyn, New York, and was cousin to the equally famous actress and dancer, Ginger Rogers. Her father owned a night-club and Margarita sang on stage. These performances led to her being offerred bit-parts in secondary Hollywood films, making her debut in the film, Dante’s Inferno (1935). Adopting the name of ‘Rita Hayworth’ she made a name for herself as a fascinatingly sexual temptress in films such as Blood and Sand (1941) and Gilda (1944) which was considered by many to be her finest role. She also appeared in popular musicals such as Cover Girl (1944), but as she aged the roles diminished.
Her most notable later appearances were in Salome (1953), Miss Sadie Thompson (1953), Pal Joey (1957) with Frank Sinatra, and Separate Tables (1958), opposite Burt Lancaster. Her last film role was in the movie The Wrath of God (1972). Rita Hayworth was married five times, her husbands including the film director Orson Welles, and Prince Aly Khan, to whom she bore a daughter, Princess Yasmin. During the last decade or so of her life she sufferred from Alzheimer’s Disease and remained out of the public eye, her daughter gaining legal custody when Rita could no longer care for herself (1981). Rita Hayworth died (May 15, 1987) aged sixty-nine, in New York.

Hazeka – (c1200 – 1261)
German religious recluse and ascetic
Hazeka never married and eventually chose to reside as an anchorite in a cell outside the church of Schermbet in Westphalia, near the abbey of Sichem. Attended by her servant woman Bertha, Hazeka resided as a recluse for over thirty-five years. She achieved a reputation for great sanctity, and miracles were said to have been evident at her funeral. Venerated as a saint (Jan 26) her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Hazen, Elizabeth Lee – (1885 – 1975)
American chemist, bacteriologist and mycologist
Elizabeth Hazen was born (Aug 24, 1885) in Rich, Mississippi, the daughter of a cotton farmer, and attended secondary school there before going on to study at Columbia University. She worked at the Mycology Laboratory in collaboration with Rachel Brown. This pooled research led to the discovery of nystatin, an antibiotic which proved extremely effective in protecting books and art works from damaging fungi. It was patented and marketed as Mycostatin (1954).
Hazen shared the Squibb Award in Chemotherapy with Rachel Brown (1955) and received a Distinguished Service Award from the New York Department of Health (1968). She then became the first woman to receive the Chemical Pioneer Award of the American Institute of Chemists. She became an associate professor at the Albany Medical College (1958 – 1960) and was then an investigator attached to the Columbia University Mycology Laboroatory. Elizabeth Hazen died (June 24, 1975) aged eighty-nine, in New York.

Hazzard, Dorothy – (c1600 – 1674)
English Protestant radical
With the death of her first husband, Anthony Kelly, a Bristol grocer (1631), Dorothy continued to run the business until she remarried to a local Puritan clergyman, Matthew Hazzard. Much opposed to the established Protestant church, which she believed to be full of ‘popish’ insertions, Mrs Hazzard refused to attend her husband’s own services because he adhered to the Common Book of Prayer. She provided refuge for religious dissidents in her own home, which she opened up for women to give birth, so that they were not forced to partake of the public ‘churching’ ceremony afterwards, which by its very ritual, decried women as ‘unclean.’ Dorothy and her husband were amongst the congregation of the first Baptist church in Bristol prior to the Civil War. After the war Dorothy retained her public interest in religious affairs. Despite their differences in matters of religion, Dorothy and her husband shared a full and affectionate marriage that lasted for decades.

H.D.      see     Doolittle, Hilda

Head, Bessie – (1937 – 1986)  
South African novelist and writer
Bessie Head was born in Pietermaritzburg to mixed race parents, and was raised in foster homes. She went to Botswana (1963) to obtain work as an agricultural labourer, and became a citizen. The theme of her first novel When Rain Clouds Gather (1968), dealt with her removal from the apartheid regime of her birth. Head also published the works Maru (1971), A Question of Power (1974) and A Bewitched Crossroads (1984).
Her style was influenced by that of the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht (1898 – 1956). Her collection of native folk-tales was entitled The Collector of Treasures (1977), whilst two collections of her work Tales of Tenderness and Power (1989) and A Woman Alone (1990), were published posthumously. Her correspondence was published posthumously as A Gesture of Belonging: Letters from Bessie Head, 1965 – 1979 (1991).

Head, Edith – (1907 – 1981)
American costume and fashion designer
Head was born in San Bernardino, in California, the daughter of a mining engineer, and was raised in Nevada and Arizona. She attended the University of California in Los Angeles, and also Stanford University, before going on to various art schools in Los Angeles. Edith began her career in Hollywood in the late 1920’s and her first film credit was in She Done Him Wrong (1933), with the legendary Mae West.
Miss Head received the Academy Award for her work on eight separate occasions including The Heiress (1949) starring Olivia De Haviland, Samson and Delilah (1951) and A Place in the Sun (1952), and received a total of 34 Oscar nominations throughout her long and impressive career. She appeared as herself in the filmThe Oscar (1966), and she won an Academy Award for the costumes she designed in The Sting (1973). One of the last movies on which she worked was Olly Olly Oxen Free (1978). Head was the author of an autobiography The Dress Doctor (1940), and co-authored Edith Head’s Hollywood (1983), which was published posthumously. Edith Head died (Oct 24, 1981) aged seventy-three, in Los Angeles, California.

Head, Lee – (1931 – 1983)
American educator and author
Joanne Lee Head was born (March 3, 1931) in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. Throughout the 1950’s and the early 1960’s Head was a teacher at the Oklahoma State University. She was later appointed as the chairman of legal research for the Oklahoma Commission on the Status of Women. She composed several ballets and published several novels such as The First of January and The Crystal Clear Case for which she received the Golden Spur Award from the Western Writers of America (1981). Lee Head died (Aug 13, 1983) aged fifty-two, in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Headfort, Olivia Stevenson, Lady – (c1790 – 1834)
Irish literary patron
Olivia Stevenson was the daughter of Sir John Stevenson, of Dublin, and his wife Anne Morton of Rehoboth, the widow of William Singleton. Olivia was married firstly to Edward Tuite Dalton of Fennar, Meath, and secondly (1822) to Thomas Taylour, Earl of Bective, who later succeeded his father as second marquess of Headfort (1829) and to whom she bore six children. As Olivia Dalton, the poet Thomas Moore (1779 – 1852) dedicated to her his Irish Melodies (1808), and the Gentleman’s Magazine referred to her as, ‘this beautiful and accomplished lady.’ Lady Headfort died (July 21, 1834) in Regent’s Park, London, and was buried in the Harrow Road cemetery.

Headfort, Rose, Marchioness of   see  Boote, Rosie

Headlam-Morley, Agnes – (1902 – 1986)
British scholar and academic
Agnes Headlam-Morley was born (Dec 10, 1902) in London, the daughter of the noted scholar, Sir James Wycliffe Headlam-Morley, and was educated at Wimbledon and at Somerville College, Oxford. Agnes Headlam-Morley joined the Conservative Party, and became the candidate for the seat of Barnard’s Castle, Durham, but proved unsuccessful in politics. She became a highly regarded authority on modern German history, and was the author of New Democratic Constitution of Europe (1928) and the novel Last Days (1960). She also edited and published some of her late father’s works. She was appointed as the Montague Burton Professor of Internation Relations (1948 – 1971), becoming the first woman to hold a chair at Oxford University. Agnes was appointed as an honorary fellow of Somerville College (1948) and of St Hugh’s College (1970) at Oxford. Agnes Headlam-Morley died (Feb 21, 1986).

Headley, Baroness     see    Baynton, Barbara Janet Ainsleigh

Headley, Elizabeth    see   Cavanna, Betty

Heap, Jane    see    Anderson, Margaret Carolyn

Hearne, Mary – (fl. c1700 – 1720)
British novelist
Mary Hearne was the author of The Lover’s Week (1718), which included the popular poem ‘The Third Day’ and was dedicated to Mary De La Riviere Manley and The Female Deserters (1719) which included ‘The Amours of Calista and Torismond.’ Her novels were published by Edmund Curll of London, but the name Mary Hearne may be a pseudonym. Both novels were later republished by Curll under the title Honour, the Victory; and Love, the Prize (1720).

Hearne, Mary Anne     see    Farningham, Marianne

Hearst, Phoebe Apperson – (1842 – 1919)
American philanthropist and educational patron
Phoebe Apperson was born in Missouri, the daughter of a farmer. She was married (1862) to the mining magnate and financier George Heart (1820 – 1891), who served as senator of California from 1886. With her husband’s permission and support, Phoebe endowed schools and libraties, hospitals and kindergartens throughout California, and she also endowed part of the campus of the University of California at Berkeley (1873). In recognition of this generous donation, Mrs Hearst was appointed as the first woman regent of the university. Phoebe was the mother of William Randolph Hearst (1863 – 1951), the publisher of the San Francisco Examiner from 1887.

Heath, Sophia – (1896 – 1936)
American aviatrix and sports administrator
Heath successfully defied the national ban on women being employed in commercial flying set by the International Commission for Air Navigation (1919), after qualifying in all the tests. She was the first airline pilot to be employed by the Royal Dutch airlines. Lady Heath founded the Women’s Amateur Athletic Association (1922) and was the first woman to fly solo from South Africa to England (1928). She spoke publicly before the Olympic Committee in Prague in order to gain admission for women in the competition. This was first permitted in 1928, and adopted by the British (1932).  Sophia Heath died from injuries sustained in an air crash.

Heathcoat-Amory, Lady      see     Wethered, Joyce

Hebditch, Lorna    see   Moon, Lorna

Hebert, Anne – (1916 – 2000) 
French-Canadian poet, dramatist and novelist
Anne Hebert was born at Sainte-Catherine-de-Fossambault, near Quebec, and was a cousin of the equally famous poet, Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau (1912 – 1943). She was raised and educated in Quebec. Hebert’s first published collection of verse Les Songes en equilibre (Dreams of Equilibrium) (1942), was characterized by an extremely harsh style. She published the play Le Temps sauvage (The Savage Time) (1963) and the novel Kamouraska (1970). Her horror novels included Les enfants du Sabbat (Children of the Black Sabbath) (1975) and Les fous de Bassan (In the Shadow of the Wind) (1982) which was awarded the Prix Femina.

Hebron, Ellen Ellington – (1839 – 1904)
Southern American poet
Ellen Ellington was educated at home in Vicksburg, Mississippi by her mother, and was married (1860) to a physician, John L. Hebron. Ellen Hebron became a prominent campaigner with the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement in Mississippi, and because of her contributions to various newspapers and periodicals, she was made an honorary member of the Mississippi Press Association. She was the author of Songs from the South (1875), and a collection of verse entitled Faith: Or, Earthly Paradise and Other Poems (1890). Ellen Hebron died at Vicksburg.

Heck, Barbara Ruckle – (1734 – 1805)
German-American Methodist leader
Barbara Heck was revered in America and Canada as the ‘mother of Methodism.’ She was born in Ballingrane, County Limerick, Ireland to German parents who ancestors having settled there after fleeing the Palatine before the troops of Louis XIV of France. Despite her background she was raised as a strict Wesleyan and became a religious counsellor before her marriage with Paul Heck (1760), with whom she immigrated to the USA, together with her cousin, the Methodist preacher Philip Embury. The true founder of American Methodism, though Embury is sometimes incorrectly given this appellation, Mrs Heck was famous for her evangelizing enthusiasm. Angrily interrupting a game of cards being held by some neighbours, Heck persuaded Embury to return to preaching, which he had temorarily abandoned. Heck organized Embury’s first small congregation and this began the movement that would result in the first Methodist church being erected in any of the British colonies. With the coming of the revolution, the family remained loyal to the British. With her husband and three sons, Heck and other followers crossed the border into Canada, and established the earliest Methodist society in Canada (1778).

Heckmann, Marie – (1843 – 1890)
German pianist
Born Marie Hartwig in Greiz, she became the wife of the noted German violinist, Georg Julius Heckmann (1848 – 1891). Marie Heckmann died in Cologne, and her husband died in Scotland the following year.

Hecuba      see     Hekabe

Hedrick, Zelma Kathryn Elizabeth see Grayson, Kathryn

Hedwig     see   also    Jadwiga

Hedwig Capet (1) – (969 – after 1018)
Princess of France
Hedwig, sometimes called Avoie in the sources, was the eldest daughter of Hugh Capet, King of France (987 – 996), and his wife Adelaide of Poitiers, the daughter of William III (Guillaume) Tete d’ Etoupes, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou. She became the wife (996) of Rainer IV (Reginar) (c949 – 1013), Count of Hainault, to whom she bore children. The Genealogie Scriptoris Fusniacensis recorded Hedwig as the king’s daughter, referring to her as Hadivedem …. Comitissam Hainonensium (Hediwg, Countess of Hainault), whilst her brother, King Robert II, provided Hedwig with the towns of Couvrin, Fraisner, Nime, Eve, and Bens in Hainault as her dowry. The countess and her husband were named in the Gesta of the abbey of Gembloux as Comes Raginerus et Hathuidis coniux. Hedwig survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Hainault, and was living (1018) when a charter by the emperor Henry II to the Abbey of Florennes, referred to earlier donations made to the convent by Comitissa Hawidis, annuentibus filiis suis Comte Raginero et Lamberto. A charter of the Emperor Conrad II (1033) recalled the earlier donations of Comitissa Hadegundis, by which time she had apparently died. Her children were,

Hedwig Capet (2) (Adelaide) – (c1003 – 1079)
Princess of France
Princess Hedwig, sometimes called Avoie in the genealogical sources, was the second daughter of Robert II the Pious, King of France (987 – 1031), and his third wife Constance, the daughter of William II, Count of Provence, and the stepdaughter of Otto William of Burgundy, the titular King of Lombardy. The Chronici Hugonis Floriacensis called her Adelaidum, and recorded her marriage (1016) with Count Rainald of Burgundy (c987 – 1040), as did the chronicler Rodolfus Glaber, though he did not name her. The Historia Nivernensium Comitum mistakenly recorded that Rainald was married to the sister instead of the daughter of Robert II.
Her marriage with Count Rainald formed part of an alliance organized by the king with Count Landeric of Nevers. Landeric had captured the city of Auxerre, which the kig then gave to his daughter as her dowry. Her husband succeeded his father as Count Rainald I of Nevers (1028 – 1040) and Hedwig became countess consort. Rainald was killed in battle (May 29, 1040) at Sainte-Vertu, in battle against Hedwig’s own brother, Duke Robert I of Burgundy. One of her charters survives in which she called herself, Hadwidis. Hedwig survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Nevers for almost four decades (1040 – 1079), and founded the abbeys of Crisenon and Issenon. She was ancestress of the female line of the noble family of Courtenay, whose estates were later rejoined to the French crown through the marriage of one of her descendants, Agnes de Courtenay, the daughter of Count Raoul, with Prince Pierre Capet (1126 – 1183), the youngest son of Louis VI, King of France (1108 – 1137), who became Count of Courtenay by marriage. Princess Hedwig died (June 5, 1079) aged in her mid-seventies. Her children were,

Hedwig of Anhalt – (c1225 – 1259)
German duchess consort
Hedwig was the third surviving daughter of Heinrich I, Count of Anhalt and Aschersleben and his wife Irmengarde, the daughter of Hermann I, Landgrave of Thuringia. Her mother was sister-in-law to St Elizabeth of Hungary. Her parentage was recorded in the Cronica Principum Saxonie. Hedwig was married (1242) to Duke Boleslav II Rogatka (1225 – 1278) of Silesia-Liegnitz in Poland as his first wife and was duchess consort (1242 – 1259). Duchess Hedwig died (Dec 21, 1259) and was interred in the Dominican abbey at Liegnitz. Her death was recorded in the Epytaphium ducum Slezie which called her Hedwig uxor eiusdem ducis Bolezlai Legnitzensis filia comitis de Anhalt. She left seven children,

Hedwig of Bavaria – (948 – 994)
German duchess consort of Swabia (c969 – 973)
Hedwig was the second daughter of Henry I, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Judith, the daughter of Arnulf I the Bad, Duke of Bavaria. She was the granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry I the Fowler (919 – 936) and was niece to the Emperor Otto I the Great (962 – 973). In 949 Bishop Liudprand of Cremona was sent by Otto to the court of Constantinople to arrange a marriage between Princess Hedwig and the young widower Romanus II, the son of Constantine VIII. The marriage seems certainly to have been seriously intedned for Greek teachers and courtiers were sent to Germany in order to instruct the princess in Greek customs and religion, and those tutors were still at Otto’s court in 954. This alliance had been intended to provide support for a massive invasion of Crete by the Greeks with the backing of German forces. However this proposed alliance came to nothing and finally vanished entirely in 956 when Romanus defied his father and the council and took to wife his young mistress Theophano, the daughter of an inn-keeper.
Princess Hedwig eventually became the second wife (c969) of Burchard I (c911 – 973), Duke of Swabia. A woman of strong and determined character, pious and haughty by nature, her marriage cannot have been a contented one and there were no children. Duke Burchard died four years later and Hedwig survived him for two decades as the Dowager Duchess of Swabia (973 – 994). Despite her youth she never remarried. Duchess Hedwig died (Aug 28, 994).

Hedwig of Dagsburg – (c975 – 1046)
German noblewoman and papal matriarch
Hedwig was the elder daughter and heiress of Count Ludwig of Dagsburg and his wife Judith of Oeningen, the daughter of Count Kuno of Oeningen. Her sister Matilda of Dagsburg became the wife of Count Hermann of Verdun and left issue. Their stepfather was Count Adalbert II of Metz. She was married (c990) to Hugh IV (c971 – 1049), Count of Egisheim and became the Countess of Egisheim for over five decades (c990 – 1046). Hedwig is named in the Vitae Leonis as the mother of Pope Leo.
Hedwig brought the county and castle of Dagsburg, south west of the Saverne River in Alsace as her dowry, and united the county with that of Egisheim. She was ancestress of the last ruling countess Gertrude of Dagsburg (died 1225). Through her daughter Gertrude, Countess Hedwig was ancestress of St Margaret Aetheling (c1048 – 1093), Queen of Scotland and all of her descendants. Her children were,

Hedwig of Dillingen – (c937 – c970)
German mediaeval heiress
Hedwig was the daughter of Heinrich, Count of Aders, and his wife Adelaide, Countess of Monchenthal. She inherited the important fief of Dillingen, wheich resulted in her becoming the first wife (c952) of Count Hermann II Pusillus of Lorraine (c935 – c1001), who succeeded his father Erenfried II as Count of Zulpichgau (c966). Her children included Ezzo (955 – 1034), Count Palatine of Lorraine who married the Imperial princess Matilda of Saxony and left many descendants, Count Hezzelin of Zulpichgau (c959 – 1033) who left issue and Richenza of Zulpichgau (c970 – after 1049) who became Abbess of St Gertrude at Nivelles in Brabant.

Hedwig of Lorraine – (c999 – 1076)
German nun
Princess Hedwig was the second daughter of Ezzo, Count Palatine of the Rhine and his wife Princess Matilda of Saxony, the youngest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II (973 – 983). She was niece to the Emperor Otto III (983 – 1002) and sister to Archbishop Hermann of Cologne (Koln). Hedwig became a nun and was appointed as Abbess of Dietrichkirchen and Willich, founded by Bertha of Gueldres. Hedwig died (Sept 21, 1076).

Hedwig of Meran – (1174 – 1243) 
Polish abbess and saint
Princess Hedwig was born at Andechs, Bavaria, the daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Meran and his wife Agnes, the daughter of Dedo von Groitzsch, Count of Rochlitz. Whilst still a child she was placed in the convent of Kitzingen in Franconia, but left to marry (1186) Henry I of Silesia (c1175 – 1238) who later succeeded his father Boleslav I, as duke (1201). Hedwig and her husband did much to promote Christianity in Silesia. She persuaded her husband to found the Cistercian abbey for nuns at Treibnitz (Trzebnica), near Breslau.
After the birth of her seventh and last child (1208), the duchess and her husband took vows of chastity, and resided apart, the duchess at Treibnitz, where she cultivated the worship of her famous niece, St Elizabeth of Hungary (1207 – 1231). Her youngest daughter Gertrude eventually succeeded as abbess of Treibnitz, and was also regarded a saint. Duchess Hedwig died (May 14, 1243) at Treibnitz. Canonized a saint by Pope Clement IV (1267) and her feast was observed annually (Oct 16). Her children were,

Hedwig of Nordgau – (c942 – after 993)
Carolingian countess of Luxemburg
Countess Hedwig of Lahngau was the elder daughter of Eberhard IV, Count of Alsace and Nordgau (c910 – 973) and his first wife Bertha of Metz, and she became the wife (c959) of Siegfried I (c922 – 998), Count of Luxemburg (963 – 998) and became his countess consort. Hedwig bore Siegfried twelve children and died (Dec 13, after 993). A descendant of the Merovingian kings and of the Carolingian emperors, as was her husband, Hedwig became an important ancestress of most of the royal and aristocratic families of Europe.
Many genealogies call Hedwig the daughter of Eberhard by his second wife Luitgarde of Ardennegau, the widow firstly of Duke Eberhard of Lorraine, and secondly of Count Adalbert I of Metz, the daughter of Count Wigeric of Ardennegau. This identification has been accepted by many modern sources but if tru meant that Hedwig became the wife of her maternal uncle, as Siegfried was the younger brother of Countess Luitgarde. This marriage would not have been accepted as legal by the church and would certainly have been commented upon by contemporary sources, most of which were religious, but it was not. A more acceptable explanation is that Hedwig was not the daughter of Luitgarde but in fact her stepdaughter which would render her marriage with her step uncle Siegfried as perfectly canonical and acceptable to the clergy due to the lack of blood relationship between the prince and his bride. Her children were,

Hedwig of Saxony (1)(939 – 1014)
German princess and nun
Countess Hedwig was the daughter of Wichman I, Count of Saxony and his wife Frederuna of Westphalia, who was niece to the Empress Mathilda, the second wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich I the Fowler (919 – 936). She was married to Count Siegfried, the son of Gero, Margrave of Eastmark but was quickly left a childless widow. Hedwig never remarried and became a nun. She served for over five decades (959 – 1014) as Abbess of Gerhnroda. Abbess Hedwig died (June 4, 1014).

Hedwig of Saxony (2) – (1445 – 1511)
German princess and nun
Princess Hedwig was born (Oct 31, 1445), the daughter of Friedrich II (1412 – 1464), Elector of Saxony and his wife Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Ernst I of Austria (1377 – 1424), Duke of Styria and his second wife Zimburga of Masovia. She became a nun and at the age of twelve was appointed as Abbess of the Imperial abbey of Quedlinburg near the Harz Mountains. Hedwig ruled as abbess for over five decades (1458 – 1511).
The abbesses of Quedlinburg ranked amongst the princes of the empire and their only ecclesiastical superior was the pope. The town of Quedlinburg strove to maintain its autonomy from the ruling abbess and enlisted the aid of Bishop of Halberstadt to their cause. Eventually Abbess Hedwig forced the bishop to withdraw (1477) and for the next two centuries the abbey and the town of Quedlinburg remained under the protection of the elector of Saxony. Hedwig died in office (June 13, 1511) aged sixty-five, and was buried at Quedlinburg.

Hedwig Eleanora of Holstein-Gottorp – (1636 – 1715)
Queen consort and regent of Sweden
Princess Hedwig Eleanora was born (Oct 23, 1636) the fourth daughter of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1616 – 1659), and his wife Maria Amalia Elisabeth of Saxony, the daughter of Johann George I, Elector of Saxony. She was sister to Christian Albert (1641 – 1695), Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Her marriage (1654) with Charles X of Sweden was a political alliance destined to prevent the encroachment of Gottorp by Sweden. Widowed whilst still young (1660) the queen ruled as regent for their son Charles XI (1660 – 1672) until he came of age.
Neither particularly interested, or fitted for the control of affairs of state, Danish diplomats commented on her haughty demeanour, and in 1680 she opposed her son’s marriage with the Danish princess Ulrica Eleanora, but was granted precedence over her at court. The queen mother was instrumental in arranging the marriage of her granddaughter Hedwig Sophia with her own kinsman, the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (1692 – 1694).
With the death of Charles XI (1697) Hedwig Eleanora was one of the six regents appointed by him to rule for her grandson, Charles XII till 1697. A knowledgeable and passionate supporter of the arts, her chief occupation during her long widowhood (1660 – 1715) was the building and restoration of the royal palaces. She built Drottningholm and Stromsholm, and made improvements to Gripsholm and Ulriksdal castles, refurbishing them, designing new gardens, and collecting paintings, scuptures and other object d’art for them. There remains much evidence of her excellent taste and her ability to draw foreign craftsmen and artists to northern Europe. Some of her letters survive. Queen Hedwig Eleanora died (Nov 24, 1715) aged seventy-nine.

Hedwig Maria Immaculata Michaela Ignatia – (1896 – 1970)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Hedwig of Austria was born at Bad Ischl (Sept 24, 1896), the daughter of Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria-Tuscany, and his wife Marie Valerie, the youngest daughter of the Emperor Franz Josef (1848 – 1916) and Elisabeth of Bavaria, the daughter of Maximilian Joseph, Duke in Bavaria. She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia, and Princess of Tuscany. Archduchess Hedwig was married at Wallsee Castle (April 24, 1918) to Count Bernhard von Stolberg-Stolberg (1881 – 1952). Widowed at Halle in Tyrol (Sept 22, 1952), she was Dowager Countess von Stolberg-Stolberg for eighteen years (1952 – 1970). The archduchess died (Nov 1, 1970) aged seventy-four, at Halle. She had born her husband nine children,

Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg – (1623 – 1683)
German landgravine and ruler
Princess Hedwig Sophia was born (July 14, 1623) the younger daughter of George Wilhelm, Margrave of Brandenburg (1619 – 1640), and his wife Charlotte Elisabeth of the Palatine-Rhine, the daughter of Friedrich IV, Elector of the Palatinate. She was the sister of Friedrich Wilhelm the Great Elector (1640 – 1688) and paternal aunt to Friedrich I, King of Prussia. Hedwig Sophia was married (1649) to Landgrave Wilhelm VI of Hesse-Kassel (1649 – 1663) and became his landgravine consort. She bore Wilhelm six children. With the early death of her husband, the electress ruled for six years as regent (1663 – 1669) for her eldest son William VII (1663 – 1670) who died without issue and was succeeded by his next brother Karl (1670 – 1730).
Her elder daughter Charlotte Amalia became the wife of Christian V, King of Denmark and the landgravine was a visitor to the Danish court in Copenhagen. She once attempted to ontercede on behalf of the famous prisoner Leonora Christina, half-sister to King Frederik III, with her son-in-law. She had paid the lady a secret visit in the Blue Tower and had been moved to compassion by the harsh state of her confinement. Hedwig Sophia had made a wager with her son-in-law that if Queen Charlotte Amalia’s first born child proved to be a son, he would order Leonora Christina to be released from her captivity. The landgravine won her part of the wager as the queen’s child did indeed prove to be a son, the future Frederik IV (1671) but when she attempted to hold the king to his part of the bargain at the child’s christening in Copenhagen, Leonora Christina’s implacable enemy the Dowager Queen Sophia Amalia, the king’s mother arrived for the ceremony. When she realized what was afoot she threatened to retire from the court immediately if Christian carried through with his part of the wager. The two ladies quarreled bitterly concerning the matter in front of the king and the assembled courtiers but the princess remained a captive until the queen mother’s death (1685). The electress dowager died aged fifty-nine (June 16, 1683). Her six children were,

Hedyto – (fl. c430 – c420 BC)
Greek matron
Hedyto was the wife of Theodorus, a wealthy Athenian merchant. Her five children included the famous philosopher and rhetorician Isokrates.

Heelis, Helen Beatrix     see    Potter, Beatrix

Hegesipyle – (fl. c510 – c480 BC)
Thracian princess
Hegesipyle was the daughter of King Olorus of Thrace. She became the second wife of Miltiades (c550 –489 BC), the prominent Athenian nobleman of the Philaidae family. She was mother of the famous statesman and soldier, Cimon (c507 – 449 BC). Cimon’s sister Elpinike, the wife of Kallias, was her stapdaughter. Princess Hegesipyle left two daughters whose names remain unknown. One was married to Thucydides, son of Melesias, whilst the other was the mother of Olorus and grandmother of the famous historian Thucydides (c460 - c399–BC), who inherited gold mines in Thrace due to his descent from a princess of the royal house.

Heiberg, Johanne Luise – (1812 – 1890)
Danish stage actress and author
Born Johanne Paetges in Copenhagen (Nov 22, 1812), she made her stage debut in 1826 and became the most famous contemporary actress to be employed by the Royal Theatre until her retirement almost four decades later (1864). She became the wife (1831) of the poet and critic, John Ludvig Heiberg (1791 – 1860), who later became the director of the National Theatre (1847). Johanne Heiberg became famous after appearances in plays she had written such as En Sontag paa Amager (A Sunday on the Amager) (1848) and Abekatten (The Monkey) (1849), very popular vaudeville pieces which were modelled on those from the French theatre. Her best known work was her defense of her husband’s career entitled Et Liv, Gjienoplevet i Erindringen I – IV (A Life, Relived in Memory) (1855 – 1885). She survived her husband thirty years and left her own memoirs. Johanne Heiberg died (Dec 21, 1890) aged seventy-eight, in Copenhagen.

Heiberg, Thomasine Christine   see   Gyllembourg, Baroness

Heighway, Frieda Ruth  see  Abbie, Ruth Heighway

Heikel, Karin Alice    see   Vala, Katri

Heilbron, Dame Rose – (1914 – 2005)
British defence barrister and judge
Heilbron was born (Aug, 1914) in Liverpool, Lancashire, the daughter of a Jewish hotel keeper. Rose attended Liverpool University and then won a scholarship to Gray’s Inn (1936). She was married (1945) to Nathaniel Burstein, a physician. Rose Heilbron was called to the bar (1939) and was appointed Queen’s Council (QC) a decade afterwards (1949), and then Recorder of Burnely (1956 – 1974), becoming the first woman to hold that office. She was appointed a judge of the Family Division of the High Court (1974), being only the second woman called to serve on the High Court. Heilbronn was chairwoman of the Sdvisory Group on Rape established by the Home Secretary (1975) and was a presiding judge on the Northern Circuit (1979 – 1982). She retired in 1988. Dame Rose Heilbronn died aged ninety-one.

Heilbronn, Adelaide – (1892 – 1974)
American screenwriter
Heilbronn was born in Seattle, Washington. Heilbronn wrote or collaborated on well over two dozen film scripts in a twenty-five year Hollywood career. Her earliest film credits included At the End of the World (1921), Women Men Marry (1922) and, The Danger Point (1923). These were followed by, Lilies of the Field (1924), A Son of the Sahara (1924), The Dressmaker from Paris (1925) for which she wrote the story, as she did for French Dressing (1927) and It’s All Yours (1937). Heilbronn wrote adaptations of scripts for films such as The Girl of the Golden West (1925), Madamoiselle Modiste (1926), No Place to Go (1927), The Butter and the Egg Man (1928) and Captain Swagger (1928). Heilbronn’s later film credits included Little Johnny Jones (1929), My Sin (1931), Cheers for Miss Bishop (1941) and Friendly Enemies (1942). She wrote additional dialogue for the film Faces in the Fog (1944) and retired. Adelaide Heilbronn died (March, 1974) aged eighty-one, in Washington.

Heiliwich of Friuli (Heilwig) – (c857 – 936)
Carolingian noblewoman
Heiliwich was the youngest daughter of Duke Eberhard of Friuli and his wife Gisela of Neustria, the daughter of Emperor Louis I the Pious (816 – 840), and thus the great-granddaughter of the Emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814). The joint will of her parents (860) mentions Heiliwich as one of eberhard and Gisela’s daughters. She was married firstly (c872) to Count Hucbald of Ostrevant, and a surviving letter of Archbishop Fulk of Rheims refers to Hucbald as the brother-in-law of Abbot Raoul (Ralph) of St Vaast, Heiliwich’s brother. Hucbald may have received the county of Ostrevant at the time of the marriage, to seal his loyalty to the Imperial dynasty.
Well educated, Heiliwich inherited property and estates from her parents as well as several books including a psalter with prayers. By Hucbald she was the mother of Raoul II de Gouy (c874 – 926), Count of Amiens and Valois who left descendants. The historian Flodoard confirms this relationship by recording that Raoul was the son of Heiliwich and stepson of Roger of Laon. Widowed prior to 895 the countess was remarried to Count Roger of Laon. The union proved to be brief and Roger died in 898, but she bore him two children, Count Roger II of Laon (c898 – 942) who left descendants and an unnamed daughter who was married before 924 to Rainald, Count of Bar-sur-Seine and Vicomte of Auxerre. Heiliwich survived her second marriage by almost forty years.

Heilsbach, Agnes von – (1597 – 1640)
Flemish Catholic mystic
A native of the city of Roermond, Agnes did not take religious vows but lived as a laywoman outside the Abbey of Roermond, under the religious guidance of the Jesuit fathers. She left a written description of her mystical visions and religious experiences.

Heilwig     see also     Hedwig

Heinel, Anne – (1753 – 1808)
German dancer
Heinel was born in Bayreuth, and made her stage debut at the Duke of Wurttemburg’s theatre in Stuttgart. She studied dancing under Jean-George Noverre. Anne Heinel died in Paris.

Heinze, Sarah – (1836 – 1901)
Swedish-German pianist
Born Sarah Magnus in Stockholm, she trained as a pianist from childhood. She then studied under masters such as Theodor Kullak (1818 – 1882), Alexander Dreyschock (1818 – 1869), and Franz Liszt. Sarah later married the German musician, Gustav Adolf Heinze (1820 – 1904), who was clarinettist with the Gewandhaus Orchestra. Heinze collaborated with her husband on two operatic works for which she wrote the libretti. With her husband’s death she remained in Dresden in Saxony. Sarah Heinze died (Jan 27, 1901) aged sixty-four, in Dresden. 

Hekabe – (c1240 – c1184 BC)
Greek queen
In Homer’s classic Iliad, she was the daughter of Kisseus, King of Thrace, though Dymas, King of Phrygia has also been cited as her father. She became the second wife of Priam, King of Troy, after the death of his first wife, Queen Arisbe. Queen Hekabe became the mother of many children, including the hero Hektor, and the villain Paris. She was the mother of Kassandra and Polyxena, and mother-in-law to Helen of Troy. She survived the sack of the city, her husband being killed before her eyes. She was carried into captivity by the Greeks, having fallen to the lot of Odysseus, King of Ithaka. Hekabe did not long survive, and is said to have either been killed by her captors for abusing them, or having thrown herself into the sea, whilst according to myth, she was changed into a dog, the place Cynos Sema getting its name from her tomb. In the Iliad Queen Hekabe is a stately and pathetic figure, though she figures more prominently in the tragedy by Euripides.

Hekenuhedjet – (fl. c2450 – c2420 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Hekenuhedjet was one of the four wives of King Khafre, of the IVth Dynasty (2520 – 2392 BC), and was stepmother to King Menkaure. She was the mother of Prince Sekhemkhare, and is attested by a surviving inscription from her son’s rock tomb at Giza, which refers to her as ‘King’s Wife.’ Hekenuhedjet is also depicted with her son on reliefs.

Helbirga    see    Gerberga of Austria

Helburn, Theresa – (1887 – 1959)
American dramatist and theatrical producer
Theresa Helburn was born (Jan 12, 1887) in New York, the daughter of German immigrants her father being a leather manufacturer in Salem, Massachusetts. She was raised and educated by her mother in New York and then studied in Boston before attending Bryn Mawr College. She then studied dramatic writing under George Pierce Baker at Radcliffe College. Helburn joined the Poetry Society of America and published short stories and verse. Together with British born Lawrence Langner Helburn established the Washington Square Players which evolved into the Theatre Guild (1918), which she served for three decades as the executive secretary and then executive director.
Her first play Enter the Hero (1916) which starred Edna St Vincent Millay proved unsuccessful. Others were performed but community theatre groups but none proved overtly successful. Helburn worked briefly as an adviser and producer for Columbia Pictures (1934 – 1935) but she returned to the theatre which was her true medium and vocation, and established the Bureau of New Plays in New York. The Theatre Guild produced The Philadelphia Story (1939) which proved a financial success and she then managed to get Richard Rodgers and and Oscar Hammersetin II to rewrite the play Green Grow the Lilacs by Lynn Riggs as a musical, and the result was the classic Oklahoma! When the state of Oklahoma officially adopted the show, the Indians of the Kiowa tribe honored Theresa Helburn as ‘Little Lady Who Sees Far.’ Helburn later fought against the censorship of the plays Strange Interlude and A Moon for the Misbegotten. Theresa Helburn died (Aug 18, 1959) aged seventy-two, in Weston, Connecticut.

Held, Anna – (1873 – 1918)
Polish-American stage actress and vocalist
Anna Held was raised in Paris. With the death of her parents in Warsaw, Anna joined a travelling acting troupe, and eventually joined a comedy house in Paris, where she established herself as a commedienne of some considerable talent. Her shows in London produced the percieved British idea of French ‘naughtiness’ to the point of satire, and she rose to become an acknowledged star of the stage there. She then went to the USA, where she worked in New York, and became the wife (1897) of Florenz Zisgfeld (1869 – 1932). She was said to have been the inspiration behind her husband’s establishment of the Ziegfeld Follies, but the couple were later divorced.

Heldburg, Ellen Franz, Baroness von – (1839 – 1923)
German courtier
Born Hermine Helena Maria Augusta Franz at Naumburg, she was the daughter of Hermann Franz and his wife Sarah Grant. Ellen attended the court of Duke George II of Saxe-Meiningen (1866 – 1914), whose mistress she became. With the death of his second wife, the Duchess Feodora (1872) he married Ellen morganatically (1873) and she was granted the Saxon title of Baroness von Heldburg. They remained childless. With her husband’s death (1914) she retired from the court of Meiningen. The baroness survived the collapse of the ruling dynasty (1918). Baroness von Heldburg died (March 24, 1923) aged eighty-three, at Meiningen.

Heldy, Fanny – (1888 – 1973)
Belgian lyric soprano
Born Margeurite Virginie Emma Clementine Deceuninck (Feb 29, 1888) at Liege, in Hainault, she was trianed at the Liege Conservatoire, and made her stage debut at the premiere of Ivan the Terrible, by Raoul Gunsbourg (1910). Heldy performed at Monte Carlo before appearing at the Opera Comique in Paris as Violetta in La Traviata (1917), and at the Paris Opera as Juliette in Charles Gounod’s Romeo et Juliette. She appeared in the title role of Jules Massenet’s opera Escarlamonde (1923), and made what was possibly the first ever recording of the opera Manon, being conducted by Henri Busser (1923). Heldy was an internationally famous soprano, and appeared in London and at La Scala in Milan, with enormous success, and appeared in the film, Opera de Paris (1936). She retired in 1939, and resided therafter at her chateau south of Paris. Fanny Heldy died (Dec 13, 1973) aged eighty-five, in Paris.

Heleburga – (fl. c1100 – 1133)
German religious patron
Her parentage remains unknown, but Heleburga became the wife of Erwin I of Gleichen, count in Thuringia, to whom she bore four children. Erwin later became a monk at the abbey of Reinhardsbrun (1116). At the time of her husband’s retirement from public life the Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis recorded that Heleburga and her husband made substantial donations to the abbey. The countess later founded the Abbey of Volkenrode (1130) where she eventually retired herself and became a nun. Heleburga was buried at Volkenrode.

Heledd – (fl. c660 – 680)
Welsh poet
Heledd was the sister of Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn, chief of Pengwern in eastern Powys, who was killed in battle in 655, against the forces of Oswy, King of Northumbria, as were her other brothers, Cynon, Gwiawyn, and Gwyn. Tradition records that Heledd, moved by the destruction of her brother’s court at Shrewsbury, and its subsequent settlement by Anglo-Saxons, was moved to writer a poem, which has survived, in the course of which she laments the destruction of her home. Some anthologists have attributed this poem to an unknown writer, but it appears to be the only poem in existence attributed to this lady.

Helen, Aelia (Elen) – (c345 – after 388 AD)
Roman Augusta in Britain (383 – 388 AD)
Aelia Helen was the daughter of Octavius, Duke of Gwent (dux Gewissi) in South Wales. She was wife to the usurper Emperor Magnus Maximus, and was mother of his son and co-emperor, Flavius Victor. Her husband and son was captured and killed by Arbogast at Aquileia in Italy (388 AD), and Helen retired with her daughters to Britain. Emperor Theodosius made provision for her and her family, and the British citizens who had lost by the war were provided with compensation.
In ancient legend she has become much confused with the more famous Empress Helena, the mother of Constantine, long wrongly claimed to be of British birth. In Welsh legend the empress Helen is called ‘Elen Luyddog’ or’ Helen of the Hosts,’ patroness of the highways of Britain where the troops marched, a poetic symbol of the dignity of Britain. Elen, as the Welsh called her, is remembered by a chapel dedicated to her at Caernarvon, and by the literary classic ‘The Dream of Macsen Wledig’ (Prince Maximus), a prose romance taken from the thirteenth century collection of tales in the Mabinogian. Her daughter Severa Maxima was first wife of the British king Vortigern (c386 – c461 AD), and the mother of his children.

Helen of Greece – (1896 – 1982)
Queen mother and regent of Romania
Princess Helen was born (May 2, 1896) in Athens, the third child of Konstantinos I, King of Greece, and his wife Sophia, daughter of the German Emperor Friedrich III, and was sister to Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888 – 1918). Through her mother she was the great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, and she was the sister of three Greek kings, Georgios II, Alexandros I, and Pavlos I. Helen became the first wife (1921) of Crown Prince Carol of Romania (1893 – 1953) and became the mother of the future King Mikhail I (born 1923). The Romanians called her Elena.
The marriage remained unhappy due to Carol’s notorious liasion with his mistress Magda Lupescu, and he and Princess Elena were later divorced (1928). Later, when King Carol II abdicated in favour of Mikhail, Helen was accorded the rank and style of Queen Mother of Romania (1940 – 1947). With the fall of the monarchy to the Communists Queen Helen went into exile in Switzerland. Queen Helen died (Nov 28, 1982) aged eighty-six, at Lausanne.

Helen of Troy – (fl. c1200 – c1184 BC)
Greek semi-legendary figure
According to mythology, Helen was the daughter of Zeus, disguised as a swan, and of Leda, the daughter of Tyndarus, King of Sparta. She was sister to Klytaemnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, King of Mykenae. Helen was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, and is specifically remembered, for both her extraordinary beauty, and for her part in the two decade long Trojan War (c1215 – c1194 BC), which led to the eventually victorious Greek sacking the city after using the ruse of the wooden horse to gain admittance. Meneluas took Helen back to Sparta, despite the facts that some Greeks wanted her put to death, and she remained his consort. They were buried together at Therapnae in Lakonia. Many variations of her life story abound. Helen was worshipped as the goddess of beauty at Therapnae, where a festival was held in her honour. At Rhodes she was worshipped under the name of the tree goddess, Dendritis, where the inhabitants built a temple in her honour.
The fusion between epic heroine Helen and the goddess Helen is a tangled mess, which has resisted all attempts to unravel by historians. Her chief appearances in art from the sixth century are, her abduction by Theseus, and her wedding to Menelaus, sometimes depicted menacing her with a drawn sword. On some late fifth century and fourth century vases we find her hatching from an egg (the mythological version of her birth), and the painter Agorrakritus portrayed her on the base of his statue of the deity Nemesis at Rhamus, being presented by Nemesis to her mother, Leda. In the film Trojan Women (1971) she was portrayed by Greek actress Irene Papas, appearing with Vanessa Redgrave as Andromakeia, Katharine Hepburn as Hekabe, and Genevieve Bujold as Kassandra.

Helena     see also     Jelena   and   Ilona

Helena, Flavia Constantina (St Helena) – (c255 – 330 AD) 
Roman Augusta (312 – 330 AD)
Flavia Constantina Helena was born at Drepanum in Bithynia, Asia Minor, the daugher of an inn-keeper. She was said to have worked as a barmaid before she became the first wife or mistress of the Emperor Constantius I Chlorus (245 – 306 AD) and was mother to the famous Emperor Constantine I the Great (272 – 337 AD). Helena accompanied her husband to Dalmatia when he was appointed governor (277 – 284 AD) but he later divorced her (292 AD) in order to make a political marriage with Theodora, the stepdaughter of the Emperor Maximian II Daia. Helena retired to live at Trier in obscurity.
Helena apparently became a Christian early during her life, but she was not actually baptised until after her son defeated the emperor Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 AD). When her son ascended the Imperial throne Helena was brought to Rome from Trier and was installed as Empress Dowager. She accompanied Constantine and his wife Fausta on their progress to Rome (326 AD), where she resided in the Sessorian Palace and became friendly with Pope Sylvester I. Soon afterwards Helena was rather vaguely involved in the death of the Empress Fausta, who had caused her favourite grandson, Crispus Caesar, to be killed on a spurious charge. Fausta was murdered in her bath, and her mother Theodora died mysteriously around the same time. According to ancient tradition the empress made a pilgrimage to Palestine where she resided with the nuns at Mt Zion, and is said to have discovered the site of Christ’s tomb and several pieces of the cross on which he was crucified, which fact was testified by St Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, whilst this discovery forms the theme of the famous poem Elene by the ninth century Anglo-Saxon poet Cynewulf. Eusebius recorded that she built two basilicas in Palestine, the Eleana on the Mount of Olives, and one in Bethlehem. Constantine caused the city of Drepanum to be renamed Helenapolis in her honour, and had the body of Lucian of Antioch, her favourite saint, to be entombed there.
Empress Helena died (Aug 18, 330 AD) aged about seventy-five, in the Sessorian Palace. She was interred in Rome in a porphyry coffin until the reign of Pope Urban VIII when the empress was reburied in the Church of Ara Coeli, where she lies today. The church canonized her as a saint and observed her feast (Aug 18). The Atlantic Ocean island of St Helena, famous as the place of captivity and death of the Emperor Napoleon I, was named so because it was discovered on her feast day. The Norman historian Geoffrey of Monmouth’s claim that Helena was of British origin, the daughter of the Old King Coel of the nursery rhyme, believed for many centuries, is nothing but a colourful legend, but nonetheless led to her popularity in England and the establishment of over one hundred and thirty churches dedicated to her.
The empress was attested on the coinage, a gold double solidus, issued at Ticinum (325 AD) has a bust of Helena on the obverse with the legend, FL HELENA AVGVSTA, whilst the reverse bears the legend, SECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE, and shows the figure of Securitas holding a branch in her right hands. A bronze medallion issued in Rome (325 AD) has the legend, FLAVIA AELENA AVGVSTA with a portrait on the obverse, whilst the reverse bears the legend, PIETAS AVGVSTES, and shows the figure of Pietas standing, holding a child on her left arm, and holding an apple to a child in front of her.

Helena, Flavia Julia – (321 – 360)
Roman Augusta (360 AD)
Flavia Julia Helena was the second daughter of the Emperor Constantine I the Great (306 – 337 AD), and of his second wife Fausta, the daughter of Emperor Maximian II. She was the granddaughter of St Helena (c255 – 330 AD). Her marriage with the future Emperor Julian the Apostate (331 – 363 AD) in 355 AD, was arranged by the Empress Eusebia. After the wedding the couple resided in Gaul, but the historian Ammianus recorded that the ten year age difference di not make the marriage a congenial one to either party, and in her husband’s autobiographical writings, Helena is barely mentioned.
Ammianus recorded that Helena was pregnant in 359 AD, but that Eusebia, out of jealousy, sent a woman to destroy the child, under pretext of attending her. When Julian was proclaimed emperor (Feb, 360 AD), Helena was accorded the rank of Augusta. There remain extant coins that bear the names of Julian and Helena, together with the figures of the deities, Isis and Serapis. Empress Helena died (Dec, 360 AD) aged thirty-nine. She was buried in Rome with her elder sister, the Empress Constantina. According to the historian Zonaras she died in childbirth.

Helena Dejanovica – (1374 – 1450)
Byzantine Augusta (1392 – 1425)
Princess Jelena Dejanovica of Serbia was the daughter of Constantine Dejanovic (died 1395), Prince of Serbia, and was better known to Greek history as ‘Helena Dragases.’ She was brought to Constantinople as the bride (1392) of the Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus (1350 – 1425). They were married and formally crowned together the next day (Feb 11, 1392), and their first child Prince Johannes, a healthy son and heir, was born ten months afterwards, amidst general rejoicing. Six other children followed, all sons
The Emperor Manuel appears to have been quite devoted to his wife, and chroniclers could only mention illegitimate children that were fathered prior to his marriage. The empress’s father Constantine was killed at the battle of Rovine (May, 1395) in the conflict between the Sultan Bayazid of Turkey and Prince Mircea of Wallachia. Several months afterwards the emperor and empress made grants to the monastery of St John the Baptist at Petra in Constantine’s memory. During the emperor’s absence in Europe (1399 – 1403) Empress Helena and her children resided at the court of the emperor’s brother Theodore in the Morea on the Peloponessus. Helena and Manuel later travelled to the Morea and then to Thessalonika (1408) where their son Andronikos was installed as depot.
With Manuels’death (1425) the Empress Dowager took a vow of chastity and took the religious name of Hypomene. Despite this she remained a prominent and respected figure at the Imperial court of her son Johannes VIII. With her son’s return to Byzantium (Feb, 1440) after a long abscence in Italy, it was the Empress Helena who broke the news to him of the death of his wife the Empress Maria (1439). The empress mother was present at Johannes’s deathbed (Oct, 1448) and when her son Demetrius attempted to seize the throne in the place of the rightful heir, his elder brother Constantine XI, she prevented any coup in his favour by quickly sending warning to Constantine in the Morea. Helena then maintained support for Constantine in the capital and acted as unofficial regent till the new emperor could arrive in Constantinople (1449). Soon afterwards the Dowager Empress presided over a public ceremony in which the Emperor Constantine’s brother Demetrius and Thomas swore their loyalty to him, in an effort to unite the Imperial family and preserved the deteriorating eastern empire.
The Emperor Constantine XI appears to have been Helena’s favourite son and her last years were spent as his close adviser and confidante. Empress Helena died (March 23, 1450) aged seventy-five, in Constantinople and was interred beside Manuel in the Church of St Saviour Pantokrator. Their tombs were later destroyed. the emperor’s grief and dependence on his mother is revealed in a surviving letter he wrote to the chronicler Georgios Sphrantzes when he stated ‘since you have gone abroad my mother has died … There is no-one here with whom I can hold counsel: everyone looks solely to one party or another and would betray to others whatever I might confide to him.’ Helena’s children were,

Helena Dukaina Angela – (1242 – 1271)
Queen consort of Sicily (1259 – 1266)
Princess Helena Dukaina was of Imperial Byzantine birth, being born at Arta, the daughter of Michael II Komnenus Dukas, Despot of Epirus, and his wife Theodora Petralipha (St Theodora of Arta). Helena was the heiress of the island of Corfu. She was married (1259) at the Cathedral of Trani, in Apulia, to Manfred von Hohenstaufen (1232 – 1266), King of Sicily, as his second wife, in a dynastic alliance intended to protect the interests of the Dukas family in Epirus. She was famous for her beauty and elegance of manner, despite her youth. Helena’s dowry included vitally important estates and fiefs in Epirus and Albania, which encouraged Manfred’s precarious hold on various possessions in Sicily. This alliance was strengthened by the later marriage of Helena’s younger sister Anna with Guillaume de Villhardouin, Despot of Thessaly.
With Manfred’s fall and death, Queen Helena and her children were captured and imprisoned, an attempt to flee Trani by ship being scotched by foul weather. She remained at Trani for a period, until she was taken to the court of Charles I of Naples at Lago Pesole in Basilicata. Queen Helena remained in captivity for the remainder of her short life, though she was otherwise treated with the respect due to her rank, and was permitted the use of her own possessions, jewellery, and servants in a reduced court. Originally seperated from her children, the queen was later removed to the strongly fortified Castle of Nocera in Campania (1266) where her daughter Beatrice was permitted to be with her, but Helena never saw her sons again. Charles later briefly considered marrying Helena to the Infante Enrique of Castile, for financial and political motives, but he was later captured at Taglicozzo and imprisoned (1268) which brought an end to that proposal. Queen Helena died (Feb or March, 1271) aged twenty-eight, at Nocera.

Helena Lekapena (1) – (915 – 961)
Byzantine Augusta (944 – 959)
The daughter of the Emperor Christopher Lekapenus (921 – 931) and his wife Sophia Niketaina, Helena was the paternal granddaughter of the Emperor Romanus I Lekapenus (919 – 944). She was married as a child (919) to Constantine VII Porphyrogennitus (905 – 959) the son of the Emperor Leo VI, who ruled with her father (919 – 944) on the Byzantine throne until 944 when Constantine deposed Romanus and forced him to retire to a monastery, and took full control of the government.
When her brothers plotted to usurp the Imperial throne Helena revealed their treason and caused them to be exiled. The contemporary belief that Empress Helena was an inveterate intriguer who gained detrimental control over her husband is now believed to be grossly exaggerated. Helena survived her husband as Empress Dowager (959 – 961) but retired to a convent soon afterwards, her daughters being forced to accompany her at the insistence of their brother Romanus II, to remove their influence from the court. Helena died (Sept 19, 961) aged forty-six. Helena’s six children were,

Helena Lekapena (2) – (c922 – 940)
Byzantine Augusta (939 – 940)
Helena was the daughter of Adrian, a patrician of Armenian origins. She was married (939) in Constantinople to Constantine VIII Lekapenus (c915 – 946), joint Emperor of Byzantium (924 – 945). Helena was procalaimed Augusta but died in childbirth (Feb, 940). The child did not survive.

Helena of Adiabene – (c20 BC – 55 AD)
Queen and Jewish convert
Helena was the sister wife of King Monobazus of Adiabene in the Middle East. With the death of her husband (c29 AD), their son Izates became king (c29 – 54 AD). She and her son were converted to Judaism and travelled to the temple in Jersualem to worship. The city being stricken at this time by a debilitating famine, Helena used her considerable inancial resources to alleviate the sufferring, sending to Alexandria and Cyprus to provide food supplies for the city’s inhabitants. A friend to the family of Herod II, she resided in Jerusalem for over two decades (c30 – 54 AD), becoming a proselyte of the Jewish faith. Upon learning of her son’s death Queen Helena returned to the court of Adiabene, but died soon after her arrival there. She and her son were both interred near the city of Jerusalem in famous surviving pyramid structures, which were noticed in antiquity by Eusebius and Pausanias.

Helena of Andsevatsi – (fl. c900 – c920)
Armenian princess
Helena was the widow of an unidentified Prince of Andsevatsi prior to becoming the wife of Gurgen Artsruni (born 882), reigning Prince of Vaspurakan, a cadet member of the powerful Artsrunid dynasty, being the younger son of Prince Grigor-Derenik Artsruni. She brought the principality of Andsevatsi to her her sond husband by whom she was the mother of Adom Artsruni who was the reigning Grand Ishkhan (prince) of Andsevatsi.

Helena of Brunswick – (1230 – 1273)
German duchess
Princess Helena was born (March 18, 1230), the second daughter of Otto I the Infant, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (1235 – 1252) and his wife Matilda of Brandenburg, the daughter of Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg. She and her sister were recorded in order of birth by the Cronica Principium Saxonie. Her first marriage (1239) with Hermann II (1223 – 1241), Landgrave of Thuringia, the son of St Elizabeth of Hungary, was recorded by the Annales Stadenses and the Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis.
Widowed at Kreuzberg (1241) when her husband was murdered by his uncle Heinrich Raspe, the youthful Helena was eventually remarried (1247) to Albert I (c1178 – 1261), Duke of Saxony, as his third wife. She survived Albert as the Dowager Duchess of Saxony (1261 – 1273). Helena was the founder of the Franciscan convent at Wittenberg and through her eldest son she was the ancestress of the later ducal dynasty of Saxe-Lauenburg. She may have ruled briefly as regent for her eldest son (1261 – 1264). Duchess Helena died (Sept 6, 1273) aged fifty-three, and was interred with the Franciscans. Her three children were,

Helena of Iberia – (fl. c520 – c550)
Queen consort
Queen Helena was the wife of Vakhtang I Gorgasal (Gurgenes) of Iberia, and was the mother of his sons Mihrdat and Leo. Contemporary chroniclers  referred to her as ‘the emperor’s daughter’ and Helena is belived to have been related to an emperor of Byzantium, perhaps Anastasius I (491 AD – 518). Helena was the grandmother of Guaram I, King of Iberia (588 – c602) and the great-grandmother of King Stephanus I (c602 – 627).

Helena of Serbia – (1884 – 1962)
Balkan princess
Born Princess Jelena Karageorgievna at Rijeka in Serbia (Nov 4, 1884), she was the eldest, and only surviving daughter of Peter I, King of Serbia (1903 – 1920), and his wife Zorka, the daughter of Nicholas I, King of Montenegro. Princess Helena was married in Russia at the Peterhof Palace in Moscow (1911) to Prince Ivan Romanov (1886 – 1918), a cousin to Tsar Nicholas II (1894 – 1917). He was later murdered by Bolsheviks (July 18, 1918) at Alapayesvk in Siberia, one of his companions being the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna (Ella), the sister the Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. Princess Helena died (Oct 16, 1962) at Nice in France, aged seventy-seven.

Helena of Skovde    see    Elin of Skovde

Helena of Teck   see  Gibbs, Helena Frances Augusta Cambridge, Lady

Helena Palaeologina – (1442 – 1470)
Byzantine Imperial princess
Helena was the only child of Demetrius Palaeologus, Emperor of the Morea and his wife Zoe Asen, a princess of Bulgaria. She was niece to the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI (1425 – 1453) and was his heiress. With the fall of Constantinople (May, 1453) Helena was captured with her household but remained unharmed. As the Greeks considered the heiress to the Imperiasl throne she was officially relegated to the harem of the Turkish sultan Mehmet II and was carried into captivity. Helena appears to have preserved her virginity and was treated with respect by the Sultan who eventually permitted her to reside with her own household in a private residence in Adrianople, rather than forced to endure the seclusion of the harem, and was provided with an income suitable to her Imperial rank. She remained unmarried and at her death she left her Imperial robes to the Byzantine patriarchate. Her death was the subject of a Monodia or grieving panegyric recorded by the historian Lambros.

Helena Pavlovna – (1784 – 1803)
Russian Romanov grand duchess
Grand Duchess Helena was born (Dec 24, 1784) in St Petersburg, the daughter of Tsar Paul I (1796 – 1801) and his second wife Maria Feodorovna (born Sophia Dorothea of Wurttemburg).
Helena was the granddaughter of Peter II (1762) and Catherine II the Great (1762 – 1796) and was sister to tsars Alexander I (1801 – 1825) and Nicholas I (1825 – 1855). Grand Duchess Helena was married (1799) to Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1778 – 1819), the eldest son and heir, of Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I (1815 – 1837), as his first wife. Her husband twice remarried, but predeceased his father. Grand Duchess Helena died (Sept 24, 1803) aged nineteen, at Ludwigslust in Germany, having never properly recovered from the birth of her second child. Her children were,

Helena Zrinyi   see   Ilona Zrinyi

Helena Augusta Victoria – (1846 – 1923)
British princess
Princess Helena was born (May 25, 1846) at Buckingham Palace, London, the third daughter of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort, Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Called ‘Lenchen’ within the family, she was younger sister to the Empress Frederick and King Edward VII (1901 – 1910).  She was raised carefully but simply, her education supervised by Lady Caroline Barrington. Princess Helena was married (1866), due to the wishes of her late father, to the Prussian born Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831 – 1917), the brother of that Duke Friedrich whose claim to the duchies of Sonderburg and Holstein had been pressed by the smaller German states in Denmark and the Prussia-Austria alliance with disastrous results for himself. Queen Victoria had also been desirous that her daughter should take a husband who would be content to reside in England. The ceremony took place at the Private chapel at Windsor Castle, in Berkshire. She had not wanted the marriage, but used the opportunity to escape her mother’s depressive widowhood. She was granted a dowry and an annuity by Parliament and the couple resided at Frogmore and at Cumberland Lodge.
Known in society as ‘HRH the Princess Christian’ during the Franco-Prussian War she worked on behalf of the London Committee for Aid to the Sick and Wounded, and then founded the Royal School of Needlework in Sloane Street, London (1872). Queen Victoria became a patron of the school which was later moved to Exhibition Road (1875). With her sister-in-law Princess Alexandra of Wales, Helena began the profession of bazarr opening for royal ladies. With her mother’s death (1901) Helena retired from public to domestic life. She was widowed in 1917. Her eldest son Prince Christian Victor was killed in action during the Boer War. A selection of the letters of her favourite sister Alice to their mother formed the basis of the Memoir (1889) published in memory of her beloved sister. Princess Christian died (June 9, 1923) aged seventy-seven, at Schomberg House, Pall Mall, in London. She was interred within the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore, Windsor. She was portrayed by actress Deborah Makepeace in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series Edward VII (1975) with Timothy West in the title role and Annette Crosbie as Queen Victoria. Apart from an unnamed son that died immediately after birth (1877) Princess Helena left five children were,

Helena Victoria – (1870 – 1948)
British princess
HRH (Her Royal Highness) Princess Victoria Louise Sophia Augusta Amalia Helena was born (May 3, 1870) at Frogmore, Windsor Park in Berkshire, the elder daughter of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Helena Augusta Victoria, the third daughter of Queen Victoria. She was sister to Princess Marie Louise. She was raised at Frogmore and was referred to by her grandmother in her letters as ‘Thora.’ She remained unmarried. During World War I (1917) she dropped her royal style of ‘Princess of Schleswig-Holstein,’ at the request of George V and became known officially as HRH Princess Helena Victoria of Great Britain.
The princess succeeded her mother as president (1923 – 1948) of the Princess Christian Nursing Home at Windsor and was the Lady President of the League of Mercy and president of the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) Auxiliary, visiting France on behalf of the YMCA during WW I (1914 – 1918). It was Princess Helena Victoria who obtained permission from Lord Kitchener to have musical and theatrical entertainments provided for the troops at the front. She was awarded the VA (Royal Order of Victoria & Albert), and then appointed GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1918) in recognition of her work for the war effort. Princess Helena Victoria died (March 13, 1948) aged seventy-seven. Her portrait was painted by Harrington Mann.

Helene Caroline Therese – (1834 – 1890)
Duchess in Bavaria
Princess Helene in Bavaria was born (April 4, 1834) in Munich, the eldest daughter and third child of Duke Maximilian in Bavaria and his wife Ludovica, the daughter of Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria. Known to her family as ‘Neine’ she grew into a slim and attractive young girl with masses of dark hair. When she paid a visit to the Imperial court in Vienna with her parents (1848) she was much admired by the Archduchess Sophia, mother of the Emperor Franz Josef (1848 – 1916) who described her as ‘such a good, lovely girl with her slim, straight figure and intelligent as well – a girl who could grow into a handsome woman.’ Despite the Archduchess’s plans the young emperor fell in love with Helene’s younger sister Elisabeth (Sisi) instead and was married to her (1853).
Several years later (1857) Helene was betrothed to the Herditary Prince Maximilian von Thurn und Taxis (1831 – 1867), son and heir of Prince Maximilian Karl von Thurn und Taxis, the most important of the German mediatized princes. They were married at Possenhofen in Bavaria (1858) and Helene became the Hereditary Princess consort (1858 – 1867). Helene bore Maximilian four children before his early death at Regensburg (June 26, 1867). Helene then became the Dowager Hereditary Princess von Thurn und Taxis (1867 – 1890).
Countess Marie Festetics described Princess Helene during her later years as looking like a caricature of her sister the Empress Elisabeth, having grown corpulent and neglectful of her appearance. She also suffered from a form of religious mania, and became so disorganized and unpunctual that whilst on a vist to the Vatican in Rome she kept His Holiness waiting. The death of her daughter Elisabeth (1881) left Helene distraught with grief. Princess Helene died (May 16, 1890) aged fifty-six, in Regensburg. Her children were,

Helene Louise Henriette d’Orleans – (1871 – 1951) 
French Bourbon princess
Princesse Helene d’Orleans was born (June 13, 1871) at York House, Twickenham, Middlesex, near London, England, the second daughter of Louis Philippe d’Orleans (1838 – 1894), Comte de Paris, the Head of the Royal House of France, and his wife Marie Isabelle d’Orleans, the daughter of Antoine d’Orleans, Duc de Montpensier, and his wife, the Infanta Luisa Fernanda, younger daughter of Ferdinand VII, King of Spain (1819 – 1833).  Through her father she was a direct descendant of King Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848) and of Philippe II Egalite, Duc d’Orleans. Her sister Marie Amelie d’Orleans was the wife of Carlos I, King of Portugal. As a young woman Helene was loved by Prince Albert Victor (1864 – 1892), Duke of Clarence, the grandson of Queen Victoria, but neither her father nor the pope would permit her to convert to Anglicanism in order to marry an heir to the throne.
Princess Helene was later married instead, at Kingston-upon-Thames, in England (1895), to the Savoyard prince, Emanuele Filuberto (1869 – 1931), Duke of Aosta (1890 – 1931).
During WW II, the duchess was said to have plotted unsuccessfully with Gabriele D’Annunzio, for the removal of the senior branch of the Savoyard dynasty, and to unite Venetia and Dalmatia as a republic, under the presidency of her husband, the Duke, with D’Annunzio as the head of government. However, this conpiracy never properly materialized. Benito Mussolino had worked to overthrow the monarchy, and D’Annunzio’s friendship with the duchess greatly annoyed him, despite the fact that she herself was one of his greatest admirers. Indeed, at the wedding celebrations of her son in Florence Cathedral, the duchess scandalized the other guests by making the Fascist salute before the high altar.
The duchess organized the Italian Red Cross prior to the annexation of Fiume (1924). With her husband’s death Helene survived for two decades as the Dowager Duchess of Aosta (1931 – 1951). Helene was remarried at Capodimente (1936) to her cavalier, Oddone Campini, a man three decades her junior. This union remained morganatic. When her younger son Aimone became King of Croatia as Tomislav II (1941 – 1943) the duchess was technically the queen mother of Croatia, though she never visited that land. With the overthrow of the Italian monarchy (1946) she retained her palace in Naples. Princess Helene died (Jan 21, 1951) aged seventy-nine, at Castellmare di Strabia, near Naples, Italy. Her two sons were,

Helene Wilhelmine Henriette Pauline Marianne – (1831 – 1888)
German princess and regent
Pricness Helene of Nassau-Weilburg was born (Aug 12, 1831), the daughter of Duke Wilhelm of Nassau-Weilburg, Duke of Nassau (1816 – 1839) and his second wife Pauline of Wurttemburg, the daughter of Prince Paul of Wurttemburg. She became the first wife (1853) of Prince George III Victor of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1845 – 1893) and was his princess consort (1853 – 1888). She bore her husband seven children. Princess Helene suffered from continuous ill-health which kept her mainly confined to her private apartments, but during her thirty-five year presidence over the court and principality of Pyrmont, Helene retained, with the consent of her husband, a firm control over the affairs of the small principality which she managed with considerable skill. Princess Helene of Waldeck-Pyrmont died (Oct 27, 1888) aged fifty-seven. Her children were,

Heleniana – (fl. c420 – 431 AD)
Roman patrician and courtier
Heleniana was the wife of an unnamed praetorian prefect of the East in 431 AD, who have been identified as either consul Antiochus who held that office (430 – 431 AD) or of Rufinus who held office (431 – 432 AD). Heleniana was recorded in the Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum, as a powerful and influential person at the Imperial court, and was a friend of the Empress Galla Placidia, the widow of Constantius III. She was bribed by Bishop Cyril of Alexandria in order to enlist her husband’s assistance with his cause.

Helewise of Nevers – (c1050 – 1114)
Norman countess and ruler
Helewise was the daughter of William I, Count of Nevers, and his wife Ermengarde of Tonnerre. She was married to Count William of Evreux, but they had no issue. She was famous for her life-long feud with Isabel de Montfort, Dame de Tosny, which caused much upheaval within her husband’s domains. She died childless.

Helfta, Gertrude von     see   Gertrude the Great

Helia (Helyarde) – (c695 – 750)
Merovingian nun and abbess
Helia ruled the royal abbey of Horres at Treves, as fourth abbess of that house. Her arm was kept as a relic by the grey nuns at Abbeville, who called her St Helyarde. Her veneration feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Helico (Heliconis)(c225 – 244 AD)
Greek virgin Christian martyr
Helico was a younger woman from the city of Korinth. She was arrested during persecutions initiated during the reign of Emperor Gordian III. Helico suffered frightful tortures before being killed with a sword. The Acta Sanctorum records her feast (May 28).

Helie of Burgundy – (1080 – 1142)
French mediaeval princess
Sometiems called Adelaide, Alice or Ela, Helie was born (Nov, 1080) the daughter of Eudes I Borel, Duke of Burgundy and his wife Sibylla of Burgundy, the daughter of William I Tete-Hardi, Count of Burgundy and Macon. Helie became the second wife (June, 1095) of Bertrand of Toulouse (1065 – 1112). The Norman chronicler Ordericus Vitalis recorded Helie’s name, parentage and marriages, and also identified the eldest son of each of these unions. She was named ‘Electael’ in her marriage contract.
Helie accompanied Bertrand to Palestine and when he was installed as Count of Tripoli (1109 – 1112) she became his consort. Helie survived Bertrand as the Dowager Countess of Tripoli (1112 – 1115), and was then made a second dynastic marriage (1115) to Guillaume I Talvas (c1090 – 1172), Count of Alencon and Ponthieu, a widower a decade her junior. Helie then became the countess consort of Ponthieu in Normandy. Countess Helie died (Feb 28, 1142) aged sixty-one.
The only child of her first marriage was Pons of Toulouse (1096 – 1137) who succeeded his father as Count of Tripoli (1112 – 1137). He married Cecilia Capet, Princess of France, the widow of Prince Tancred of Antioch and left issue. Helie’s descendants included Count Guillaume II Talvas of Ponthieu who married Alice Capet, daughter of King Louis VII (1137 – 1180), and former mistress of Henry II of England (1154 – 1189). Through this particular marriage Helie was the ancestress of Eleanor of Castile, the first wife of Edward I of England (1272 – 1307).

Helie of Semur    see    Eleonore of Semur

Helimdrude (Helendrude) – (fl. c1150 – c1190)
German religious recluse
Helimdrude lived as an anchorite at Iborg, near Osnabruck. She was honoured as a saint at Heerse in Paderborn, Westphalia. She was venerated as a saint her feast being recorded in the Acta Sanctorum (May 31).

Helisaea – (fl. 506)
Roman patrician
Helisaea was born into a noble family and was related to Ennodius, Bishop of Ticinum. She was the wife of the nobleman Avitus (living 534) and resided with him at Aquileia. Ennodius recorded in his Epistulae that Helisaea wrote a letter to him in which she opposed a particular candidate for ecclesiastical preferment at Aquileia. Ennodius relied in agreement with Helisaea.

Helisia     see     Eloise

Hellanice   see   Lanice

Heller, Adele Ravsky – (1922 – 1997) 
American theatre founder
Adele Ravsky was born in New York and married Lester Heller. Formerly a director of audience development for the American College Theater Festival, Adela became publicity director for the Act IV Theater in Provincetown, Massachusetts. Heller and her husband bought the Provincetown Playhouse Theater in Massachusetts (1972) and it became the first American theater to produce the plays of Eugene O’Neill, before being destroyed by fire (1977). Adele Heller died in Boston, Massachusetts.

Helletrude    see    Ermengarde of the Franks

Hellman, Lillian Florence – (1905 – 1984)
Jewish-American dramatist, screenwriter and political activist
Lillian Hellman was born (June 20, 1905) in New Orleans, Louisiana. She attended New York and Columbia universities and her marriage (1925 – 1932) to the dramatist Arthur Kober ended in divorced. She never remarried and conducted a liasion with the writer Dashiell Hammett (1894 – 1961). Hellman received the National Book Award (1970) and the Paul Robeson Award (1976), and left three volumes of autobiography An Unfinished Woman (1969) and Pentimento (1973) which was later filmed as Julia (1977) and Scoundrel Time (1976). She was portrayed by the Australian actress Judy Davis in the television biography which exlpored her relationship with Hammett entitled Dash and Lilly (1999).
Hellman’s works included The Children’s Hour (1934), which was remarkable for the frank manner in which she dealt with both content and dialogue. She also wrote the screenplay (1939) for the classic film The Little Foxes (1941) which starred Bette Davis as the rapacious Southern dame Regina Hubbard and Watch on the Rhine (1941), filmed in 1943, which won Hellman the Drama Critics’ Circle Award. Later works included Another Part of the Forest (1946), which dealt with the history of the same Hubbard family in Alabama twenty years earlier than The Little Foxes. Hellman and Hammett both suffered during the McCarthy witchhunts of the 1950’s, Hammett sufferring a six month period of imprisonment for contempt of court, whilst she had to appear before the House UnAmerican Activities Committee. Hellman also edited The Selected Letters of Anton Chekhov (1955), whilst her drama Toys in the Attic (1960) received the Critics’Award. Lillian Hellman died (June 30, 1984) aged seventy-seven, at Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts.

Helm, Brigitte – (1907 – 1996)
German actress
Born Eva Gisela Schittenhelm in Berlin, Prussia, she was the daughter of an army officer. Famous for her role as the vamp Maria in Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, in 1926, she made over thirty films, even turning down the starring role in the Blue Angel, which went to Marlene Dietrich. Her other famous role was that of the blind girl in Love of Jeanne Ney, directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst. Brigitte retired from the film industry in 1935, after it was taken over by the Nazi regime, and married the industrialist, Hugo von Kuenheim. The couple left Germany for Italy in 1942 and returned after the war, but Brigitte did not return to acting. In the early 1960’s she retired to Switzerland and lived in seclusion for the remainder of her life. Brigitte Helm died (June 11, 1996).

Helmsley, Leona – (1920 – 2007)
American hotelier, business entrepeneur, tax evader and public philanthropist
Leona Mindy Rosenthal was born (July 4, 1919) in Marbletown, New York, the daughter of a Polish-Jewish milliner. She later changed her name to Leona Roberts and became a billboard model for Chesterfield Cigarettes. Leona married firstly to the attorney Leo Panzirer, to whom she bore a son. With their divorce (1959) she married secondly to Joseph Lubin, a manufacturing executive, and thirdly (1972) to the real estate investor Harry Helmsley.
With her last husband Mrs Helmsley built a large real estate empire in New York which included the New York Helmsley Hotel and the Helmsley Palace Hotel Leona Helmsley was a flamboyant person whose tyrannical behaviour towards her employees earned her the epithet ‘The Queen of Mean.’ She was arrested and convicted of tax evasion and other crimes (1988) and was sentenced to sixteen years in prison. In actuality she served less than two years in prison and then two months of house arrest. Mrs Helmsley was infamously remembered for her remark that ‘We don’t pay taxes. Only the little people pay taxes’ (1983) which she casually made to her housekeeper at her Greenwich, Connecicut estate. She was portrayed on the screen by actress Suzane Pleshette in the television movie The Queen of Mean (1990). Harry Helmsley bequeathed to Leona his entire fortune of five billion dollars at his death (1997).
Mrs Helmsley left the large bequest of five million dollars to assist the families of members of the Fire Department of New York who were killed during the Twin Towers terrorist attack (Sept 11, 2001), and also donated twent-five million dollars to the Presbyterian Hospital in New York for the benefit of medical research. The the rest of her enormous fortune went to her small dog. Leona Helmsley died (Aug 20, 2007) aged eighty-seven, at Greenwich.

Helmtrud Marie Amalie – (1886 – 1977)
Princess of Bavaria
Helmtrud was born in Munich (March 22, 1886), the sixth daughter of King Ludwig III (1913 – 1918) and his wife the Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria-Este, the daughter and heiress of Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este. The princess survived the deposition of the monarchy (1918) but never married, residing all her life at the family castle of Wildenort, which the family retained after the revolution. Princess Helmtrud died (June 22, 1977) aged ninety-one, at Wildenort.

Heloise – (1099 – 1164) 
French abbess, physician and author
Heloise was the daughter of a wealthy physician, and niece of canon Fulbert of Notre Dame Cathedral. Left an orphan by the early deaths of her parnts, Heloise studied medicine, surgery, theology, languages, and philosophy at the University of Paris. Her tutor was Pierre Abelard, and the two became romantically involved. Heloise became pregnant and went to reside with Abelard’s sister in Brittany, where she gave birth to their son Astralabe, but her family took violent and drastic reprisals. Pierre was castrated and became a monk at the abbey of St Denis, at Rheims, and Heloise became a nun there.
For over twenty years as abbess of the Paraclete, at Nogent-sur-Seine, near Paris, Heloise continued to practise and teach medicine. Heloise died (May 15, 1164) and was buried beside Abelard in the cemetery of the Paraclete. Her letters to Abelard entitled Lettres d’Abelard et d’Heloise, were first published in Paris (1616). Centuries later (1817) the remains of the couple were removed to Pere-Lachaise cemetery in Paris, where they were interred togther within a single tomb.

Helvetius, Anne Catherine – (1722 – 1800)
French salonniere and letter writer
Born Anne Catherine Ligniville d’Autricourt (July 29, 1722) at Ligniville, the daughter of Jean Jacques de Ligniville and his wife Charlotte de Saureau, and was the niece of Madame de Graffigny. She received a lacklustre education. She was married (1751) to the philosopher and financier Claude Adrien Helvetius (1715 – 1771), to whom she bore two daughters, Elisabeth Charlotte Helvetius (1752 – 1799), the wife of Alexandre Francois de Mun de Sarlabous, Comte de Mun d’Arblade, and Genevieve Adelaide Helvetius (1754 – 1817), who married Comte Antoine d’Andlau.
Madame Helvetius received Voltaire, Rousseau, and Fontenelle, and when aged almost sixty (1777) she became the mistress of the American statesman and consul Benjamin Franklin. Franklin proposed to her (1780) by Helvetius refused him fearful of losing her salon. Though born into one of the oldest families of Lorraine, and being possessed of impressive wealth and connections Madame Helvetius was possessed of rustic peasant manners and practiced inadequate personal hygiene. She possessed a large variety of pets that ran amok in her household and were not housetrained. Despite her reprehensible personal haits Madame Helvetius was possessed of a sharp intellect and wit, and received philosophers, writers and clergy at her house at Auteuil. Madame Helvetius survived the upheavals and horrors of the Revolution, and died (Aug 12, 1800) aged seventy-eight, at Auteuil.

Helvia – (c30 BC – after 41 AD)
Roman literary figure
Helvia was sister to Aemilius Rectus, praefect of Egypt (14 AD), and became the wife to the philosopher and rhetorician, Seneca the Elder (c55 BC – 40 AD). She was the mother of three sons, including Seneca the Younger (c10 BC – 65 AD), tutor of the emperor Nero (54 – 68 AD), and Lucius Annaeus Mela, father of the poet Lucan (39 – 65 AD). Her son Seneca wrote a consolatory letter to her during his enforced residence in Corsica (41 – 49 AD) entitled De Consolationa ad Helviam Matrem Liber, considered one of his best treatises.

Helvig, Amalie – (1776 – 1831)
German poet and translator
Amalie was born (Aug 16, 1776) at Weimar, she was niece to Charlotte von Stein. She was raised at Nurnburg (Nuremburg) being taught English and French by her father. After further education at Erlangen she returned to Weimar with her widowed mother. Through the influence and conncections of Madame von Stein the two women frequented the salons which drew such literary figures as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Christoph von Schiller. Amalie learnt Greek and studied painting prior to joining the household of the Duchess Louise of Saxe-Weimar as a lady-in-waiting (1800).
Amalie was married (1803) to a Swedish officer, Carl von Helvig and accompanied him to Stockholm. She later returned to Germany with her three children and resided in Heidelberg (1810). The deaths of two of her children (1811) precipitated her grief and energies into writing. After her husband joined the Prussian army (1815) Amalie settled in Berlin with him. She was a friend to such notable contemporary figures as Achim von Arnim, Clemens Brentano, and Friedrich La Motte Fouque. She published two dramatic poetic works in 1812, Die Schwestern auf Corcyra (The Sisters of Corfu) and Die Tageeszeiten.Ein Cyklus grieschischer Zeit und sitte, in 4 Idyllen (The Hours:A Cycle of Greek times and Morals in 4 Idylls).
Madame Helvig’s best known work was Die Schwestern von Lesbos (The Sisters of Lesbos) (1800) which was edited by Schiller. Her volume of verse Sammlung von Gedichten zum Besten der unglucklichen Witwen und Waisen in Griechenland (Collection of Poems for the Unhappy Widows and Orphans of Greece) (1826), was published in order to raise money for general relief efforts in war torn Greece and proved extremely popular. With La Motte Fouque she co-edited Taschenbuch der Sagen und Legenden (Pocket-book of Sagas and Legends) (1812), and translated the works of several contemporary Swedish writers, published a travel memoir (1811) and the novel Helene Tournon (1824). Amalie Helvig died (Dec 17, 1831) aged fifty-five, in Berlin.

Helvisa – (c990 – 1034)
French religious recluse
Helvia made a considerable grant of land to the Benedictine abbey of Colombs in Normandy. She then established herself as a recluse near the abbey and was regarded a saint at her death. Her veneration feast (Feb 11) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Hemans, Felicia Dorothea – (1793 – 1835)
British poet and lyric writer
Born Felicia Browne in Liverpool, she was the daughter of an Irish merchant and an Austrian mother. She was raised at Gwrych in Denbighshire, Wales, and published three collections of verse including Domestic Affections and Other Poems (1812), prior to her marriage the same year with Captain Alfred Hemans. Her other works, written during the time of her marriage were on more scholarly subjects The Restoration of Works of Art to Italy (1816), Modern Greece (1817) and Translations From Camoens and Other Poets (1818).
Her husband’s eventual desertion (1818) forced Felicia to turn to writing to support her young family of five sons. Mrs Hemans wrote in various tyles of verse, and her works included The Siege of Valencia (1823) and Records of Women (1828). She is best remembered for her classic poem Casabianca, better known to the general public by the line; ‘The boy stood on the burning deck’ and ‘The stately homes of England.’
Felicia Hemans sometimes employed the pseudonym ‘Egeria,’ and enjoyed the friendship of Sir Walter Scott, who wrote the epilogue for her play The Vespers of Palermo, which was produced in Edinburgh (1824), and that of the poet William Wordsworth. Her other works included Songs of Affection (1830), Hymns for Childhood (1834), and the series of sonnets Thoughts During Sickness (1834). Felicia Dorothea Hemans died in Dublin, Ireland, aged forty-one (May 16, 1835).

Hemelina (Emeline) – (c1120 – 1178)
French Cistercian religious figure
Hemelina became a lay sister at the abbey of Boulancourt in Valentigny de l’Aube. The house was not an enclosed one, the members taking religious vows but performing tasks on the abbey farm. Hemelina was especially regarded for her spinning skills, and she wore an iron chain that bit into her flesh under her garments. Legend stated that the noisy crows and ravens departed at her command, so as to no further disturb her religious meditations. Venerated as a saint (Oct 27), her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum and her Vitae written by Brother Goswin, a Cistercian monk from Clairval abbey.

Hemessen, Catharina van – (1528 – 1587)
Flemish painter
Catharina van Hemessen was born in Antwerp, the daughter of the noted master Jan Sanders van Hemessen. She was taught the technique of painting by her faqther in his studio, and she collaborated with him on several of his canvasses. She was married (1554) to Chretien de Morien, the organist of Antwerp Cathedral. Catharina van Hemessen painted many portraits of notables, and examples of these are preserved in the Rijksmuseum in Antwerp, and in the National Gallery in London. Her famous elf portrait entitled I, Caterina de Hemessen, painted by myself in 1548, remains in the Basle Museum in Switzerland. Hemessen enjoyed the patronage of Maria of Hungary, the sister of the emperor Charles V, and aunt of Philip II of Spain, but with her death (1558), Hemessen and her husband returned to Antwerp.

Hemetre – (fl. c2440 BC)
Egyptian princess
Hemetre is thought to have been the daughter of King Khafre, and sister to King Menkaure of the IVth Dynasty (2520 – 2392 BC). She was interred in her won rock cut tomb at Giza, which was discovered and excavated. Surviving inscriptions accord her the title, ‘King’s Daughter of His Body.’

Hemetre Hemi – (fl. c2290 – c2250 BC)
Egyptian princess
Hemetre Hemi was the eldest daughter of King Unas, the last pharoah of the VIth Dynasty. The identity of her mother remains unknown. Her tomb was discovered at Saqqara, and a surviving inscription refers to her as ‘King’s Daughter’ and ‘God’s Wife of Amun.’ She served as a priestess of the cult if King Teti at his mortuary temple.

Heminilda – (fl. c980 – 986)
German dynastic wife
Heminilda was the daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen. She was married (c984), as his first wife, Duke Boleslav I Chrobry of Poland (later king), the son and heir of Prince Mieczyslav. The marriage proved childless and short, and in 986, changing foreign policy dictated the couple be divorced. Her later life remains unknown.

Hempel, Frieda – (1885 – 1955)
German soprano
Freda Hempel was born in Leipzig, Saxony and studied the piano at the Leipzig Conservatory (1903 – 1905). She had vocal training with Madame Lempner, and made her singing debut at Stettin in Poland (1906). Hempel then appeared in opera at Bayreuth and at Covent Garden in London (1907) before travelling to perform in Europe, where she appeared with great success in Vienna, Berlin, Paris, and Brussels. She later joined the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1912), and attained a large repertoire of mainly German and Italian operatic roles. With her retirement from the Met she was a prominent concert vocalist.

Hemphill, Emily Sears, Lady – (1901 – 1989)
American-Anglo socialite
Emily Sears was the daughter of the wealthy businessman, Irving Sears, of Webster, Massachusetts. Emily became the second wife (1927) of the British peer, Martyn Charles Andrew Martyn-Hemphill (1901 – 1957), who succeeded his father (1930) as the fourth Baron Hemphill. Emily Hemphill was a famous society beauty, traveller and skilled equestrian figure she later divorced her husband in Reno, Nevada (1945), and retained use of her title. Her son Peter Patrick Martyn-Hemphill (born 1927) succeeded his father as fifth Baron Hemphill

Hemphill, Shirley – (1948 – 1999)
American television actress and commedienne
Hemphill was best remembered for her role in the popular 1970’s series What’s Happening!. Shirley Hemphill died (Dec 10, 1999) aged fifty-one, at Covina in California.

Hempstead, Fay – (1847 – 1934)
American poet and historian
Hempstead was born (Nov 24, 1847) in Little Rock, Arkansas and remained unmarried. She wrote several historical works concerning the history of her home state such as A Pictorial History of Arkansas (1890) and the Historical Review of Arkansas (1911), which was published in three volumes. She also produced several volumes of verse such as Poems (1898), Laureate Poems (1908) and Poems (1922). Fay Hempstead died (April 24, 1934) aged eighty-six.

Henckel von Donnersmarck, Countess   see   Lachmann, Therese Pauline Blanche

Henders, Harriet – (1903 – 1972)
American soprano
Henders was born in Marengo, Iowa, the daughter of a physician. Harriet studied at Simpson College under Bernhardt Bronson, and then under Ragna Linne in Los Angeles, California. She received further instruction from Marie Gutheil-Schroder in Vienna. Henders made her operatic debut at Graz in Austria (1931), before appearing with the German Opera in Prague and at the Salzburg Festival (1937 – 1939), after which she joined the Metropolitan Opera in New York, where she appeared as Sophie in Der Rosenkavalier, with Lotte Lehmann as the Marshallin. Harriet Henders died (May 9, 1972) aged sixty-eight, from injuries received in a car accident.

Henderson, Laura – (1874 – 1944)
British theatre proprietor
Laura Henderson was the wife of Robert Henderson, an official stationed for many years in India. Their only son is killed in action during WW I, and the couple eventually return to London, rejoining upper class society life there. With the death of her husband (1937), Henderson eventually purchased a dilapidated theatre in Soho, London, and engaged Vivian Van Dame to run the vaudeville show they introduced there.
Later, with help from her connections in society with Lord Cromer, who was the official censor, Henderson obtained permission to present naked girls in statue-like tableaux on stage, a radical idea for the times, and which rpoved wildly popular with servicemen in London during the war years. This was the nexus of the famous Windmill Theatre, which Laura Henderson left to Van Damm at her death. She was portrayed on the screen by actress Dame Judi Dench in the film Mrs Henderson Presents.

Henderson, Paul    see   France, Ruth

Henhenet – (fl. c2040 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Henhenet was the wife of King Mentuhopte I. Her shaft tomb and shrine were found under the pavement behind Mentuhopte’s tomb temple at Der- el-Bahri, near Thebes, togther with those of several other royal ladies, Khemsit, Kawit, Sadeh, Ashayet, and Muyet. Muyet was the youngest in the group, aged about five years, whilst the ages of Henhenet and the others were all about twenty. Henhenet’s sarcophagus was composed of six limestone blocks fitted upon a sandstone base, though the lid was inscribed with the name of Queen Kawit, and was clearly not the original.

Henie, Sonia – (1910 – 1969)
Norwegian-American skater and film actress
Henie was born (April 8, 1910) in Oslo, and was trained as a ballerina. She had ice-skated with her brother from an early age, and combined this dance, to produce her own style of ice-skating which quickly won her several prominent competitions. Henie went on to win Olympic gold medals in 1928, 1932, and 1936, where her attractive blonde looks attracted much attention, She then went to Hollywood, where she starred in eleven films (1936 – 1945) including One in a Million (1936), Thin Ice (1937), Sun Valley Serenade (1941), Iceland (1942) and The Countess of Monte Cristo (1948). She became a US citizen (1941), and became extremely wealthy. Her autobiography was published as Wings on My Feet (1940). Henie built up a private collection of Impressionist and Post-impressionist paintings which she and her third husband, the shipping magnate Niels Onstad, later donated to the city of Oslo (1968). Sonia Henie died of leukemia (Oct 12, 1969) aged fifty-nine.

Henin, Laure Adelaide de Fitzjames, Princesse d’ – (1744 – 1814)
French courtier, traveller and émigré
Laure Adelaide de Fitzjames was born (Dec 7, 1744), the daughter of Charles de Fitzjames, second Duc de Fitzjames. Through her father Laure was the great-granddaughter of James II, King of Great Britain (1685 – 1688) and Arabella Churchill, the sister of the famous general, John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough.
Laure was married (1762) to Philippe Gabriel Maurice Joseph, Prince de Alsace d’Henin (1736 – 1804), and attended the court of Louis XV and of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles. She was the aunt of the noted émigré diarist, the Marquise de La Tour du Pin. The marriage remained childless. Madame d’Henin and her husband survived the horrors of the Revolution, and emigrated to safety. She survived her husband for a decade as the Dowager Princesse d’Henin (1804 – 1814). The princess died (Sept 26, 1814) aged sixty-nine.

Henin, Stephanette Adelaide Felicite Henriette Guignot de Monconseil, Princesse d’ – (1750 – 1825)
French courtier and émigré
Stephanette Guignot de Monconseil was the daughter of Etienne Louis Antoine Guignot (1695 – 1782), Marquis de Monconseil. She was married (1765) to Prince Charles Alexandre Marc Marcellin d’Alsace-Lietard, Prince d’Henin (1744 – 1794). She served at the court of Versailles as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette, the wife of Louis XVI.
Madame d’Henin was related to the intrepid traveller and diarist, Madame de La Tour du Pin and features largely in her memoirs. She was also mentioned in the correspondence of Horace Walpole. The princesse emigrated and thus survived the horrors of the Revolution, though her husband perished under the guillotine during the terror (1794). She survived him for three decades as the Dowager Princesse d’Henin (1794 – 1825).

Henley, Alice – (fl. 1445 – 1451)
English religieuse
Alice Henley took the veil as a Benedictine nun at the abbey of Godstow, near Oxford, and was later elected prioress in 1445. It was at Alice’s order that the Cartulary of Godstow Abbey was produced.

Henniker, Florence Ellen Hungerford – (1861 – 1923)
British novelist and journalist
The Hon. (Honourable) Florence Hungerford was born the daughter of the first Lord Houghton, and was sister to the first Marquess of Crewe. Florence was married (1882) to a military man Major-General Hon. Arthur Henniker. Mrs Henniker was the author of several novels such as The Scarlet and Grey (1896), Our Fatal Shadows (1907) and Second Fiddle (1912). Henniker also wrote a four act play entitled The Courage of Silence, which was produced at the King’s Theatre in London (1905). She was later elected as president of the Society of Women Journalists (1896). Florence Henniker died (April 4, 1923) aged sixty-one, in London.

Hennings, Emmy    see    Ball-Hennings, Emmy

Henningsen, Agnes Kathinka – (1868 – 1962) 
Danish dramatist and novelist
Born Agnes Malling (Nov 16, 1868) at Ullerslev on the island of Fungen (Fyn), after her mother’s death her homelife became unbearable, and Agnes left to marry Mads Henningsen. Agnes had four children, two of whom were fathered by another man. When her husband immigrated to the USA (1895) after a sexual scandal, she was left to raise them alone. Agnes Henningsen then turned to writing as a means of supporting her family.
Her published work included the novels Glansbilledet (Glitter) (1899), Strommen (The Stream) (1899), Polens Dotre (The Daughters of Poland (1901), Die spedalske (The Lepers) (1903) and the play Elskerinden (The Mistress) (1906), in which she advocates freedom for women in all parts of life. Her personal memoirs were published in eight volumes as Let Gang paa Jorden (To Tread Lightly) (1941 – 1955), and were highly regarded. Agnes Henningsen died (April 21, 1962) aged ninety-three, in Copenhagen.

Henri, Florence – (1893 – 1982)
American pianist and photographer
Florence Henri as born in New York, the daughter of French-Polish parents. She travelled abroad with her father from an early age, and studied music in France, Italy, and Germany for over a decade (1902 – 1914) becoming an accomplished pianist. Henri eventually switched interests to painting and studied art, particulalry the Cubist and abstract styles, in Berlin (1922 – 1923), and was married (1924) to a Swiss national, Karl Anton Foster, in order to gain permission to return to Paris, where she studied at the Academie Moderne in Paris (1925 – 1926). The union lasted three decades before finally ended in divorce (1954). Her studies in Germany soon afterwards stimulated an innate interest in photography, and Henri then established a photographic studio in Paris (1929), and some of her work was featured in magazines such as Vogue. Her work was exhibited at Stuttgart in Wurttemburg under the title ‘Film and Foto’ (1929).  An impressive and comprehensive retrospective of her work was held at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art a decade after her death (1990 – 1991).

Henrietta of Brunswick – (1672 – 1737)
German princess
Princess Henrietta was born (March 9, 1672) at Luneberg, the third daughter of Johann Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick-Luneberg and of Hanover and his wife Benedicta Henrietta Philippina of Bohemia, the daughter of Edward of Bohemia, Prince Palatine of the Rhine. Through her mother she was the great-great granddaughter of James I, King of England (1603 – 1625) and a descendant of the Tudor and Plantagent kings. Her younger sister Wilhelmina Amalia was the wife of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph I (1705 – 1711). She remained unmarried. Henrietta and her two surviving sisters were claimants to the English throne but were barred by the Act of Succession (1699) because they were Roman Catholic. Princess Henrietta died (Sept 4, 1737) aged sixty-five.

Henrietta of Montbeliard – (1387 – 1444)
French-German ruler
Henrietta was born in Burgundy, the daughter of Henry de Montbeliard, Seigneur d’Orbe, and his first wife Marie de Chatillon. Her father’s heiress, she brought the county of Montbeliard to the family of Count Eberhard V of Wurttemburg at their marriage (1407). Henrietta bore her husband three children, including two sons, his successor, Count Ludwig I (1412 – 1450), and Duke Ulrich I (1413 – 1480), who ruled at Stuttgart. With the death of her husband (1419), Henrietta ruled Wurttemburg as regent for her young sons (1419 – 1429). She is said to have desired to remarry to the powerful nobleman, Frederick von Hohenzollern, popularly known as the ‘Oettinger,’ but instead he joined forces with her enemies, and she carefully plotted and executed her revenge against him.
When it was reported to the countess that Hohenzollern was engaged in brigandage against foreign merchants in his territory, she offerred her assistance to the cities of the Swabian Bund in the form of two thousand Wurttemburger troops. She conducted a siege which lasted over two years, and eventually Hohenzollern was forced to negotiate with Henrietta. She refused all concessions, and demanded his unconditional surrender, which he was forced to give (1422). The countess then ordered his entire castle of Hohenzollern to be destroyed excepting the chapel, and he himself was imprisoned at Montbeliard in Burgundy. Hohenzollern was not released until Henrietta gave up the regency to her son, Count Ludwig when he reached his majority (1429). Countess Henrietta died (Feb 14, 1444) aged fifty-six.

Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg – (1780 – 1857)
German duchess consort of Wurttemburg (1797 – 1817)
Princess Henrietta was born (April 22, 1780) at Kirchheim-Bolanden, the sixth daughter of Karl Christian (1735 – 1788), Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, and his first wife Carolina (1743 – 1787), the daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange (1711 – 1751). Through her mother Henrietta was the great-granddaughter of George II, king of Great Britain (1727 – 1760). Princess Henrietta became the second wife at Ermitage Castle, Bayreuth (1797) of Duke Ludwig (1756 – 1817). She bore him five children, and survived Ludwig for forty years as Dowager Duchess (1817 – 1857).
With the early death of her husband the duchess retired with her children to the castle of Kirchheim. The duchess was prominent in areas of local social reform and philanthropic ideals, organizing and assisting institutions to help the poor and needy, and orphanages. Her only son Duke Alexander of Wurttemburg (1804 – 1885) was the paternal grandfather of Queen Mary, the wife of George V of England, whilst her eldest daughter Maria Dorothea became the third wife of the Hapsburg Archduke Joseph, and her third, Pauline (1800 – 1870), became the second wife of King William I of Wurttemburg. Duchess Henrietta died (Jan 2, 1857) aged seventy-six, at Kirchheim unter Teck, and was interred at Stuttgart.

Henrietta Stuart – (1669)
English princess
Princess Henrietta was born (Jan 13, 1669) at Whitehall Palace, London, the daughter of James II (1685 – 1688) (the duke of York), and his first wife Anne Hyde, the daughter of Sir Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, councillor to Charles II. She was sister to the Stuart queens Mary II (1688 – 1694) and Anne (1702 – 1714). Henrietta died at St James’s Palace, London (Nov 15, 1669) aged only ten months. She was interred within Westminster Abbey, London.

Henrietta Alexandrine Frederica Wilhelmine – (1797 – 1829)
Duchess consort of Teschen (1815 – 1829)
Princess Henrietta was born (Oct 30, 1797) at Castle Ermitage, near Bayreuth in Brandenburg, Prussia, the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, and his wife Carolina of Orang-Nassau, the daughter of Wilhelm V, Prince of Orange. Through her mother Henrietta was a great-great-granddaughter of George II, King of England (1727 – 1760). Princess Henriette became the wife (1815) at Weilburg of the Hapsburg archduke Karl Louis (1771 – 1847), Duke of Teschen, a younger brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz II (1792 – 1835). Duchess Henrietta died (Dec 29, 1829) aged thirty-two, in Vienna. Her children were,

Henrietta Amalia Maria of Anhalt – (1666 – 1726)
Countess consort and regent of Nassau-Dietz
Princess Henrietta Amalia of Anhalt-Dessau was the daughter of Johan George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and his wife Henrietta Catharina, the daughter of Frederick Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange. She was married to Hendrik Casimir II (1657 – 1696), the reigning Count of Nassau-Dietz. With her husband’s early death she was appointed to rule as regent (1696 – 1708) for their son, Johan Wilhelm Friso until he came of age. She was appointed as governess-general of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe. Apart from a son who died in infancy she left eight children,

Henrietta Anne Stuart – (1644 – 1670) 
Duchesse d’Orleans
Princess Henrietta Anne was born at Exeter, Devon (June 16, 1644), the youngest child of King Charles I and his wife Henrietta Maria, the daughter of Henry IV, King of France. Born at the height of the Civil War in England, she was secretly taken to France (1646) by her governess, Lady Dalkeith, disguised as a street urchin, and raised in straitened circumstances at the Chateau de St Germain, near Paris.
With the restoration of her brother Charles II to the English throne (1660) Henrietta Anne became a more desirable dynastic bride. Though her mother had hoped to marry her to Louis XIV, she married (1661) her first cousin, the homosexual Philippe I, Duc d’Orleans (1640 – 1701), brother of Louis, to whom she bore two surviving daughters, Marie Louise (1662 – 1689) first wife of Charles II of Spain, and Anne Marie (1669 – 1728) the wife of Vittorio Amadeo II, King of Sardinia.
Known affectionately as ‘Minette,’ she was the favourite sister of King Charles, and played a significantly important role in the secret negotiations of the Secret Treaty of Dover (1670) between her brother and Louis XIV, which made France and England allies against the Dutch. Henrietta's death soon afterwards at the Palace of St Cloud (June 30, 1670) was strongly rumoured to be caused by poison administered by her husband, but modern research seems to indicate a burst appendix as the cause of her death.
The princess was a patron of the dramatist Moliere, and stood godmother to his infant son (Jan, 1664), and at her own request Racine and Corneille undertook to rewrite tragedies of the adieus of the emperor Titus and Queen Berenice. Her lady-in-waiting Louise de Keroualle became the mistress of Charles II.

Henrietta Caroline of Zweibrucken    see   Caroline of Zweibrucken

Henrietta Catharine of Orange – (1637 – 1708)
German ruler of Anhalt-Dessau
Princess Henrietta of Orange-Nassau was the daughter of Frederick Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange and his wife Countess Amalia of Solms. Originally betrothed to Count Enno Ludwig of East Friesland, it was later thought that she would marry the youthful Charles II of England, but his precarious political situation prevented this union from taking place. Henrietta Catharine was married instead (1659) to Prince Johann Georg III of Anhalt-Dessau (1627 – 1693), and later ruled Dessau as regent (1693 – 1698) for their son, the soldier prince Leopold I (1676 – 1747).
Henrietta Catharine continued the economic reform policy introduced by her late husband, and her able administrative abilities enabled her son to remain with the army for extended periods, leaving the Princess Dowager as defacto ruler in his absence (1698 – 1708). Her eight daughters included Elisabeth Albertina (1665 – 1706), the wife of Duke Heinrich of Saxe-Weissenfels, Amalia (1666 – 1726), the wife of her cousin, Prince Johann Kasimir of Nassau-Dietz, and Johanna Charlotte (1682 – 1750), the wife of Philip Wilhelm of Brandenburg, Margrave of Schwendt. Princess Henrietta Catharine died aged seventy-one (Nov 4, 1708).

Henrietta Christina of Brunswick – (1669 – 1753)
German princess and abbess
Princess Henreietta Christina was the youngest daughter of Antony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1704 – 1714) and his wife Elisabeth Juliana, the daughter of Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Norburg. Her three elder sisters all married, but Henrietta Christina was installed as abbess of the Protestant abbey of Gandersheim at the early age of twenty-five, and ruled for almost two decades (1694 – 1711).
Despite her exalted position the princess managed to conduct an illicit liasion, which resulted in the birth of an illegitimate child (1711). Forced to resign her position, Henrietta Christina converted to Roman Catholicism (1712) and lived as a nun at the abbey of Roermond, where she was eventually installed as abbess. Princess Henrietta Christian died (March 12, 1753) aged eighty-three.

Henrietta Maria of France – (1609 – 1669) 
Queen consort of Great Britain
Princesse Henriette Marie was born (Nov 26, 1609) in the Louvre Palace, Paris, the youngest child of Henry IV, King of France, and his second wife Marie de Medici. She married (1625) Charles I of England (1600 – 1649), but her Roman Catholicism and French entourage made her extremely unpopular. A secret clause in her marriage treaty promised the abolition of penal laws against English Catholics, which Charles failed to fulfill. With the assassination of her main antagonist, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham (1628) the marriage of the royal couple settled considerably, and they remained devotedly attached to each other for the rest of their married lives.
When the civil war broke out, Queen Henrietta Maria threw herself completely and wholeheartedly into her husband’s cause, being popularly known as the ‘Generalissima.’ She was present with Charles at the trial of Lord Strafford (March, 1641). Under threat of impeachment, the queen fled to Holland (1642) where she sold her jewels and raised funds for the Royalist cause. In 1643 she met Charles near Edgehill, and again tried to assist the Royalist position. Finally (1644) the couple were seperated from the last time at Abingdon. Two months later her last child, Henrietta Anne was born in Exter, and the queen fled to France, where the queen-regent, Anne of Austria, provided her with a modest allowance and the Chateau of St Germain as a residence.
With Charles’s execution (1649) her political career ended and the queen wore full mourning for the rest of her life. She tried to convert her children to Catholicism, but succeeded only with her youngest daughter. The wars of the Fronde in Paris (1648) reduced her financial position temporarily, and she visited England (1660 – 1661) after her son Charles II was restored to the throne, and resided at Somerset House. During the Great Fire (Oct, 1666), the queen mother and her household were forced to flee to Hampton Court. She left England permanently (June, 1667), settling at the Chateau de Colombes, near Paris. Queen Henrietta Maria died (Aug 31, 1669) aged fifty-nine, at Colombes. She was interred in the Cathedral of St Denis, at Rheims, near Paris. Queen Henrietta Maria has been portrayed on the screen by British actress Dame Diana Rigg.

Henriette Hermine Wanda Ida Luise – (1918 – 1972)
German princess of Prussia
Princess Henriette was the younger daughter of Prince Johann George von Schoenaich-Carolath and his wife Hermine of Reuss. Her stepfather was Kaiser Wilhelm II whose second wife her mother later became. Henriette was married (1940) to Prince Franz Joseph of Prussia (1916 – 1975), the son of her stepbrother Prince Joachim (1890 – 1920), the Kaiser’s sixth and youngest son who committed suicide. This marriage ended in divorce (1946) and she never remarried. Princess Henriette died (March 16, 1972). She left two sons,

Henriette Marie Charlotte Antoinette – (1870 – 1948)
Princess of Belgium
Princess Henriette was born (Nov 30, 1870) in Brussels, the eldest daughter of Prince Philip, Count of Flanders, the younger brother of King Leopold II (1865 – 1909). She bore the additional title of Duchess of Saxony. Her twin sister, Josephine Marie Stephanie Victoire, died in infancy (Jan 18, 1871). Princess Henriette was sister to King Albert I (1909 – 1934), whilst her youngest sister Josephine became the wife of Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern.
Henriette was married into the Bourbon royal family of France, becoming the wife (1896) of Prince Emanuel d’Orleans, Duc de Vendome (1872 – 1931), the great-grandson of King Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848). Their marriage remained childless. The duchesse de Vendome later ran a boarding house into to survive, and left several volumes of memoirs. She survived Emanuel as the Dowager Duchesse de Vendome (1931 – 1948). The duchesse died (March 28, 1948) aged seventy-seven, at Sierre.

Henriques, Rose Louise Loewe, Lady – (1889 – 1972)
Jewish-Anglo social activist
Rose Loewe was born in London, the granddaughter of the noted Jewish orientalist, Louis Loewe, famous as the companion of Sir Moses Montefiore, and sister to the orientalist Herbert Loewe. She was married (1916) to the social reformer and magistrate, Sir Basil Henriques (1890 – 1961). Lady Henriques directed and organized her husband’s foundation (1914) of the Bernhard Baron and St George’s Jewish Settlement (formerly the Oxford and St George’s Club), being elected vice-president of the synagogue, a trustee of the Whitechapel Art Gallery, and was made a member of the Council and Executive Committee of the League of Jewish Women. Lady Henriques died (Dec 21, 1972) aged eighty-three, in London.

Henry, Alice – (1857 – 1943)
Australian socialist, trade unionist, feminist, writer and journalist
Alice Henry was born in Richmond, Victoria, and attended the Educational Institute for Ladies in Melbourne. She was trained as a schoolteacher, and was then employed as a journalist with various Melbourne papers. Henry later visited England and the USA, where she remained as secretary of the Chicago branch of the National Women’s Trade Union League. For almost a decade she co-edited the League’s official magazine (1910 – 1919). Henry later returned to Australia (1933) and continued to write. Her own published works included The Trade Union Woman (1915) and Women and the Labour Market (1923).

Henry, Charlotte – (1913 – 1980)
American actress
Henry was born in Brooklyn, New York and performed on the stage during eearly childhood. She made her stage debut on Broadway at the age of thirteen (1928). Charlotte Henry was famous for her appearanceas in Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1932), and in the title role of Alice in Wonderland (1933), produced by Paramount Pictures. Henry appeared in other films such as The Last Gentleman (1934) with George Arliss, Charlie Chan at the Opera (1937), and played Bo-Peep in the Laurel and Hardy film Babes in Toyland (1934). Charlotte Henry died (April 11, 1980) aged sixty-five, in San Diego, California.

Henschel, Lilian Bailey – (1860 – 1901)
American-Anglo concert soprano
Lilian Bailey was born in Columbus, Ohio. She became the pupil of the British musician and conductor, George Henschel (1850 – 1934) (later knighted), whose first wife she became (1881). Henschel also had further vocal training under Pauline Viardot-Garcia. Possessed of considerable talent, she performed in a number of vocal recitals with her husband. Lilian Bailey Henschel died (Nov 14, 1901) aged forty-one, in London.

Hensel, Fanny    see   Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Fanny Cacilie

Hensel, Luise Maria – (1798 – 1876)
German devotional poet
Luise Hensel was born (March 30, 1798) at Linum in Brandenburg, the daughter of a Protestant minister. Her brother Wilhelm hensel (1794 – 1861) the noted painter became the husband of Fanny Cacilie Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. She was raised in Berlin, Prussia for a decade (1809 – 1819) during which time she wrote over two hundred religious poems, whilst her ‘Gartnerlieder’ (Garden Songs) were written especially for the stage production of Die schone Mullerin (The Pretty Miller’s Daughter) (1816). Luise became a friend of Clemens Brentano and his brother Christian, and converted to Roman Catholicism (1818). She wished to become a nun but did not due to the fact that she had to raise the son of her late sister. After this Luise was employed throughout Germany as a companion, a nurse, an educator and a governess before she retired in 1874 and was enable to retire to a nunnery. Her Samtliche Lieder (Collected Songs) (1869) was probably her most popular work and went through several editions. Luise Hensel died (Dec 18, 1876) aged seventy-eight, at Paderborn.

Hensel, Sophie Frederike – (1738 – 1790)
German stage actress
Born Sophie Sparmann in Dresden, Saxony, she was famous for her portrayal of classical and historical heroines. Sophie Friederike Hensel died in Schleswig.

Hensler, Elise Frederica – (1836 – 1929)
German soprano
Elise Hensler was born (May 22, 1836) in Vienna, the daughter of Joseph Hensler, a pianist, and his wife Josepha Hechelbacher. Elise accompanied her father to the Coburg Theatre where he worked, and he later took her to America where she gained some formal acting and singing lessons. Elise Hensler made her stage debut in New York opera, and then joined the cast of the San Carlos Theatre in Lisbon, Portugal, where she performed the breeches role of the page Oscar in Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Un Ballo in Maschera.
During one of her performances she attracted the attention of King Ferdinand II of Portugal (1816 – 1885), the widower of Queen Maria II da Gloria (1853). Elise became the king’s mistress and he paced her under his protection. With the abdication and exile of Isabella II of Spain (1870), King Ferdinand was considered as a replacement. However, the Duc de Montpensier informed the Vatican of the king’s scandalous relationship with Madamoiselle Hensler, which made him an unsuitable candidate. King Ferdinand answered the papal rebuke by marrying Elise morganatically (June 10, 1869). She was granted the title of countess von Edla by the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but the marriage remained childless. Elise’s position at the Portugese court was made difficult by the hatred expressed towards her by her stepdaughter-in-law, the Savoyard queen Maria Pia, who only referred to her contemptuously as ‘that person,’ and from whom the court took their tone. She resided quietly with Ferdinand at his country palace of Cintra, and the couple visited Italy and England together. Elise was present at the king’s deathbed (Dec 15, 1885). Countess von Edla retired to private life after the king’s death, and survived him for over four decades. Elise Hensler died (May 21, 1929) the day before her ninety-third birthday, in Lisbon.

Henson, Maria Rosa – (1927 – 1997)
Filippino war victim
Henson fought for decades for the legal recognition of the rights of women who had been raped and brutalized by Japanese soldiers. She left an account of her experiences in Comfort Women: Slave of Destiny (1996). Maria Rosa Henson (Aug, 1997) died in Manila.

Henttawy I (Henuttawy) – (c1100 – c1050 BC) 
Queen consort of Egypt
Henttawy I was the first wife of King Pinedjem I (c1070 – c1032 BC), of the High Priest Dynasty of Thebes, she was herself the daughter of King Ramesses XI. Her mummy was recovered from the tomb of Queen Inhapi, at Der-el-Bahri (1881), and now resides in the Cairo Museum. She was possibly the ancestress of Queen Henttawy II, the wife of Pharaoh Pinedjem II. A blue faience ushabti of Queen Henttawy is in the Berlin Museum, and she was connected to the royal office of, ‘God’s Wife of Amun.’

Henttawy II (Henuttawy) – (fl. c1000 – c980 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Henttawy II was the wife of Pinedjem II (c1030 – c969 BC), King of Egypt (c990 – c969 BC). She herself probably came from the same family, being a descendant of Pinedjem I and Henttawy I. She was perhaps the mother of King Psusennes III (c1000 – 945 BC).

Henty, Ruby Perchard – (1884 – 1972)
Australian painter
Ruby Henty was born in Adelaide, South Australia. She studied under Archibald Collins at the South Australia School of Design, and then under Marie Tuck at the South Australia School of Arts and Crafts. An associate of artist Dorrit Black, Henty was a member of the Contemporary Art Society of Victoria. Exhbitions of her work were held at the Royal Academy in London and at the New South Wales Watercolour Institute.

Hentz, Caroline Lee – (1800 – 1856)
American novelist and dramatist
Caroline Whiting was born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, the daughter of a military officer named Whiting. She was married (1824) to Nicholas Hentz, who had emigrated to American from Metz, in France. Her husband was appointed to teach lunguistics at the University of North Carolina (1826), and the remainder of her life was spent in the southern states, where she taught at various girls’ schools in Kentucky, Cincinnati, Alabama, and Georgia.
With the failure of her husband’s health and the closure of their school (1849), Hentz took up writing as a means of supporting her family. Her plays included De Lara: or, The Moorish Bride, produced on stage (1831), Werdenberg; or, The Forest League staged in 1832, and Lamorah; or, TheWestern Wild staged in 1833. Hentz wrote several highly sentimental novels including Lovell’s Folly (1833), Rena; or, The Snowbird (1851), The Planter’s Northern Bride (1854, 2 vols.), a refutation of the views of slavery and plantation life portrayed in Harriet Beecher Stowe ‘s novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Ernest Linwood (1856) and The Planter’s Daughter: A Tale of Louisana (1858), which were published posthumously. Hentz also produced a collection of short stories which was published as Aunt Patty’s Scrapbag (1845). Caroline Hentz died (Feb 11, 1856) aged fifty-five, in Marianna, Florida.

Henutmehyt – (fl. c1250 BC)
Egyptian priestess
Henutmehyt was a chantress of the god Amun-Re at Thebes, and lived during the XIXth Dynasty (1295 – 1187 BC). Henutmehyt was interred at Thebes inside two gilded and richly decorated sarcophagi, which were discovered in 1887, and are preserved in the British Museum in London. The richness of her burial accoutrement would seem to indicate that she was a lady of some social standing.

Henutmire – (c1294 – after 1257 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Henutmire was the daughter of Pharaoh Seti I and his wife Tuya, the daughter of Raia, and she was sister and first wife of the great Ramesses II. She was younger than Ramesses by about a decade, born after her father had succeeded to the throne (1295 BC), which proclaimed her an heiress, or throne princess. Ramesses probably married her at his accession (1279 BC). The union remained childless.
Queen Henutmire appears to have been of little significance during her brother’s reign. She was rarely recorded on public occasions or monuments, though she was mentioned on a statue of her mother, Queen Tuya, whom she survived, now preserved in the Vatican Museum, Rome, and on a statue of the deity Ramesses from rather late in his reign. Her sarcophagus was later recovered in Thebes, and is preserved in the Cairo Museum.

Hepburn, Audrey – (1929 – 1993)
Belgian actress and humanitarian
Born Edda van Heemstra Hepburn-Ruston, in Brussels, she was the daughter of the Baroness Ella van Heemstra. She trained in Amsterdam and London as a ballerina, and made her film debut in Holland in 7 Lessen (1948). Hepburn went to New York where she as given the lead role in Broadway production of, Gigi, and received an Academy Award for Best Actress for her role as the princess in Roman Holiday (1953), starring with Gregory Peck. She had great success in various films such as The Nun’s Story (1959) and Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1961). She was well remembered in the role of Eliza Doolittle in the musical My Fair Lady (1964), opposite Rex Harrison.
After her marriage with Robert Wolders, and the births of her sons, Hepburn made few film appearances, but instead became the public face of UNICEF, and a goodwill ambassador for that world organization. Her later films included Robin and Marian (1976), Bloodline (1979), They All Laughed (1980) and the television film Here a Thief (1987). Audrey Hepburn died of cancer.

Hepburn, Katharine Houghton – (1907 – 2003)
American film actress
Katharine Hepburn was born (May 12, 1907) in Connecticut, New Hampshire, and was educated at Bryn Mawr College. She made her first appearance in A Bill of Divorcement (1932) and quickly became famous for her acting skills, as well as her elegance. She was also known for her eccentric behaviour, her penchant for wearing trousers has been credited with making these popular wear for women in general. Several of her most famous films were made in conjunction with Spencer Tracy (1900 – 1967), with whom she conducted a long-time liasion. They were unable to marry because Tracy’s Catholic wife would not grant him a divorce. She was best known for appearances in films such as The Philadelphia Story (1941) and The African Queen (1951) with Humphrey Bogart and Robert Morley.
She received Academy Awards for her work in four films Morning Glory (1933), Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967), The Lion in Winter (1968) opposite Peter O’Toole, and On Golden Pond (1981) with Henry Fonda and his daughter Jane. Her television credits included appearances in The Glass Menagerie (1973), Love Among the Ruins (1975), Mrs Delafield Wants To Marry (1986), and The Man Upstairs (1992). Famous for her reclusivity and insistence on her privacy, during the last decade of her life she suffered increasingly from Alzheimer’s disease. Katharine Hepburn died (June 29, 2003) aged ninety-six, in Old Saybrook, Connecticut.

Hepenmae – (fl. c2600 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Hepenmae was the wife of King Khasekhemwy, the successor of Pharoah Peribsen, and last ruler of the IInd Dynasty, which ended c2584 BC. A sealing which was found in Khaseskhemwy’s tomb at Abydos, names Hepenmae as ‘mother of the King’s children.’ She was also named as ‘mother of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt’ on a sealing in the great tomb of Bet Khallaf near Abydos, which led to the incorrect supposition that she may have been the mother of King Djoser, who was in fact the son of Queen Nymaathap.

Hephzibah – (fl. c740 – c720 BC)
Hebrew queen
Her name means ‘my delight rests in her.’ She became the wife of Hezekiah, king of Judah (c740 – 698 BC), who reign began in c727 BC. Queen Hephzibah was the mother of Manasseh (c720 – 642 BC), who succeeded his father as king (698 – 642 BC). The Bible mentions her (Kings II, 21: 1) and the Jewish-Roman historian Flavius Josephus mentions her marriage in his Antiquitates Judaicae.

Hepworth, Dame Barbara – (1903 – 1975)
British sculptor
Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth was born in Wakefield, Yorkshire and received her technical training in Leeds and London, before travelling abroad to continue her education in Florence and Rome. She was married firstly to the noted sculptor, John Skeaping (1901 – 1980), to whom she bore a son. This marriage ended in divorce, and Barbara remarried (1933 – 1951) to the painter Ben Nicholson (1894 – 1982) to whom she bore three children and from whom she was later also divorced.
Hepworth’s style began with semi-abstract forms, usually in stone or wood, which were characterised by stringed figures and pierced shapes. Later in her career she became known for her enormous bronze sculptures. Her work was exhibited at the Venice Biennale (1950) and she was awarded the Grand Prix at the Sao Paulo Biennale (1959) in Brazil. She was appointed DBE (Dame Commander Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1956) in recognition of her contribution to the arts. Dame Barbara died in a fire which engulfed her home at St Ives in Cornwall.
Her best known works included Meridian at State House at Holborn (1959) and Divided Circle (1969) at Dulwich Park. She also created the Hammarskjold Memorial outside the United Nations building in New York (1963). Dame Barbara was the author of Drawings for a Sculptor’s Landscape (1967).

Heracla – (fl. c20 BC – c20 AD)
Roman freedwoman and artist
Heracla was formerly a slave in the household of the Empress Livia, the widow of Augustus, who was later manumitted. She is attested by a surviving inscription which describes Heracla as a painter, but provides no details of her career. She may possibly have been responsible for the surviving mural paintings in Livia’s villa.

Heracliana – (fl. 519 – 525)
Byzantine patrician
Heracliana was a woman of wealth and rank in Constantinople. She received a letter from Severus of Antioch. She is perhaps to be identified with ‘the religious Heracliana’ a deaconess and abbess mentioned in the Select Letters of Severus, as having founded a monastery.

Herais – (fl. c476 – 493 AD)
Byzantine religious patron
Herais was a member of the Imperial family, being the wife of Procopius Anthemius, consul (515), a son of the emperor Anthemius (467 – 472 AD). Their son Zeno later held the rank of Imperial prefect in the household of the emperor Justinian I. The Vitae of the ascetic Daniel Stylites recorded that Herais visited the saint (475 – 476 AD) and asked for his prayers that she might be blessed with a son. She conceived and Zeno was so-named at Daniel’s order. With Daniel’s death (493 AD), Lady Herais was responsible for removing him from atop of his pillar, and making the arrangements for his burial, and for providing gold for distribution to the people.

Herakleia – (c255 – 214 BC)
Syrackusan princess
Herakleia was the daughter of King Hiero II and his queen, Philistis. She was married to the patrician Zoippos to whom she bore two daughters. With the revolt against her nephew, King Hieronymus in 214 BC, most of the royal family was massacred by the mob including Herakleia and her children.

Herault, Antoinette – (c1640 – after 1683)
French painter
Antoinette Herault was the daughter of the landscape painter Antoine Herault, and his wife Madeleine Bruiant. Known for her excellent miniature copies of the famous masters, Antoinette married the engraver Guillaume Chastel (1635 – 1683). With his death, Antoinette remarried to the engraver Jean-Baptiste Bonnart, who was court painter of Louis XIV.

Herault, Madeleine – (1635 – 1682)
French painter
Madeleine Herault was the daughter of Antoine Herault, and his wife Madeleine Bruiant, and the elder sister of Antoinette Herault. She married the noted painter Noel Coypel (1628 – 1707), and became mother of the painter Antoine Coypel (1661 – 1722).

Herbert, Anne Parr, Lady     see    Pembroke, Anne Parr, Countess of

Herbert, Caroline Montagu, Lady – (1736 – 1818)
British society figure
Lady Caroline Herbert was a courtier of George III (1760 – 1820) and his wife Queen Charlotte. She also travelled to France prior to the Revolution and attended the court of Louix XVI and Marie Antoinette at Versailles. She is mentioned in the correspondence of the noted antiquarian Horace Walpole, whom Lady Herbert visited at his villa of Strawberry Hill ay Twickenham, near London.

Herbert, Lady Charlotte (1) – (1675 – 1733)
English Stuart heiress and peeress
Lady Charlotte Herbert was the daughter of Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and his French wife Henriette de Keroualle, the sister of Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth the mistress of King Charles II. Charlotte was named in honour of the king. She was married firstly at Hedgardley (1688) to John Jeffreys (1673 – 1702) second Baron Jeffreys, the son of the infamous Judge Jeffreys, to whom she bore a daughter, Henrietta Louisa Jeffreys (1695 – 1761) who became the wife of Thomas Fermor, first Earl of Pomfret and served at court as lady-in-waiting to Queen Caroline, the wife of George II (1727 – 1760).
Charlotte survived her first husband as the Dowager Baroness Jeffreys (1702 – 1703) and was remarried secondly at Chelsea in London (1703) to Sir Thomas Windsor (1669 – 1738) first Viscount Windsor of Bletsoe and became the Viscountess Windsor. The ceremony was repeated in the Chapel of the Church of St Mary in Aldermanbury. Lady Windsor died 9Nov 13, 1733) aged fifty-eight, at Reigate in Surrey. She was interred within Salisbury Cathedral. With the death of her son Herbert Windsor, the second Viscount Windsor without male issue (1758) that peerage became extinct. Charlotte’s daughters from her second marriage were, Ursula Windsor, the wife of John Wadham of Imber in Wiltshire, Charlotte Windsor, the wife of John Kent of Salisbury, and Catharine Windsor, the wife of Mattheus Estevenon of Holland.

Herbert, Lady Charlotte (2) – (1773 – 1784)
British child letter writer
Lady Charlotte Herbert was the daughter of Henry Herbert, tenth Earl of Pembroke. Charlotte died young, but her childhood letters have survived and were printed in the family memoir entitled Henry, Elizabeth and George (1734 – 1780). Letters and Diaries of Henry, Tenth Earl of Pembroke and His Circle (1939), which was compiled by Sidney Charles, Lord Herbert of Lea.

Herbert, Lady Elizabeth – (1476 – 1512)
English Tudor heiress
Lady Elizabeth was the only daughter and heiress of William Herbert, Earl of Huntingdon and Lord Herbert of Ragland, Chepstow and Gower by his wife Lady Mary Woodville, sister to Queen Elizabeth Woodville, the wife of Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, the first Earl of Rivers and his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg, the Dowager Duchess of Bedford. Thus Elizabeth was first cousin to Elizabeth of York, the wife of Henry VII and second cousin to Henry VIII.
With her father’s death (1491) the earldom of Huntingdon passed to the crown but Elizabeth succeeded in her own right (suo jure) as Baroness Herbert of Ragland, Chepstow and Gower. She became the first wife (June 2, 1492) of Lord Charles Somerset (1460 – 1526) who succeeded in Elizabeth’s right the title of Baron Herbert of Ragland and was summoned to Parliament under that title (Carolo Somerset de Herbert Chivaler) after the accession of Henry VIII (Oct 17, 1509). Lord and Lady Somerset were present at the funeral obsequies of Queen Elizabeth of York (1503) and attended the coronation of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. Lady Elizabeth died (before March 21 in 1512) and was interred within St George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle in Berkshire. Only after Elizabeth’s death was Somerset further ennobled by Henry VIII as the first Earl of Worcester (1514). Her children were,

Herbert, Lady Lucy Theresa – (1668 – 1744)
Scottish devotional author,
Lady Lucy Herbert was the daughter of William Herbert, first Duke of Powis, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward Somerset, second Marquis of Worcester. She was the elder sister of Winefride Herbert, the famous countess of Nithsdale. With the accession of William and Mary in 1688, the ducal family fled to France, where, in 1693, Lucy became a nun at the convent of the English Augustinian canonesses at Bruges. She was elected prioress in 1709 as Mother Theresa Joseph.
Her work included Several excellent methods of Hearing Mass (1722) and Several Methods and Practices of Devotions appertaining to a Religious Life (1743). Those two works, together with her Meditations were reprinted in The Devotions of the Lady Lucy Herbert of Powis (1873) which was published in London. Lucy Herbert died in office (Jan 19, 1744) aged seventy-five.

Herbert, Magdalen (Lady Danvers) – (1568 – 1627)
English literary patron
Magdalen Newport was the daughter of Sir Richard Newport, and his wife Margaret Bromley, daughter of Sir Thomas Bromley. She married firstly (c1583) Richard Herbert of Montgomery Castle, Llyssin (c1545 – 1596) a descendant of William Herbert, first Earl of Pembroke and his wife Mary Woodville, sister-in-law to King Edward IV (1461 – 1483).
A woman of great personal charm and fervent piety, she devoted herself to the education of her ten children. Whilst at Oxford with her eldest son Edward, Mrs Herbert made the acquaintance of the poet John Donne, with whom she maintained a friendship which lasted till her death. She was liberal in her gifts to Donne’s family, and he addressed much of his sacred poetry to her, commemorating her noble character in sonnets. He also complimented her in a touching poem entitled The Autumnal Beauty.
In 1608 she remarried to the future regicide Sir John Danvers (c1588 – 1655) as his first wife, being twenty years his senior. According to Donne, this marriage was thoroughly happy, and Sir John treated all his stepchildren with the utmost kindness. Lady Danvers died in June, 1627, aged fifty-nine, and was interred in the parish church of Chelsea, near her second husband’s London residence. A sermon on her life and character was preached by Donne on July 1 following, and published, together with commemorative verses written by her fourth son George Herbert. Her children were,

Herbert, Mary     see also     Pembroke, Mary Sidney, Countess of

Herbert, Mary – (1575 – 1634)
English Stuart peeress
Mary Herbert was the daughter and heiress of Sir William Herbert (1554 – 1593) and his wife Florentia Morgan, the daughter of William Morgan of Llantarnan in Monmouthshire. Her father’s will (April 12, 1587) settled all his property which included besides St Julians and his Irish estates, lands in Anglesea and Carnarvonshire upon Mary on condition that she married ‘one of the surname of Herbert.’ Mary and her mother Florentia Herbert petitioned that a new survey be made of her late father’s Irish property and the rent reduced (1596). Mary was married at Eyton (1599) to her kinsman Edward Herbert (1583 – 1648), and then resided at Montgomery Castle at Oxford, together with her mother-in-law, Lady Magdalen Danvers (nee Mistress Herbert), the muse of the poet John Donne.
Husband and wife were presented to King James I at Burleigh House, Stamford (April, 1603) and Edward Herbert remained much involved in his duties at court until his abrupt dismissal (July, 1624). His only reward was the Irish peerage of Castleisland in County Kerry, from the name of an estate inherited by Mary Herbert (Dec 30, 1624). Mary was created Baroness Herbert in her own right (suo jure) by King Charles I (1629) while her husband was created first Baron Herbert of Cherbury, the name of his estate in Shropshire. When Lord Herbert asked Mary to settle estates upon their children in her lifetime, in case one of them should died, and the surviving parent marry again, which would damage the prospects of their elder children, Lady Mary refused as she did not wish to find herself in the power of her children ‘she would not draw the cradle upon her head.’ Lady Herbert died (Oct 29, 1634) aged fifty-nine, and was buried in Montgomery Church. Her children were,

Herbert, Lady Mary – (1686 – 1775)
Scottish Jacobite figure
Lady Mary Herbert was the eldest of the four daughters of William Herbert, second Marquess and second Duke of Powis and his wife Lady Elizabeth Somerset, the daughter fo Edward Somerset, second Marquess of Worcester. She was the niece of the famous Jacobite heroine Lady Winifrede Nithsdale. With her family she resided at the Jacobite court at St Germain-en-Laye in Paris. Attracted and spirited Lady Mary was handicapped by the lack of a proper dowry. Lord Panmure suggested Lady Mary as a possible bride for the Old Pretender Prince James Edward Francis Stuart, the son of James II and Mary Beatrice of Modena. Panmure wrote of Mary (1716) ‘She has generally a very good character and I think her very discreet and sweet-natured lady and of good understanding and very agreeable.’ This proposition came to nothing but Lady Mary was proud to boast of the suggestion for the rest of her life.
Lady Mary eventually became the wife (1719) of the the Irish soldier Hon. (Honourable) Joseph Gage (1678 – 1753) the younger brother of the first Viscount Gage, who was an officer in the French army. He became Count Gage (1741) when he was created a grandee of Spain and Lady Mary had resided with him in the Asturias region of Spain for several years from 1727. Lady Mary died (Jan 31, 1753) in Pampeluna in Navarre. Mary survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Gage (1753 – 1775) but never used the Gage name or title. She later returned to Spain accompanied by her sister Lady Carrington, and managed to successfully establish her claim to a silver mine there (1745). She had requested the title of duchess for herself from the Jacobite Prince of Wales after her father died without a male heir but this request was not granted. Some of her letters have survived.
Lady Mary had applied for and received the position of dame d’honneur (lady-in-waiting) to Queen Marie Lezscynzska, the wife of Louis XV but at the direction of her nephew she declined the position (1748). Two decades afterwards she was involved in a lawsuit against her niece Lady Powis to regain an annuity (1766) but does not appear to have been successful. She later retired to Paris where she died (Sept 2, 1775) aged eighty-nine.

Herbert, Mary Theresa Fox-Strangways, Lady – (1903 – 1948)
British courtier
Lady Mary Fox-Strangways was born (Jan 23, 1903) the daughter of Giles Stephen Holland Fox-Strangways (1874 – 1959), the sixth Earl of Ilchester and his wife Lady Helen Mary Theresa Vane Tempest Stewart, the daughter of the sixth Marquess of Londonderry. Lord Ilchester was a trustee of the British Museum and of the National Portrait Gallery. Lady Mary became the wife of Colonel Sir John Arthur Herbert of Llanover in Monmouthshire. Mary survived her husband, who was killed during WW II, as the Dowager Lady Herbert (1943 – 1948). As a widow she served at court as lady-in-waiting (1944 – 1948) to the Dowager Queen Mary, widow of George V (1910 – 1935). Lady Herbert died (Jan 26, 1948) aged forty-five.

Herbert, Mary Woodville, Lady    see   Woodville, Mary

Herbert of Lea, Mary Elizabeth A’Court-Repington, Lady – (1822 – 1911)
British Victorian painter and travel writer
Mary A’Court-Repington was born (July 21, 1822), the daughter of Lieutenant-General Charles Ashe A’Court-Repington of Amington Hall in Warwickshire, and his wife Mary Elizabeth Gibbs, and was niece to the first Baron Heytesbury. She was married at St George’s in Hanover Square, London (1846) to the Hon. (Honourable) Sidney Herbert (1810 – 1861), a younger son of the Earl of Pembroke, and became the Hon. Mrs Herbert. When Herbert was raised to the peerage by Queen Victoria as the first Baron Herbert of Lea (Jan, 1861) Mary became Baroness Herbert of Lea. However Lord Herbert died ony eight months afterwards and their children were granted the patent of precedence as the children of an earl (1862).
Mary survived her husband for fifty years as the Dowager Baroness Herbert of Lea (1861 – 1911) and as a widowed peeress was present at the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra (1902). Under the influence of Cardinal Manning she converted to Roman Catholicism (1862) and became an ardent ultramontane. She produced watercolour paintings and wrote books of travel and English translations of French works. Her published works included Impressions of Spain and Algeria, or Search after Sunshine, and Children of Nazareth.
Lady Herbert also wrote biographies of several prominent historical persons such as Geronimo, the Archbishop of Braga, Mother Teresa Dubouche, St Caetjan and Clement Hofbauer amongst others. She also published the collection of stories entitled Wayside Tales and the children’s religious works First Martyrs of the Holy Childhood in China and Children of Nazareth. Lady Herbert of Lea died (Oct 30, 1911) aged eighty-nine, at Herbert House in Belgrave Square, London. She was interred at St Joseph’s Missionary College at Millhill in Middlesex. Her children were,

Herbison, Dame Jean Marjory – (1923 – 2007)
New Zealand educator and academic
Jean Herbison was born (April 23, 1923), the daughter of William Herbison, studied the arts at the University of Canterbury, and then trained at the Auckland Teachers College and at the University of Northern Iowa in the USA. She taught at a secondary school for girls at Avonside (1952 – 1959) prior to be appointed as the dean of Christchurch Teacher’s College (1960). Miss Herbison served as vice-principal (1968 – 1974) and then became the associate director of the Christchurch Polytechnic (1975 – 1984).
Jean Herbison was elected to the Council of the University of Canterbury (1970) and was then appointed as chancellor of the Canterbury (1970 – 1984) becoming the first woman in New Zealand to be appointed to the position. She became an associate of the University of London Institute of Education, and was a fellow of the New Zealand Educational Administration and Leadership Society and an honorary fellow of the New Zealand Educational Institute. She received the Queen’s Silver Jubilee Medal (1977) and was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1985) in recognition of her contribution to the field of education. Dame Jean Herbison died (May 20, 2007) aged eighty-four, at Christchurch.

Herbison, Margaret McCrorie – (1907 – 1996)
Scottish civil servant
Herbison was born (March 11, 1907), and was educated at the Bellshill Academy and at Glasgow University. Margaret remained unmarried and served as Labour Member of Parliament for North Lanark for twenty-five years (1945 – 1970), and as minister of Pensions and National Insurance (1964 – 1966) as well as minister of Social Security (1966 – 1967). Herbison was the first woman to serve as Lord High commissioner of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (1970 – 1971) and was elected Scotswoman of the Year (1970). Margaret Herbison died (Dec 29, 1996) aged eighty-nine, at Shotts, Lanarkshire.

Herchenfreda – (c570 – after 630)
Gallo-Roman letter writer
Herchenfreda was born in Albi, and married Salvius (died c618), a member of the noble Syagrii family, and was the mother of Rusticus (c588 – 630), Bishop of Cahors, who was murdered in his own cathedral, Syagrius (died 630), governor of Marseilles, and of Desiderius (c595 – 650), who succeeded his elder brother as Bishop of Cahors. An educated woman she supervised the education of her sons, and three of her letters to Desiderius have survived preserved in the Vitae Desiderii episcopi Cadurncensis.

Heredia, Marie Louise Antoinette de – (1875 – 1963)
French woman of letters, salonniere and literary figure
Marie Louise de Heredia was born in Paris, the daughter of the poet, Jose Maria de Heredia. She was married (1895) to the poet Henri Regnier, and used the pseudonym ‘Gerard d’Houville.’ She was a friend of novelist Marcel Proust, and published several works including La Temps d’aimer (1908), L’Enfant (1925) and Esclave amoureuse (1927).

Herena – (fl. 599)
Roman patrician
Herena is known from the Epistolarum Registrum of Pope Gregory I (590 – 604). Heran complained to the Pope that Roman church officials had unjustly detained some of her servants, and Gregory’s letter (July, 599) in which he styled her gloriosa filia nostra Herena, ordered his official Anthemius in Campania to rectify the matter.

Herepaenga    see   Nga-kahu-whero

Hereswyth – (c606 – 655)
Anglo-Saxon queen
Hereswyth was the daughter of the Deiran prince Hereric and his wife Beorhtswyth, and was niece to Edwin of Deira, King of Northumbria. She was the elder sister of Hilda of Whitby. Hereswyth was married firstly to King Anna of East-Anglia, as his second wife (c621), and was the mother of several daughters, including Sexburga, wife of Earconbert, King of Kent, Aethelthryth (Etheldreda), who married Egbert of Northumbria, but became abbess of Ely, and the recluse Withburga.
With Anna’s death in battle against the Mercians (654), Hereswyth was married briefly to his brother and successor, Ethelhere for political considerations, but left him, and travelled to the abbey of Chelles, outside Paris, where she became a nun and was appointed abbess before her death soon after these events.

Hericourt, Jenny d’ – (1809 – 1875)  
French feminist, reformer and writer
Jeanne Marie Fabeinne Poinsard was born at Besancon and was raised in Paris by her mother after the death of her father. She became the administrator of a school for girls prior to her marriage (1832) with Michel Gabriel Marie. There were no children and the couple finally separated. She later qualified as a physician, becoming one of the first woman doctors in Europe. She travelled to Russia and supported full emancipation for all women, and using the pseudonym ‘Jenny d’Hericourt’ she signed the manifesto of the Society for Women’s Emancipation and was a speaker at the 1869 Congress of the American Equal Rights Association. Hericourt was the author of La femme affranchie (1880). Using the pseudonym ‘Felix Lamb’ she published the novel Le Fils du reprouve (Son of the Outcast) (1844) whilst some of her articles were published in the Revue philosophique journal. Jenny d’Hericourt died in Paris.

Heritte-Viardot, Louise Pauline Marie – (1841 – 1918)
German vocal educator
Louise Viardot was born in Paris (Dec 14, 1841), the daughter of Spanish soprano Pauline Viardot-Garcia, and taught at the Conservatory of St Petersburg in Russia, and later at those at Frankfort-aim-Main and in Berlin, Prussia. She was married to the French consul-General Heritte. She composed several cantatas as well as the opera Lindora, which was first performed at Weimar in Germany (1879). Louise Heritte-Viardot died (Jan 17, 1918) aged seventy-six, at Heidelberg in the Rhineland.

Herleva, Herleve     see      Arletta

Herluka (Herluca) – (c1090 – c1142)
German mystic, nun and saint
Herluka was converted from a worldly way of life after sufferring s severe illness, and became blind. Herluka recovered the sight in one eye after praying to St Ciriacus, and she had visions concerning the bishop and martyr Wicterpus, about whom nothing had previously been knowledge. Her Vitae was written by the priest Paul Bernstein, who had known Herluka personally. Regarded as a saint at her death her feast (April 8) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Herman, Jean – (1922 – 1992) 
American researcher and public relations specialist
Jean Herman attended Barnard College and worked as amarket researcher and public relations specialist. Herman was remembered as the Manhattan brownstone resident who steadfastly refused to be bought out or relocated for over thirty years in New York. A thirty story office tower opposite Bloomingdale’s department store gradually grew around her. Jean Herman died (March 24, 1992) aged sixty-nine.

Herman, Mary Ann – (1912 – 1992)
American dance educator and teacher of folk-dance
Mary was born in Manhattan, New York. With her husband Michael, Mrs Herman taught folk-dancing at the American Commons of the New York World’s Fair (1939), established herself as the leading exponent of folk-dance, and a noted authority on their associated cultural traditions. She and her husband established their own school of dance, Folk Dance House (1950 – 1970). Mary Ann Herman died (March 23, 1992) aged seventy-nine, at North Babylon, Rhode Island.

Hermann, Antonius    see   Gartner, Hermine

Hermanns, Heida – (1906 – 1995)
German-American pianist and chamber music performer
Hermanns as born at Wiesbaden in Germany and attended the Berlin Hochshule fur Musik (1921), where she was taught by Egon Petri and Isabella Vengerova, amongst other prominent musicians. Heida later immigrated to the USA with her husband (1936), where she founded the Performers of Connecticut, which provided assistance to young musicians, and established the Heida Hermans Young Performers Competition (1997). Heida Hermanns died (Dec 27, 1995) aged eighty-nine, at Westport, Connecticut.

Hermes, Gertrude Anna Bertha – (1901 – 1983)
British printmaker and sculptor
Gertude Hermes was born in Bromley, Kent, and studied at the Beckenham School of Art and the Leon Underwood School in London (1922 – 1925). There she was introduced to her future husband (1926 – 1933) Blair Hughes-Stanton, from whom she was later dirvorced. Hermes and her husband collaborated together at Gregynog, producing highly skilled works in sculpture. After her divorce Gertrude continued to work in order to provide for her children.
Her work was exhibited at the Paris and New York World Fairs, and she was chosen to represent Britain at the Venice Biennale (1939). Gertrude Hermes was later elected to the Royal Academy (1971) and she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1982) in recognition of her valuable contribution to the arts.

Hermine Amalia Marie of Austria – (1817 – 1842)
Hapsburg archduchess
Archduchess Hermine was born (Sept 14, 1817) in Buda, Hungary, the only daughter of Joseph Anton, Archduke Palatine of Hungary (1776 – 1847) and his second wife Hermine, the daughter of Victor II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg (1767 – 1812). She bore the additional titles of Princess of Hungary and Bohemia and Princess of Lorraine and Tuscany. She was a twin with her brother Archduke Stephen (1817 – 1865) and their mother died at their birth. Hermine never married and was later appointed to rule as superior of the Theresian convent in Prague, Bohemia (1839 – 1842). Archduchess Hermine died (Feb 13, 1842) aged twenty-four, in Vienna.

Hermione – (c45 – c118 AD)
Graeco-Roman medical practitioner
Hermione was one of the four daughters of the Christian apostle Philip, one of the followers of Jesus Christ. With her sister Eutyche Hermione devoted herself to the Chrisitian teachings, and the sisters resided in Asia Minor under the protection of Petronius, a disciple of St Paul. Hermione was extremely learned in the field of medicine and was a skilled physician. Though arrested by the emperor Trajan as a Christian, Hermione’s courage impressed the emperor, who ordered her to be released. She established and organized a public hospital but with Trajan’s death she perished at the hands of his successor Hadrian (117 – 138 AD). As a Roman citizen she was spared torture and was beheaded. Regarded as a saint (Sept 4) her feast was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum.

Hernandez de Araujo, Carmen – (1832 – 1877)
Puerto-Rican dramatist, author and poet
Carmen Hernandez de Araujo was the author of, Los deudos rivales (1846), a play in five acts, written when she was only thirteen, and considered to be the earliest known dramatic work produced by a Puerto-Rican woman. Hernandez de Araujo was also known for her devotional poems such as,’A la Santa Cruz,’ and, ‘Agonia de Jesus en el Huerte.’

Herneith (Horneith) – (fl. c2900 BC) 
Queen consort of Egypt
Herneith was a royal consort of the Ist Dynasty once thought to perhaps be one of the wives of King Menes, or of King Hor-Aha. She has now been identified as the wife of King Djer. When Queen Herneith died an architecturally impressive mastaba was erected as her burial place, at Nagada in Upper Egypt, which has since been discovered and excavated. Inscriptions record that Herneith held the office of ‘controller of the palace,’ and the stone lintel carved with a frieze of lions found in her tomb is considered to be the oldest example of constructural sculpture in Egypt. A number of objects inscribed with her name were found in the royal cemeteries at Abydos and Sakkara.

Herneldia – (fl. c580 – c600)
Carolingian nun
Herneldia was born at Louvain in Brabant, of patrician parentage. She was trained for the religious life and became a nun under St Ermelinda, the sister of Duke Carloman I of Austrasia, at Meldaert, near Hugard, in Flanders, where a convent was later erected by Pepin I. She was venerated annually as a saint (Aug 13).

Herodias – (14 BC – after 40 AD) 
Queen consort of Judaea
Herodias was the daughter of Prince Aristobulos, and was granddaughter of Herod the Great. She was married firstly to her uncle, the tetrarch Herod Philip (c21 BC – 34 AD), by whom she is the mother of the famous Salome, who danced for the head of St John the Baptist at the fortress of Maecherus. Herodias left Philip, and taking her daughter with her, she retired to Rome. There she began a notorious liasion (23 AD) with the already married, Herod Antipas. The second union remained childless. With the death of Philip (34 AD), Herodias and Antipas were finally legally married. It was through her urging that her husband successfully petitioned the emperor Tiberius for the throne of Judaea (36 AD), but when he was later exiled, she chose to accompany him to Lyons in Gaul, though offerred her freedom and estates by the emperor Caligula. Antipas died in 39 AD, and the queen survived him. Herodias has been frequently depicted as a femme fatale, notably in Henri Riviers’s Herodias (1896), and was also the subject of the famous engraving which illustrates Stephane Mallarme’s Herodiade.

Heron, Matilda Agnes – (1830 – 1877)
Irish-American actress
Matilda Heron was born in Londonderry, the daughter of an actor, and came to Philadelphia in the USA with her family (1842). After the death of her father she appeared with her mother snd sisters at the St Charles Theatre in New Orleans, Louisiana, where she sang in comic opera. She studied under Peter Richings in Philadelphia, and appeared at the Bowery Theatre in New York, in such roles as, Lady Macbeth, Ophelia, and Pauline. Her brief marriage with an accountant proved a failure. Heron became famous for her extremely emotional style of acting, and had great success in the role of Camille in Alexandre Dumas the younger’s La Dame aux Camellias, and produced her own version Camille or the Fate of a Coquette (1855) which created a sensation in New York (1857). She was reduced to poverty later in life.

Heron-Maxwell, Beatrice – (c1846 – 1927)
British author, illustrator and dramatist
Born Beatrice Eastwick, and was educated privately at home under the supervision of a governess. Beatrice was married twice, firstly to Lane Huddart, and secondly to S.W. Heron-Maxwell, a member of the landed aristocracy. Beatrice Heron-Maxwell was a prolific writer was the author of such works as The Tenth Step, The Silken Noose and The Caravanners. With her sister Florence Eastwick she produced A Woman’s Soul, The Fifth Wheel, and The Cup of Trembling. She also wrote over seven hundred short stories and serials which were published in various magazines, and was appointed as vice-president of the Society of Women Journalists. Beatrice Heron-Maxwell died (March 7, 1927).

Herophile – (fl. c540 – c520 BC)
Roman priestess
Better known as the Cumaean Sybil because of her long residence in a cave near the town of Cumae, in Campania, she wrote the Sibylline Books, a collection of ancient prophecies. Considered the greatest prophetess of antiquity, her predictions were greatly respected. Herophile offered nine books of her work to King Tarquin the Proud for a certain price. He twice refused the price, and Herophile burnt six of the volumes before the king finally agreed to buy them and preserve them for posterity. The original of these perished in the fire that destroyed the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome (83 BC).

Herrade of Landsberg – (c1125 – 1195)
German abbess and compiler
Herrade was born at Mont-Sainte-Odile, Alsace, and was appointed as abbess of the convent of Hohenburg in Alsace (1167 – 1195). Herrade was an able ruler and administrator of her community, being responsible for the building of a hospital and hospice, and a priory with adjacent church. Over the period of a decade (c1160 – c1170) she supervised the illustration of the Hortus Deliciarum, a scientific encyclopedia, portions of which survive, though the original was destroyed during the siege of Strasbourg (1870). Abbess Herrade died (July 25, 1195) aged about seventy.

Herrick, Sophia McIlvaine Bledsoe – (1837 – 1919)
American botanical writer, editor and poet
Sophia Bledsoe was born (March 26, 1837) at Gambier in Ohio, the daughter of a mathematics teacher. She was married (1860) to an Episcopalian clergyman, James B. Herrick, to whom she bore three children. When her husband gave up his ministry to join the Oneida Community, she refused to accompany him, and removed to Baltimore in Maryland, where she became the associate editor of the Southern Review newspaper (1875 – 1878), which was run by her father.
With her father’s death and the subsequent failure of his newspaper, Herrick joined the editorial staff of Scribner’s (1879). She served as an editor under Scribner’s successor The Century, for over two decades retiring in 1909. Her work included The Wonders of Plant Life under the Microscope (1883), Chapters on Plant Life (1885) and The Earth in Ages Past (1888). She also published a collection of verse entitled A Century of Sonnets (1902). Sophia Herrick died (Oct 9, 1919) aged eighty-two.

Herring, Agnes (Aggie) – (1876 – 1939)
American stage and film actress
Herring was born in San Francisco, California. She appeared in such silent films as Queenie (1921). Agnes Herring died (Oct 28, 1939) aged sixty-three, in Santa Monica, California.

Herschel, Caroline Lucretia – (1750 – 1848)
German-Anglo astronomer and author
Caroline Herschel was born at Hanover, the daughter of a musician in the Hanoverian guard, and was sister to the famous astronomer Sir William Herschel (1738 – 1822). Unitil 1772 she assisted her mother with the running of the family household, after which she accompanied her brother to Bath in England, where he worked as a music teacher. She remained unmarried.
When Herschel became the official astronomer to King George III, Caroline became her brother’s devoted assistant, and was involved with his complicated calculations. She watched the heavens herself with a small Newtonian telescope, and discovered three nebulae (1783) and eight comets (1786 – 1797). She presented to the Royal Society an Index to the observations of John Flamsteed (1646 – 1719), astronomer to Charles II (1674), togther with a catalogue she had produced which contained of five hundred and fifty stars which had been omitted from the British Catalogue. Herschel later returned to Hanover (1822) and received the gold medal of the Astronomical Society (1828). Caroline was aunt to the noted astronomer, Sir John Frederick Herschel (1792 – 1871), and was inducted as a member of the Royal Irish Academy (1838).
Miss Herschel later received a gold medal from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia in recognition of her lifetime contribution to astronomy (1846). Caroline died in Hanover, aged ninety-seven (Jan 9, 1848). Her letters were edited and published posthumously by Mrs John Herschel as the, Memoir and Correspondence of Caroline Herschel (1876).

Hersende of Arcis – (c915 – c970)
French mediaeval heiress
Hersinde inherited the county of Arcis-sur-Aube and the seigneurie of Rameru in Champagne. She was most probably the daughter of Count Rainer II of Hainault, and the granddaughter of Rainer I, Duke of Lorraine and his first wife Hersende of Neustria, daughter of the Carolingian emperor Charles II the Bald (875 – 877). She was married (c930) to Helpuin de Montdidier, a feudal nobleman who held Arcis-sur-Aube in her right. Hersende was the mother of Hilduin I de Montdidier (c937 – after 992) Seigneur of Rameru and Count of Tournai, ancestor of the Counts of Roucy.

Hersende of Neustria – (c859 – c888)
Carolingian princess
Hersende or Hersent was the daughter of the Emperor Charles II the Bald (875 – 877) and his first wife Ermentrude of Orleans, the daughter of Count Odo of Orleans. She became the first wife (c875) of Rainer I (c850 – 916), Count of Hainault, who received the dukedom of Lotharingia (Lorraine) as the result of his marriage with an Imperial princess.
This was a second dynastic marriage in two generations, organized to further bind Rainer’s family with the Imperial house as his own mother Ermengarde was the daughter of the Emperor Lothair I (840 – 855). Her two children were Rainer II (c879 – c933) who succeeded his father as Count of Hainault (916) and left descendants, and Symphorienne of Hainault (died after 924) the wife of Berengar of Lommagau (c880 – 946), Count of Namur and left descendants.

Hershey, Lenore – (1916 – 1997)
American magazine editor
Lenore attended Hunter College before she married Dr Solomon G. Hershey, professor of anaesthesiology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Her editorial career began in the promotions department of the New York Herald Tribune. She transferred to McCall’s in 1952 becoming executive director before she left in 1968 to become managing editor of The Ladies’ Home Journal.
Appointed editor after a feminist demonstration (1973), in 1981 Hershey was appointed president and editorial director of the new multimedia subsidiary of the Charter Publishing Company. Lenore Hershey served on the Presidential Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women, which she helped create in 1972. Lenore Hershey died (Feb 27, 1997) aged seventy-eight, in Manhattan, New York.

Hersilia – (fl. c753 BC)
Roman queen consort
Hersilia was the wife of Romulus (c772 – c716 BC), the first King of Rome (753 BC). Plutarch recorded that Hersilia was the wife of Hostilius, and was the only married woman to be captured by Romulus with the Sabine women, so he married her and made her his queen. Livy recorded his his Early History of Rome that Hersilia, moved by the lamentation of her other captured countrywomen, interceded on their behalf, so that after the end of the victory celebrations, the parents of these women were permitted to settle in Rome to be near their families.
According to the rather unreliable Zenodotus of Troezen, Queen Hersilia was the mother of two children, a daughter Prima, and a son Avillius. Through her first marriage Hersilia was grandmother of King Tullus Hostilius, who succeeded Numa Pompilius as King of Rome (673 – c642 BC).

Hertford, Frances Howard, Countess of     see     Howard, Lady Frances

Hertford, Frances Thynne, Countess of    see   Somerset, Frances Thynne, Duchess of

Hertford, Katherine Grey, Countess of     see   Grey, Lady Katherine

Hertford, Maria Emilia, Marchioness of   see   Fagniani, Maria Emilia

Hervey, Anne Coghlan, Lady – (c1718 – 1786)
British Hanoverian scandal figure
Anne Coghlan was the daughter of Francis Coghlan, an Irish counsellor at law. She became the mistress of Sir Thomas Hervey (1698 – 1775) and this liaison lasted for some years until he finally married her (1745). Years afterward Hervey tried to divorce Anne and disown both her and their son. Lady Hervey’s surviving letters to George Selwyn answer some of the insults made against her by her husband.
Lady Hervey was later reconciled with her husband on his deathbed (Jan, 1775) and he acknowledged the validity of their marriage. Anne survived Thomas for a decade as the Dowager Lady Hervey (1775 – 1786). Her son William Thomas Hervey (c1740 – 1775) served as aide-de-camp to General Shirley and was killed at the battle of Ticonderoga in America. She was mentioned in the correspondence of the antiquarian Horace Walpole.

Hervey, Cordelia Annesley, Lady – (c1585 – 1636)
English litigant
Cordelia Annesley was the daughter of Sir Brian Annesley, of Lee, Kent, a gentleman pensioner of Queen Elizabeth I, and his wife Audrey Tirrell. Cordelia became the second wife (1608) of Sir William Hervey (c1560 – 1642), later Lord Hervey of Kidbrooke. Her two elder sisters, Ladys Sandys and Lady Wildgoose, tried to have their father certified as insane so that they could obtain his estate (1603).
Lady Cordelia protested in a letter to the principal secretary of state, Sir Robert Cecil, urging that she be appointed her father’s guardian instead. With Sir Brian’s eventual death, the Wildgoose family contested his will, but they failed in their attempt to overthrow Cordelia’s inheritance. Lady Annesley’s story may have provided William Shakespeare with some of the plot for his famous play King Lear.

Hervey, Irene – (1909 – 1998)
American film and television actress
Irene Hewick was born at Venice in California, and became a contract performer at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1933). She adopted the professional name of ‘Irene Hervey’ and then joined Universal Pictures (1938 – 1943) where she became one of Hollywood’s leading ladies during that decade. She was best known for her romantic attachment to Jimmy Stewart in the classic film Destry Rides Again (1939) which starred Marlene Dietrich. Her other film credits included East Side of Heaven (1939) with Bing Crosby, San Francisco Docks (1940) with Burgess Meredith, and Chicago Deadline (1949) with Alan Ladd.
Hervey later made appearances in such films as A Cry in the Night (1956) with Raymond Burr, Teenage Rebel (1956), Cactus Flower (1969) and Play Misty for Me (1971) with Clint Eastwood. She made the transition to television and appeared in such popular programs as Twilight Zone, Perry Mason and Charlie’s Angels, and she received an Emmy nomination for her guest appearance in an episode of My Three Sons. Irene Hervey died (Dec 20, 1998) aged eighty-nine, in Woodland Hills, California.

Hervey, Isabella     see    Carr, Isabella

Hervey, Molly Lepell, Lady (Mary) – (1700 – 1768) 
British beauty, courtier and letter writer
Molly Lepell was born (Sept 26, 1700), the daughter of a military officer. Molly was granted a pension from King George I, and then served at court as a maid-of-honour to Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales (later Queen Caroline), and was married (1720) to John, Lord Hervey of Ickworth (1696 - 1743), the queen’s favourite courtier, to whom she bore eight children including George William Hervey (1721 - 1775), Augustus John Hervey (1724 - 1799), and Frederick Augustus Hervey (1730 - 1803), the second, third and fourth Earls of Bristol. Her daughters Emily (1734 - 1814) and Caroline Hervey (1735 - 1819) both remained unmarried.
Molly was greatly admired by the poets Alexander Pope, Gay, and Lord Chesterfield, both for beauty and her scholarship, whilst Chesterfield and Pulteney penned a joint ballad in her honour to the tune of ' Molly Mogg.' Horace Walpole dedicated to her his Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762).
Her correspondence was edited and published posthumously (1821), and several of her letters to the Countess of Suffolk (Henrietta Howard) appear in the two volumes of Lady Suffolk's Letters (1824). Lady Hervey died (Sept 2, 1768) aged sixty-seven, and was buried at Ickworth in Suffolk. The epitaph on her tombstone was written by Horace Walpole.

Herz, Henriette – (1764 – 1847)
German letter writer, traveller, novelist, salonniere and patron
Born Henriette Lemos in Berlin, Prussia (Sept 5, 1764), she was the daughter of a Jewish physician. Brilliantly educated and possessed of great beauty, elegance, and personal charm, Henriette was married to the physician and philosopher Marcus Herz (1747 – 1803). She later converted to Christianity (1817). Her salon received such luminaries as the philologist and statesman, Karl Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767 – 1835), the philosophers, Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762 – 1814) and the theologian, Friedrich Schleiermacher. Henriette Herz died (Oct 22, 1847) in Berlin.

Herzeleide Ina Marie Sophie Charlotte Else – (1918 – 1989)
Princess of Prussia
The granddaughter of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888 – 1918), Princess Herzeleide was the only daughter of Prince Oskar of Prussia and his wife Ina von Bassewitz, Countess von Ruppin, who was later created Princess of Prussia by her father-in-law (1940). Herzeleide bore her father’s rank. She was a descendant of Queen Victoria through her her eldest daughter, the wife of the German Kaiser Friedrich III (1888). She was married (1938) to Karl Peter Biron (died 1982), Prince von Kurland whom she survivewd as the Dowager Princess von Kurland (1982 – 1989). Princezz Herzeleide died (March 22, 1989) aged seventy. Her three children were,

Herzfeld, Marie – (1855 – 1940)
German essayist and translator
Marie Herzfeld was born at Guns in Hungary, and studied literature and Scandinavian languages in Vienna, Austria. She was a specialist in the translation of the works of various Scandinavian authors into German. This included works by Arne Gaborg, Knut Hamsun and Ola Hansson. She published articles in such publications as Moderne Rundschau and the Allegemaine Theater Revue fur Buhne und Welt. She was the author of Die Skandinavische literature und ihre Tendenze (1909). Herzfeld died in Mining, Austria.

Herzlieb, Minna – (1789 – 1865)
German literary figure and writer
Minna Herzlieb was the friend of the noted dramatist and novelist, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 – 1832). She was the author of Affinites electives (1809).

Herzogenberg, Elisabeth von – (1848 – 1892)
German pianist
Born Elsabeth von Stockhausen, she became the wife of the noted composer and musical director, Heinrich von Herzogenberg (1843 – 1900). Elisabeth von Herzogenberg died at San Remo in Italy.

Heseri   see    Xiaocheng

Hesilrige, Frances Gorges, Lady – (c1575 – 1638)
English Tudor and Stuart noblewoman
Frances Gorges was the daughter and heiress of William Gorges of Alderton in Northampton and Tintagel in Cornwall, and his wife Cicely Sparchford. She became the wife (c1594) of Sir Thomas Hesilrige (1564 – 1629) who was later made a baronet by King James I (1622). She was the mother of many children including Sir Arthur Hesilrige (c1600 – 1661) second baronet, the famous statesman. Lady Frances survived her husband as the Dowager Lady Hesilrige (1629 – 1638).
Lady Frances was interred with her husband in the Church of Noseley in Leicestershire, where their tombs and effigies are preserved. Husband and wife are depicted, with all of their fourteen children placed on a backplate. The inscription states that Lady Hesilrige ‘adorned her family with fine cloth of her owne spining.’

Hesketh, Christian Mary McEwen, Lady (Kisty) – (1929 – 2006)
British historian and civil servant
Kisty McEwen was born (July 17, 1929) at Greenlaw, near Marchmont, Berwickshire, the daughter of Sir John Helias Finnie McEwen, first baronet, of Marchmont and Bardrochat in Carrickthe poet and Conservative Member of Parliament, and his wife Bridget Mary, the daughter of Sir Francis Oswald Linley. Kisty became the wife (1949) of Frederick Fermor-Hesketh (1916 – 1955), second Baron Hesketh (1944 – 1955), to whom she bore four sons before his early death (1955). Her eldest son Thomas Alexander Fermor-Hesketh (born 1950) succeeded his father as third Baron Hesketh as a small child. Kisty became the Dowager Baroness Hesketh for over five decades (1955 – 2006) and never remarried.
As the new lord was a minor, Lady Hesketh oversaw the running of the family estate, Easton Neston in Hawksmoor, Northamptonshire, where she entertained historians and politicians on a regular basis. She herself one worked as the rugby correspondent for The Spectator. She published several historical works such as, The Tartans (1961), and was later awarded a degree from King’s College, London for her thesis The Political Opposition to the Government of Charles I in Scotland (1999). Lady Hesketh served for over three decades (1952 – 1983) as the county organiser of the WRVS (Women’s Royal Volunteer Service) and served as High Sheriff of Northamptonshire (1981). In recognition of her valuable public service she was appointed OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1984). Lady Hesketh died (April 7, 2006) aged seventy-six, in London.

Hesketh, Phoebe – (1909 – 2005)
British poet
Phoebe Rayner was born (Jan 29, 1909) at Preston in Lancashire, the daughter of a noted radiologist. She attended Cheltenham Ladies’ College but did not complete her education. She became the wife (1931) of a manufacturer Aubrey Hesketh. During WW II Phoebe Hesketh worked as a journalist with the Bolton Evening News, and afterwards was variously employed as a lecturer and teacher. She resided in Lancashire most of her life and her love of nature was revealed in her works Rivington (1972) and Village of the Mountain Ash (1990).
Hesketh published several collections of verse such as Poems (1939), Lean Forward, Spring (1948) and Collected Poems (1989). She also published verse for juvenile readers including A Song of Sunlight (1974) and Six of the Best (1989). Mrs Hesketh was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature (1956). Phoebe Hesketh died (Feb 25, 2005) aged ninety-six.

Hesketh-Prichard, Elizabeth Grimston, Lady – (1885 – 1975)
British courtier
Lady Elizabeth Grimston was the daughter of James Walter Grimston (1852 – 1934), third Earl of Verulam (1895 – 1924) and his wife Margaret Frances Graham, the daughter of Sir Frederick Ulric Graham, third baronet, of Netherby. She was married firstly (1908) to Major Hesketh Vernon Hesketh Prichard (died 1922), of Praewood, St Albans, leaving issue, and secondly (1927) to Major Thomas Augustus Motion (died 1942).
Lady Hesketh-Prichard served for three decades (1924 – 1953) as Lady-of-the Bedchamber and Extra Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Mary, the wife and widow of George V. As a widow she resided at Serge Hill, near Abbot’s Langley in Hertfordshire with the daughter of her second marriage, Lady Joan Smith. The children from her first marriage were the heirs in remainder to the barony of Forrester of Corstorphine. The children of her first marriage were,

Hess, Judith Mae     see    Tyler, Judy

Hess, Dame Myra – (1890 – 1965) 
British concert pianist
Julia Myra Hess was born in London, and studied at the Guildhall School and the Royal Academy of music, under Tobias Matthay, before giving her first concert at Queen’s Hall, London (1907) which was conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham. Becoming successful as a performer in Holland and America, Canada, and France, she was a regular player of the London String Quartet, and partnered Hungarian violinist Jelly d’Aranyi.
During WW II Myra organized daily chamber music concerts at the National Gallery in London, and was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society (1941) and the Cobbet Gold Medal (1944). As she became more incapacitated by arthritis she decided to retire, and her last concert took place at the Royal Festivall, London (1961). Her work was publicly recognized when she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George VI (1941). One of Dame Myra’s most popular works was her 1926 piano transcription of chorale-setting from Bach’s Cantata No. 147 Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring.

Hesse, Alice of England, Grand Duchess of     see   Alice Maud Mary

Hesse, Eva – (1936 – 1970)
German-American sculptor
Eva Hesse was born into a Jewish family in Hamburg (Jan 11, 1936). She immigrated to the USA with her family as a small child (1939), and remained a lifelong resident of New York City, where she studied at the Pratt Institute (1952 – 1953). Eva was a devoted proponent of the Expressionist style, and worked with a wide variety of materials, such as rubber, plastic, and polythene, and produced extremely original and bizarre sculptures. She married and resided in Germany for several years during the 1960’s and travelled to Mexico. She later returned to the USA where she taught at the New York School of Visual Art. Eva Hesse died (May 29, 1970) aged thirty-four.

Hesse, Margaret Campbell Geddes, Grand Duchess of – (1913 – 1997)
Anglo-German princess and activist for disabled children
The hon. (Honourable) Margaret Geddes was the daughter of Sir Auckland Campbell Geddes, first Baron Geddes, and his wife Isabella Gamble Ross, the daughter of William A. Ross, of Staten Island, New York. She was married (Nov 17, 1937) to Louis V, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt (1908 – 1968), against the wishes of her family the day after he succeeded to the grand ducal title. The couple remained childless and resided at Schloss Wolfsgarten, near Langen, Hesse, Germany, where they continued the long family tradition of patronage of the arts and involvement in liberal politics.
After WW II the Grand Duchess remained the patron of hospitals founded by the earlier members of the family, and converted a wing of Wolfsgarten into a home for disabled children. She maintained a long friendship with the British composer Benjamin Britten, and through his influence, she became president of the Aldeburgh Foundation. The Grand Duchess survived her husband thirty years, dying (Jan 26, 1997) aged eighty-three. As the couple had been childless she had adopted as her general heir, her husband’s cousin Prince Moritz of Hesse.

Hesychia – (c540 – 597)
Byzantine patrician
Hesychia was the wife of Narses who was comes (count) in the East. She is known from a letter (Oct, 590) preserved in the Epistolarum Registrum of Pope Gregory I. The letter was addressed to Narses but the pope inclosed his greetings to Hesychia. With Hesychia’s death Pope Gregory wrote Narses a letter of consolation (June, 597). She was probably the mother of Narses’s son Marinus, and of two daughters, Eudochia the wife of Alexander, and Dominica the wife of Theodorus.

Hetepheres I – (c2620 – c2540 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Hetepheres I was the daughter, perhaps the only child and heiress, of King Huny, and was the wife to her half-brother, King Sneferu (c2620 – c2551 BC). She was the mother of his son, Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) (c2600 – c2528 BC) and was the grandmother of Hetepheres II. Her tomb was discovered near the great pyramid of her son at Gaza (1925). Though her sarcophagus was empty, her tomb contained her richly inlaid furniture, her gold-cased and inlaid bed, carrying chair, and curtain box, amongst other treasures, which are preserved in the Cairo Museum. The inscriptions found in her tomb refer to the queen as ‘the Mother of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, follower of Horus, She who is in charge of the affairs of the harem, whose every word is done for her, daughter of the god of his loins, Hetepheres.’
With her husband’s death, the queen mother survived into the reign of her son, and he was concerned with her funerary arrangements. The fact that her mummy was missing seems to indicate that she was buried firstly by her son at Dashur, but her tomb was disturbed by thieves and robbers, probably not long after her death, who may have also destroyed her corpse, and that a reburial had been arranged with the utmost secrecy by her son Khufu to prevent further desecration. Her viscera, found in canopic jars, is the earliest evidence of the the removal of the viscera during the process of mummification. Also discovered in her tomb were vases of copper and alabaster, knives and razors of gold, a gold manicure set, a golden canopy frame, a canopy chair, and eight small alabaster vases filled with unguents and kohl, together with many pieces of jewellery.

Hetepheres II – (c2545 – c2470 BC)
Queen consort of Egypt
Hetepheres II was the daughter of King Khufu (Cheops) and his queen, Merytiotes, and was the granddaughter of Hetepheres I. Hetepheres II was married firstly to her brother, the crown prince, Kawab, by whom she became the mother of Queen Mersankh III, wife to Pharoah Khafre. With Kawab’s death (c2530 BC), Hetepheres II was married to his successor, King Radjedef (c2570 – c2520 BC), who is suspected of having been a usurper. If so, his marriage with Hetepheres may have been a political move to consolidate his position.
The queen survived her second husband by many years as queen dowager and died in the reign of King Shepsekaf, aged about seventy. Queen Hetepheres II had a tomb situated in the eastern cemetery at Gaza, and a block relief from her chapel, an inscription from which syles her ‘Thy Majesty,’ may be one of the first recorded instances of a queen being addressed in this manner.

Hetephernebti     see    Hotephirnebty

Hetepti – (fl. c1850 – c1800 BC)
Egyptian queen consort
Hetepti was possibly one of the wives of King Amenemhat III, and was attested as the mother of King Amenemhat IV, during whose reign she presided as queen mother, and was honoured as such. Hetepti was depicted on a surviving relief at Medinet Maadi, which refers to her officially as the ‘King’s Mother.’ Her son was married to his half-sister, Queen Sobekneferu, the last ruler of the XIIth dynasty (c1786 BC).

Hethna     see    Ethnea

Hetzekian, Kathleen Victoria    see   Foxe, Cyrinda

Hevelius, Elisabeth – (1647 – 1693)
Polish astronomer and author
Born Elisabeth Korpmann in Dantzig, she was married at the age of sixteen, and later collaborated with her husband, the wealthy engraver and noted astronomer Johann Hevelius (1611 – 1687), who had built his observatory in Danzig. At a loss to find a suitable and reliable assistant with his research, Hevelius allowed Elisabeth into his observatory, where her sharp and accurate observations proved of great value. She assisted with his study of the surface of the moon, his catalogue of the stars and his work on comets. A fire which destroyed the observatory and his papers (1679) caused her husband to retire. Elisabeth carried on with her research on his behalf, and with her husband’s death (1687) she edited and published his two works Firmamentum Sobieskanum and Prodomus Astronomiae. Elisabeth Hevelius died in Dantzig.

Heveningham, Mary Shelton, Lady    see    Shelton, Mary

Hewett, Dorothy Coade – (1923 – 2002) 
Australian poet, dramatist and novelist
Hewett was born in Wickepin, Western Australia, into a wealthy rural family, and attended the University of Western Australia. Dorothy Hewett was employed as a factory worker, and was married three times. She published several collections of poetry entitled What about the People? (1961), assisted by her last husband, Merv Lilley, and Journeys (1982).
Dorothy Hewett is mainly remembered for her plays, in particular The Chapel Perilous (1972), This Old Man Comes Rolling Home (1976) and The Man from Mukinupin (1979).  Her published novels included Bobbin Up (1959) and The Toucher (1993), both of which dealt with differring areas of female sexuality. She was twice awarded the ABC National Poetry Prize, in (1945) and (1965), two Australian Writers’ Guild Awards (1974) and (1981), and the Australian Poetry Prize (1986). She was awarded the OAM (Order of Australia Medal) in recognition of her contribution to Australian literature. Dorothy Hewett published her autobiography Wild Card (1990).

Hewins, Caroline – (1846 – 1926)
American children’s librarian
Caroline Hewins was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, and attended school in Boston. Upon graduating she was employed, with the permission of her parents, as librarian at the Young Men’s Institute at Hartford, Connecticut (1875). Hewins began imediately to improve the library’s collection, especially the collection for younger children, and was able to supply local schools with adequate literature for their pupils. It would eventually become the Hartford Public Library (1893).
Caroline Hewin was author of the pamphlet Books for the Young, a guide for parents and children (1882), which recommended suitable books for young children. She also wrote articles for the Library Journal and the periodical Public Libraries. It was due to her intervention that a separate room was obtained at Hartford (1904), in which Hewins established a complete library for children. She wrote her autobiography which was published shortly before her death as A Mid-Century Child and Her Books (1926).

Hewitt, Jean – (1925 – 1997)
Anglo-American home economist and food writer
Hewitt was born in Ipswich, England, and she attended the University of London and studied at the Westminster School for Chefs in London, before coming to the USA during WW II. Hewitt was a food critic for The New York Times, and famously criticized the recipe used to make the wedding cake for President Nixon’s daughter (1971). She was then the food editor of Family Circle (1975).
Jean Hewitt wrote several cookery books such as Main Dish, New Natural Foods Cook Book, International Meatless Cook Book, and Family Circle Quick and Easy Menu Cook Book. Four of her books received the James Beard Food and Beverage Book Awards. Hewitt was a chater member of the Les Dames d’Escoffier, and a fellow of the Culinary Institute of America. Jean Hewitt died (Feb 9, 1997) aged seventy-one, at Venice, Florida.

Hewitt, Mary Elizabeth – (1807 – 1894)
American poet
A collection of her verses was published until the title Poems (1853), and included such poems as ‘A Plea for the Rich Man’ and ‘The Axe of the Settler.’

Hewley, Dame Sarah – (1627 – 1710)
English philanthropist, Nonconformist religious figure and school founder
Sarah Wolrych was the only daughter and heir of Robert Wolrych, of Gray’s Inn, London. She was married to John Hewley, of Wistow in Yorkshire, the Recorder of Doncaster. Their two sons died young. With her husband’s death (1697), Sarah established an almshouse in York for poor women of the Presbyterian sect. She also provided considerable financial support for several charitable schools in York.

He Xiangning (Ho Hsiang-ning) – (1879 – 1972)
Chinese revolutionary, feminist, and poet
He Xiangning was born in China and educated in Hong Kong and later married a revolutionary (1897). She was one of the first Chinese women to cut her hair short and speak out for the liberation of women. He Xiangning was married to fellow revolutionary Liao Zhongkai (formerly Liao Chung-k’ai) who was later assassinated (1925). When the Chinese general, Chiang Kai-shek (later Jiang Jieshi) broke with the communists, she went to live in Hong Kong (1927). After WW II, He Xiangning returned to Beijing (then still Peking) (1949), where she was appointed to head the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission. She was later appointed as honorary chairwoman of the China Women’s Federation (1960). He Xiangning died aged ninety-three.

Heydenreich, Henriette    see   Feuerbach, Henriette

Heydt, Vera von der – (1899 – 1996)
German Jungian psychologist and analyst
Born Vera von Schurabach (Dec 11, 1899) in Berlin, Prussia, her early aristocratic marriage with Baron Eduard von der Heydt ended in divorce (1927) by permission of Kaiser Wilhelm II, though she kept his name. An ardent convert of Jungian philosophy and Roman Catholicism, she spent her life reconciling the two.
During WW II she studied Jungian psychology at Oxford University in England, prior to studying further under Carl Jung himself in Zurich (1950). She was later appointed chairman of the Guild of Pastoral Psychology in London, a forum of priests and analysts. She became a member of the Society of Analytical Psychology (1954) and outlined her personal beliefs in the work Prospects for the Soul (1976). Vera von der Heydt died aged ninety-six.

Heyer, Georgette – (1902 – 1974)
British historical and crime novelist
Georgette Hayer was born in London and studied at Westminster College in London. She travelled in Africa and Eastern Europe (1925 – 1929), and wrote several historical novels such as The Black Moth (1921) and Beauvallet (1929). After several novels set in the early medieval and Stuart periods, Heyer discovered that the Regency period in British history (1811 – 1820) proved her area of literary expertise, and this she established with the ‘bodice-ripper’ novel Regency Buck (1935), which set the tone for her future fictional novels. Other historical novels such as The Reluctant Widow (1946), followed by Heyer’s other forte was detective stories such as Death in the Stocks (1935) and Behold, Here’s Poison (1936).

Heymair, Magdalena – (c1535 – after 1586)
German religious writer
Magdalena was born in Regensburg, Bavaria, and became the wife of Wilhelm Heymair, a teacher in Straubing. She worked as a governess in Kaschau (Kosice). She produced rhyming adaptations of verse and stories from the bible such as The Epistles (1568), Jesus Sirach (1571), and Tobias and Ruth (1580), all of which rpoved popular with contemporaries. She was the only female to published educational texts prior to the eighteenth century.

Heyman, Katherine Ruth – (1877 – 1944)
American pianist
Katherine Heyman was born in Sacramento in California. She studied the piano from childhood and then travelled to Europe for further instruction. She made her concert debut in Boston, Massachusetts (1899) and established an international reputation as the foremost interpreter of the works of the Russian pianist and composer Alexander Nikolaivitch Scriabine (1872 – 1915). Katherine Heyman died (Sept 28, 1944).

Heymann, Lida Gustava – (1867 – 1943) 
German feminist and campaigner for female suffrage
Lida Heymann was born in Hamburg to a wealthy family. Involved from her early youth in schemes to better the daily lives of women, Lida’s philanthropic achievements included founding a home for women, a day care nursery for working mothers and a training scheme for apprentices. In 1898 she campaigned with Minna Cauer to have prostitution legalized, and togerther with Anita Augsburg, Lida was a founder member of the Deutscher Verband fur Frauenstimmrecht (German Union for Women’s Suffrage) (1902).
In 1907 she moved to Munich in Bavaria with Cauer and Augsburg, where they organized the radical militant suffrage group Deutscher Frauenstimmrechtsbund (1913). The three women later also organized the newspaper Die Frau in Staat which first appeared in 1918, and continued until the rise of Adolf Hitler (1933), when Lida and Anita were forced to flee Germany and reside in exile in Zurich, Switzerland. Their joint memoirs appeared posthumously neary thirty years later as Erlebtes-Erschautes (1972).

Heysen, Nora – (1911 – 2003)
Australian painter
Nora Heysen was born in Hahndorf, South Australia, the daughter of artist Sir Hans Heysen. Raised in the Adelaide Hills, Nora studied painting at the School of Fine Arts in Adelaide under F.Millward Grey (1926 – 1930). She held her first solo exhibition in Sydney, New South Wales (1933), and resided in London for several years (1934 – 1937). Heysen was appointed as an official war artist in New Guinea (1944 – 1946) during which times she completed over 170 pieces of work.
Nora Heysen was the recipient of the Melrose Prixe for portraiture (1933) and became the first woman to win the Archibald Prize for portraiture (1938). She was married (1953) to Robert Black, a physician. Heysen was given the Award for Achievement in the Arts by the Australia Council (1993), and was then appointed OAM (Order of Australia Medal) (1998) in recognition of her contribution to art. Nora Heysen died (Dec 30, 2003) at Concord, Sydney.

Heysen, Selma – (1879 – 1962)
Australian painter
Selma Bartels was born in Adelaide, South Australia, and became the pupil of the German artist Wilhelm Heysen (1877 – 1968) in Adelaide, where they were later married (1904). They had nine children, one of them adopted. Despite the fact that Wilhelm Heysen needed to earn a living by teaching and painting, Selma encouraged and nurtured his artistic talent all their life together, and was a constant source of support.
From 1912 the couple resided at the estate of ‘The Cedars’ in the Hahndorf region of South Australia. Her husband was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II (1959) and Selma became Lady Heysen (1959 – 1962). Lady Heysen died aged eighty-three.

Hezlet, May – (1882 – 1969)
British golfer
May Hezlet was born into a family of prominent golfers, and she shared the limelight in that field with her two sisters Florence and Violet Hezlet. May Hezlet won her first Irish Ladies Close Championships at Newcastle in County Down, Ireland when she defeated Rhona Adair (1899) which was followed by three wins in succession (1904) (1905) and (1906), in the last of which her sister Florence was the runner-up.
Hezlet then became the youngest golfer ever to win the British Ladies Amateur Golf Championship (1906), a record that has yet to be beaten (2008). Hezlet was defeated by Lottie Dod in the British championship held in Scotland (1904) and then her fifth Irish Ladies Close Championship (1908). She was the author of Ladies Golf (1904) and contributed to The New Book of Golf (1912) published by Horace Hutchinson.

H.H.    see   Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske

Hibbert, Eleanor    see    Plaidy, Jean

Hibbert, Susan – (1924 – 2009)
British military secretary
Susan Nona Heald was born (May 21, 1924). During WW II Heald served as a staff sergeant in the ATS (Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service) at Rheims, near Paris. She then served as a secretary for the SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force) and typed the English version of the German surrender at the end of the war (May, 1945).
After this she worked for the Control Commission for Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main and became the wife of Basil Hibbert, a former RAF (Royal Air Force) fighter pilot. There were no children. At the time of her death Mrs Hibbert was believed to be one of the last living witnesses to the signing of the German surrender. Susan Hibbert died (Feb 2, 2009) aged eighty-four.

Hickey, Emily Henrietta – (1845 – 1924)
British poet and writer
Emily Hickey was born at Macmine Castle, Wexford County, in Ireland, the daughter of Canon Boyle, and was educated by a governess at home. She never married. Known for her prose writng, she was a contributor to many British and American publications, she was a prominent lecturer at the University College.
Emily Hickey was the author of such works as A Sculptor, and Other Poems (1881), Verse Tales, Lyrics, and Translations (1889), Our Lady of May and other Poems (1902) and Our Catholic Heritage in English Literature (1910). She edited Selections from Walter Hylton (1907), and wrote many short stories. Emily Hickey died (Sept 9, 1924) aged seventy-nine, in London.

Hickey-Pellizzoni, Margarita – (1753 – c1791)
Spanish poet and translator
Margarita was born in Barcelona, Aragon, the daughter of an Irish army officer and an Italian opera singer. She moved to Madrid in Spain as a child and resided there the rest of her life. She was married to Juan Antoni de Aguirre, a nobleman from Navarre whose death left her a young widow (1779). Beautiful and talented, despite a variety of offers she chose never to remarry, and instead devoted herself to the study of geography and literature.
Margarita produced the collection of verse Poesias varias sagradas, morales y profanas o amourosas (Selected Sacred, Moral and Profane or Amorous poetry (1789) which dealt with the lack of understanding felt by men for the female sex. She also translated such works as Andromache by Raine and Zaire by Voltaire. Her work Descripcion geografica e historica de todo el orbe conocido hasta ahora (Georgraphic and Historical Description of the Whole Known World to the Present) was never published.

Hickman, Alma – (1887 – 1971)
Southern American memoirist
Alma Hickman was born in Wiggins, Mississippi, and later graduated from the universities of Chicago (1923) and Columbia (1924). She remained unmarried. Hickman trained as a teacher, and was an English lecturer for three decades at the University of Southern Mississippi. She was later appointed as president of the Mississippi Education Association (1937), and retired in 1954.
Miss Hickman was the author of “Mississippi”: A Pageant of Education in Mississippi (1929), and published her own personal memoir which was entitled Southern as I Saw It: Personal Remembrances of an Era, 1912 – 1954 (1966). She died aged eighty-three (Feb 12, 1971).

Hickman, Rose – (1526 – 1613)
English Protestant autobiographical author
Rose Hickman was born at Cheapside in London, the daughter of Sir William Locke, a wealthy merchant, and was sister-in-law of the translator, Anne Locke. She was married (1543) to Anthony Hickman, a merchant partner of her brother. The Hickmans supported Protestant divines such as John Knox and John Foxe during the reign of Edward VI (1547 – 1553), but Anthony Hickman was soon imprisoned under Queen Mary (1554). With his lucky and unexpected release, he wisely fled England and travelled to Antwerp in Holland.
Rose, then heavily pregnant, remained in Oxfordshire until the child was born, then joined her husband abroad. With the accession of Elizabeth I (1558) the family returned to England. Widowed in 1573, Rose remarried to Simon Throckmorton, of Brampton, Huntingdonshire. In her later years Rose composed a narrative of her life which included family reminiscences.

Hicks, Amie – (1839 – 1917)
British trade unionist
Amelia Jane Hicks was born into a Chartist background, and espoused trade union precepts from an early age. She was trained as a midwife and was married to William Hicks, a rope maker, with whom she immigrated to New Zealand. When her elder children were grown, the family returned to England, and with her husband Amie became an influential figure in the Social Democratic Federation.
Amie Hicks was one of the founders of the Women’s Trade Union Association (1889) and of the Women’s Industrial Council. Her particular concern was in establishing respectable clubs for working girls, and became vice-president of that association.

Hicks, Lady Ellaline    see    Terriss, Ellaline

Hicks, Rosalind Margaret Clarissa – (1919 – 2004)
British literary figure
Rosalind Christie was born (Aug 5, 1919) in Torquay, Devon, the only child of the famous crime novelist, Agatha Christie, and her first husband Archibald Christie. Her stepfather was the noted archaeologist, Sir Maxwell Mallowan. Rosalind was married firstly (1941) to Hubert Prichard, a soldier with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, to whom she bore an only child, Mathew Prichard. Her husband was killed in action during WW II (1944) and she later remarried (1949) to Anthony Hicks. This marriage remained childless.
From 1968 she cared for her elderly mother and stepfather in Devon. With Dame Agatha’s death (1976) Rosalind Hicks received the rights to protect her mother’s literary legacy in her will. This was a project in which she took the utmost interest and care, until her own death three decades later, estasblishing a reputation for herself as a formidable woman. Hicks maintained a successful legal challenge to prevent the making of the film Agatha (1979) in which her mother would have been portrayed by Vanessa Redgrave, as this film would have delved into her mother’s famous, but still unexplained disappearance (1926).
Mrs Hicks later took action against the company producing the novel Towards Zero (1995) to prevent the Christie name being associated with it in any way, as the screenwriters had considerably altered the original story, rather grotesquely, in her view. Rosalind Hicks was the founder and president (1993 – 2004) of the Agatha Christie Society, which aimed at protecting her mother’s literary legacy, after her death. Rosalind Hicks died (Oct 28, 2004) aged eighty-five, her only son being the main heir to her six million pound estate.

Hickson, Joan – (1906 – 1998)
British stage, film and television actress
Hickson was born at Kingsthorpe, Northampton. She began her career in the West End, and during WW II she appeared in the Open Air Theatre in Regent’s Park. She was married and had two children. Her stage credits included roles in The Tragic Muse by Henry James, The Gusher by Ian Hays, three plays by Peter Nichols, A Day in the Death of Joe Egg (1967), The Freeway (1967), Forget-Me-Not Lane (1967) and Blithe Spirit (1976), by Sir Noel Coward.
Her film credits included The Guinea Pig (1948), The Card (1952) and The 39 Steps (1959). Miss Hickson became an international celebrity when she played the sharp-witted spinster detective sleuth, Jane Marple, in the BBC television series of Agatha Christie’s crime novels (1984 – 1992). Joan Hickson died (Oct, 1998) aged ninety-two, at Colchester, Essex.

Hickson, Margaret – (fl. 1879 – 1892)
British painter
Margaret Hickson was a resident of London, and she produced mainly watercolours and still-lifes. Her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy, the New Water Colour Society, and at the New Gallery in London.

Hidalgo, Elvira de – (1892 – 1980)
Spanish coloratura soprano and teacher
Hidalgo was born at Valderrobres, and studied under Graziella Pareto, Rosina Storchio, and Julian Gayarre, amongst others. She established herself as a successful coloratura performer and was best known for her performances of Rossini’s The Barber of Seville. After retiring from the stage Hidalgo became a voice trainer at the Athens Conservatoire in Greece, where her pupils included Maria Callas. Elvira de Hidalgo died in Milan, Lombardy, Italy.

Hidda of Swabia (Hilda) – (c910 – 969)
German religious patron
Hidda was the daughter of Thietmar I, Margrave of Eastmark in Saxony, and Count of Swabia, and his wife Judith, and was sister to the Margrave Gero (939 – 965). She was married to Margrave Christian of Eastmark (died c961). As a widow Hidda founded the abbey of Nienburg, in conjunction with her two older sons, Thietmar III (c927 – 979) and Gero, Archbishop of Cologne (Koln) (969 – 976). Hidda later went on a pilgrimage to Palestine, and died in Jerusalem. She is mentioned in the Annalista Saxo and the Chronica Montis Serreni.

Higginson, Ella Reeves – (1862 – 1940)
American poet, writer and historian
Ella Higginson was born in Council Grove, Kansas. She is best remembered for popular poems such as ‘Wearing Out Love’ and ‘Four-Leaf Clover.’ These appeared in her collections entitled When the Birds Go North Again (1898) and The Vanishing Race, and Other Poems (1912).

Higgs, Mary – (1854 – 1937)
British social reformer
Mary was born at Devizes in Wiltshire, the daughter of clergyman. Raised in Bradford from 1862, she retained a life-long attachment to the Congregational church. She attended the college of Hitchin, which later evolved into Girton College, where she became a teacher. Mary was married (1891) to Thomas Higgs, a clergyman, and the couple resided at Oldham in the north. In order to become fully aware of the daily conditions and perils experienced by indigent vagrants, Higgs actually adopted the lifestyle for herself for five days (1903). She then established three houses for the poor in Oldham.
With the death of her husband (1907) Mary Higgs later joined the Society of Friends (Quakers) (1916), and campaigned for peace during WW I. In recognition of her valuable work, she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1936). Mary Higgs was the author of Down and Out: Studies in the Problems of Vagrancy (1924) and Casuals and Their Casual Treatment (1928).

Highsmith, Patricia – (1921 – 1995) 
American crime novelist
Patricia Highsmith was born in Fort Worth, Texas and received her education at Columbia University. Apart from several volumes of short stories, her first successful crime thriller Strangers on a Train (1950), published under ther pseudonym of ‘Claire Morgan,’ was filmed by Alfred Hitchcock. Her third novel introduced the famous detective character Tom Ripley whose adventures appeared in a series of highly acclaimed novels, The Talented Mr Ripley (1955), which was awarded the Edgar Allan Poe Scroll by the Mystery Writers of America, Ripley Under Ground (1971), Ripley’s Game (1974) and, Ripley Under Water (1991).
Her other published works included The Price of Salt (1952), The Glass Cell (1964), The Snail-Watcher and Other Stories (1970), The Black House (1981), People Who Knock on the Door (1983), Tales of Natural and Unnatural Catastrophes (1987) and the text Plotting and Writing Suspense Fiction (1966). Her work Edith’s Diary (1977) was a psychological study.

Hightower, Rosella – (1920 – 2008)
Native American Indian ballerina
Rosella Hightower was born (Jan 20, 1920) at Ardmore in Oklahoma, of Choctaw parentage. She studied ballet in Kansas City before traveling to Europe where she performed with the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo under Leonide Massine. She was married to fellow dancer, Mischa Resnikov, as her first husband, with whom she returned to New York. She once replaced Alicia Markova in the title role of Giselle at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, and performed with great credit despite the fact that she had never before danced this role.
Hightower later returned to Europe where she worked under Bronislava Nijinska, George Balanchine, and John Taras who created the ballet Piege de lumiere (The Light Trap) especially for her. She was much admired in La Sylphide by Auguste Bournonville. Her second husband was the painter and designer, Jean Robier. Rosella performed with Rudolf Nureyev in the Black Swan, when he was making his debut at Dame Margot Fonteyn’s Royal Academy of Dance Gala (1961).
Hightower established Le Centre de Danse Classique in Cannes, France, and was later appointed as ballet director at the Paris Opera (1980 – 1983), and at La Scala in Milan (1985 – 1986). She retired from teaching in 2000. She received several awards from the French government in recognition of her contribution to dance, and the city of Cannes made her a Citoyenne d’honneur. Rosella Hightower died (Nov 4, 2008) aged eighty-eight, at Cannes.

Higuchi, Ichiyo – (1872 – 1896)
Japanese writer
Born Natsuko Higuchi (May 2, 1872), she was the descendant of Samurai. She studied poetry at school but with the deaths of her brother and father she became the head of the family (1889). With her mother and sisters she performed domestic chores and did needlework in order to survive, before deciding upon writing as a means of financing the struggling family.
Her published work included Takekurabe (growing Up), Nigorie (Troubled Waters) and Jusanya (The Thirteenth Night), using the pseudonym ‘Ichiyo Higuchi’ and were translated into English. Despite her youth Higuchi is considered to be one of the foremost female writers in modern Japanese literature. Her portrait was placed on a Japanese banknote (2004). Ichiyo Higuchi died (Nov 23, 1896) aged twenty-four, of tuberculosis.

Hilaria, Aemilia – (c295 – c358 AD)
Gallo-Roman herbalist
Aemilia Hilaria was the daughter of the patrician Caecilius Argicius Arborius, and his wife Aemilia Corinthia Maura. She was the sister of the rhetorician Aemilius Magnus Arborius, and to Aemilia Aeonia, mother to the famous poet Ausonius (c310 – c394 AD). Her nephew recorded in his Parentalia that Hilaria was skilled in the preperation of herbal medicines. She died unmarried at the age of sixty-three.

Hilber, Philippa – (1918 – 1996)
American actress
Hilber was born in Los Angeles, California. A minor player, her ten known film roles all remain uncredited. She appeared in films such as Arizona Broadway (1933), Moulin Rouge (1934) where she played a show girl, Piernas de seda (1935) in which she played a ballerina and Second Honeymoon (1937), where she was cast as the telephone operator. Philippa Hilber died (June 16, 1996) aged seventy-eight, in Los Angeles.

Hilda Hrolfsdotter – (c835 – c892)
Viking poet
Sometimes called Hilda Nefja, one verse attributed to her has survived. She was the daughter of Hrolf ‘Nefja,’ and was married (c850) to the Viking jarl, Rognvald Eysteinsson of More, nicknamed the Wise. Hilda became the mother of the famous Norse leader Rollo (c853 – 932), who was later made the first Duke of Normandy by the Carolingians (912). Thus she was a direct ancestress of the dukes of Normandy and of the Kings of England and their descendants from 1066.

Hilda of Burgundy    see   Alda of Burgundy

Hilda of Whitby (Hild) (614 – 680) 
Anglo-Saxon abbess and saint
Hilda was the daugher of the aetheling Hereric and his wife Beorhtswyth, and niece to Edwin of Deira, King of Northumbria. Baptized a Christian with the rest of her family (627) by Paulinus archbishop of York, she was educated for the religious life at the abbey of St Marie, at Chelles, near Paris. She was appointed abbess of the double monastery at Hartlepool (649) by Aidan of Lindisfarne.
Hilda later founded (657) the double monastery of Streaneshalch, later Whitby, over which she presided as abbess for over twenty years, on land granted her by her kinsman Oswiu of Northumbria, whose own daughter Aelflaed was placed under her care (655). The famous Anglo-Saxon poet and singer Caedmon, originally a farm labourer on the monastic estate, at the command of Hilda, became a brother of the house.
Her house beacame the most celebrated religious establishment in the north-east of England, and hosted the famous Synod of Whitby (663 – 664) convened by King Oswiu in order to resolve the debate of the timing of the Easter observance. The last six years of her life Hilda sufferred from chronic illness. Later canonized, her feast was observed on (Nov 17). Fifteen churches were dedicated to Hilda in England, eleven of them in Yorkshire.

Hilda Charlotte Wilhelmine – (1864 – 1952)
German grand duchess consort of Baden (the last) (1907 – 1918)
Princess Hilda of Luxemburg was born at Biebrich, near Wiesbaden (Nov 5, 1864) the daughter of Adolf of Nassau (1817 – 1905), Grand Duke of Luxemburg (1890 – 1905), and his wife Adelaide, the daughter of Friedrich August, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. Princess Hilda was raised with her siblings in the Taunus and Isartal regions. She was married at Castle Hohenburg (1885) to Friedrich (1857 – 1928), the heir apparent of his father, who succeeded as Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden (1907). Their marriage remained childless.
Her husband lost his throne at the end of WW I (1918) and the royal couple retired from public life to resided at Badenweiler. With Friedrich’s death there, Hilda became the Grand Dowager Duchess (1928 – 1952). As they had remained childless, they bequeathed their castle of Mainau to their kinsman, Count Lennart Bernadotte, of the Swedish royal family. Grand Duchess Hilda died (Feb 8, 1952) aged eighty-seven, at Badenweiler. She was buried at Karlsruhe.

Hilda Sophie Marie Adelaide Wilhelmine – (1897 – 1979)
Princess of Luxemburg and Nassau
HGDH (Her Grand Ducal Highness) Princess Hilda was born (Feb 15, 1897) the third daughter of Guillaume IV of Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxemburg (1905 – 1912) and his wife, Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal, the daughter of Miguel I of Braganza, King of Portugal. Hilda was younger sisters to the grand duchesses Marie Adelaide (1912 – 1919) and Charlotte (1919 – 1964).
Princess Hilda was heiress to the grand ducal throne of Luxemburg (1918 – 1921) until the birth of her sister Charlotte’s first child, the future Grand Duke Jean (1921). Nest after her in succession were her two younger sisters, Antoinette, the wife of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria, and Elisabeth, the wife of Prince Ludwig Philipp von Thurn und Taxis.
Her Grand Ducal Highness was married (1930) at Colmar-Berg, to Adolf (1890 – 1950), Prince zu Schwarzenburg and Duke of Krummlov. Husband and wife were keen hunters and spent much time in Nairobi, Kenya, where they established a farm. After the family estates were confiscated by the Nazis (1940), the princess and her husband immigrated to the USA. There were no children and Hilda survived her husband as Dowager Princess zu Schwarzenburg for three decades (1950 – 1979), dividing her time between her two residences of the Villa Ella in Bordighera, Italy, and the Villa Annagallis at Colmar-Berg. Princess Hilda died aged eighty-two.

Hildach, Anna – (1852 – 1935)
German mezzo-soprano
Born Anna Schubert in Konigsberg, Prussia, she was married the baritone Eugen Hildach (1849 – 1924). She later later became a teacher at the Dresden Conservatorium in Saxony (1880 – 1886). Madame Hildach died aged eighty-three (Nov 18, 1935).

Hildebrante of Neustria – (c887 – after 931)
French princess
Hildebrante was the elder daughter of Robert I of Neustria, King of France (922 – 923) and his first wife Adela, the daughter of Robert I, count of Troyes. Her younger sister Emma became the wife of Raoul of Burgundy, and they were both half-sisters to Hugh Capet, Duke of Paris. Sometimes called Adela or Lugarde in various contemporary and later chronicles, Hildebrante was married (c903) to Herbert II, Comte of Vermandois (c875 – 943), and bore him at least eight children.
Hildebrante brought the important county of Meaux and fief of the Omois in Champagne, as well as the county of Multien, as her dowry. Meaux later passed to her younger son Robert (c913 – 967) as his patrimony.  Princess Hildebrante was still living (March, 931), when she jointly witnessed a charter with her stepmother, Queen Beatrix, the widow of Robert I. Her other children included Albert I the Pious, Comte of Vermandois (915 – 987), Hugh (920 – 962), Archbishop of Rheims (925 – 946), and Adelaide (Adela), who became the wife of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders.

Hildegard of Bingen – (1098 – 1179)
German abbess, mystic and scholar
Hildegard was born into a large patrician family at Bockelheim, near Sponheim. Hildegard was dedicated to the church by her parents during her infancy. She was educated at the Benedictine cloister of Disbodenberg by Jutta von Sponehim from 1106, and became a novice at fifteen (1113). Hildegard later succeeded Jutta as abbess (1136), and later founded the monastery at Rupertsberg, on the Rhine River, near Bingen before 1150. She also founded a second monastery, the daughter house to the first, opposite Rupertsberg, at Rudesheim.
Hildegard recorded twenty-six mystic revelations in her work Scrivas (1141 – 1151), which were written down and recorded by her friend, the monk Godefridus. Such were were her accomplishments and powers of prophecy that her opinions were sought by the emperors Conrad II and Frederick I Barbarossa and popes such as Anastasius IV and the English born Adrian IV, and she was referred to as ‘the Sybil of the Rhine.’
Abbess Hildegard also wrote treatises on natural history and medicinal matters, being the first to record a clinical description of the migraine headache, complete with diagrams. Hildegard composed religious music such as, The Symphony of the Harmony of the Celestial Revelations, and produced the morality drama The Play of Virtues for which she also composed the music. Abbess Hildegard died aged eighty-one (Sept 17, 1179). Her name appears in the Roman Martyrology though she was never actually canonized.

Hildegarde of Bavaria (1) – (828 – 856)
Carolingian princess
Hildegarde was the eldest daughter of Louis the German, King of Bavaria, and his wife Emma, the daughter of Welf II, Count of Altdorf, whose sister Judith was the second wife of Emperor Louis I the Pious (816 – 840). She was sister to King Carloman of Bavaria (876 – 880), and was aunt to the Emperor Arnulf (893 – 899).
Hildegarde remained unmarried and became a nun, being appointed as Abbess of Schwarzach in Zurich (853). She was succeeded in office by her younger sister Bertha. Princess Hildegarde died (Dec 23, 856) aged twenty-eight.

Hildegarde of Bavaria (2) – (c879 – before 930)
Carolingian princess
Hildegarde was the only daughter of Louis III, King of Bavaria, and his wife Luitgarde of Saxony, the daughter of Luidolf, Duke of Saxony. Her only legitimate brother Louis died in infancy (879), and though Hildegarde could not succeed to the throne, she inherited most of her father’s private estate and fortune, being his sole legitimate heir. With the death of her mother (885) Hildegarde also inherited the fief of Aschaffenburg, near Frankfurt, as her personal inheritance.
Her cousin, the Emperor Arnulf, later caused Hildegarde to be banished to the Abbey of Chiemsee, and had her estates confiscated (895), but these were later restored to her. Hildegarde was living in 899, and died some years afterwards, (March 3, prior to 930), having remained unmarried. Her possessions then reverted to the crown.

Hildegarde of Burgundy – (1056 – 1120)
French princess
Princess Hildegarde, sometimes called Adela, Audearde or Adelarde, was the daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, brother of Henry I, King of France, and his second wife Ermengarde of Anjou. She married (1068) William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine (1026 – 1086) as his third wife, and was the mother of his son and heir the troubadour and crusader Duke William IX (1071 – 1127) and of several daughters.
The marriage was actually within the prohibited degrees sanctioned by the church, and Duke William had challenged Pope Gregory VII’ s authority by persisting in his choice of Hildegarde for a wife. Eventually the duke agreed to dissolve the marriage, and build a Cluniac monastery at Poitiers in atonement. The duchess was permitted to reside at court after her divorce, and the legitimacy of her sons William and Hugh was not questioned.
With the death of Duke William at the Chateau de Chize, near Poitiers (Sept 25, 1086) as the result of a hunting accident, Hildegarde's son William IX was declared of age, and he had his mother reinstated at court as Dowager Duchess of Aquitaine (1086 – 1120). Though she played no political role, Hildegarde was a notable patron of the Abbey of St Marie at Fontevrault, the favourite house of her great-granddaughter, the famous Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Duchess Hildegarde later accompanied her son on a visit to the court of Aragon (1094) and there she met and married her second husband Pedro Ansurez, Count of Vallodolid (c1040 – 1117) as his second wife. Her eldest daughter Agnes became the wife of Pedro I, King of Aragon and another daughter Beatrice became the last wife of Alfonso VI, King of Castile.

Hildegarde of Lorraine – (c984 – 1046)
Countess of Anjou
Hildegarde was probably the daughter of Theobald (Dietrich) II, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife Richilda of Luneville, the daughter of Count Volmar (Folmar) of Luneville. She married (1005) Fulk III of Anjou (c971 – 1040) as his second wife, and was the mother of Count Geoffrey II Martel (1006 – 1067). Hildegarde restored the ruined Church of St Marie, at Ronceray, and founded a convent there.
A woman of religious piety and good sense, the countess was allowed substantial responsibilities in the government of Anjou, and Count Fulk himself described her in a letter to Pope Sergius IV (1009 – 1012) as ‘a woman of wise counsel,’ whilst the Historia Sancti Florentii stated that she managed to ‘mitigate his (Fulk’s) ferocity by wise deeds.’ She failed in her attempt to capture the Countess Emma, the wife to Count Herbert of Maine, who had already been captured by her husband (1025). She made a pilgrimage to Palestine (1040) before her death. Her daughter, Adelaide of Anjou (c1010 – after 1040), became the wife of Giraud le bon (the Good) (c1000 – 1066), Seigneur of Montreuil, and left issue.

Hildegarde of Neustria (1) – (c802 – 857)
Carolingian princess
Hildegarde was the third daughter of the Emperor Louis I the Pious (816 – 840) and his first wife Ermengarde, the daughter of Ingelramnus, duke of Hesbayne, and was the granddaughter of the emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814). She was named as a daughter of the emperor by the Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis. Hildegarde was never married and became a nun.
Hildegarde was appointed to rule as abbess of the convents of Notre Dame and St Jean in Laon. She was named as half-sister to the emperor Charles the Bald was her kinsman Nithard in his chronicle. During the hsotilities which ensued between her elder brother Lothair and their yoynger half-brother, she supported Lothair and imprisoned Adalgar at Laon (Oct, 841). When Charles besieged Laon, Hildegarde was forced to surrender Adalgar, but Charles released her. Princess Hildegarde’s death was recorded in the Annales Formoselenses and the Annales Alemannici

Hildegarde of Neustria (2) – (848 – c875)
Carolingian princess
Hildegarde was the fourth daughter of Emperor Charles II the Bald (875 – 877) and his first wife Ermentrude, the daughter of Odo (Eudes), Count of Orleans, and his wife Ingeltrude of Paris. She became the first wife (c863) of Boso II of Vienne (c846 – 887), Count of Provence, the son of Count Bivinus of Metz.
Boso was accused in contemporary sources of having poisoned Hildegarde so that he could marry Ermengarde, the daughter and heiress of Emperor Louis II. There is no way of unravelling the truth behind these accusations, which were porbably false. The couple had two daughters,

Hildegarde of Toulouse – (c1008 – before 1051)
Countess consort of Provence
Sometimes called Eveza, Hildegarde was the daughter of William III Taillefer, Count of Toulouse, and his first wife Adelaide (Arsinde), the daughter of Geoffrey I Greygown, Count of Anjou (961 – 987) and his first wife Adela of Vermandois. Her two brothers died young, and Hildegarde became her father’s heiress until he remarried (1019) and produced a surviving male heir. Hildegarde was married (c1022) to Fulk Bertrand I (c1007 – 1051), Count of Provence and Arles, being named as his wife in the Cartulary of the abbey of Montmajour.
Hildegarde left two sons, Guillaume Bertrand II (c1027 – 1066), Count of Forcalquier, who married and left descendants, and Geoffrey II (c1030 - 1067), Count of Forcalquier, who married but died childless. Countess Hildegarde was living (April 23, 1040) and survived this date, but apparently predeceased her husband.

Hildegarde of Vinzgau – (758 – 783)
Carolingian queen
Hildegarde was the daughter of Gerard, Count of Vinzgau, and his wife Emma, who was the daughter of Nebi (Hnabi), Duke of Alemannia and Count of Linzgau, and was a descendant of the Agilolfing dynasty of Bavaria. Hildegarde became third wife (771) of the Frankish king Charlemagne (742 – 814), after his divorce from the Lombard princess Gepurga, the daughter of King Desiderius.
Queen Hildegarde was the mother of several of his sons including, Charles (772 – 811), King of Neustria, Pepin I of Italy (777 – 810) and of Charlemagne’s eventual successor, Louis I the Pious (778 – 840). Her surviving daughters were Rotrude, Bertha, and Gisela, whilst Adelaide and Hildegarde died in infancy. Due to her many pregnancies, the young queen had little political influence at the Carolingian court. She was particularly known for her affection for the saintly Abbess Lioba of Bischoffsheim, whom she loved dearly and invited to attend her at court. Queen Hildegarde died (April 30, 783) aged only twenty-four, at Thionville, near Treves, from the effects of childbirth.

Hilden, Marie de – (fl. c1580 – c1600)
German midwife and surgeon
Born Marie de Colinet in Bern, she was married to a physician named de Hilden. Madame de Hilden is credited with the introduction of the use of heat to dilate and stimulate the uterus during childbirth. She performed successful Caesarean section deliveries, and was the first physician of either sex to use a magnet in order to remove a piece of metal from the eye of a patient.

Hildemarca      see      Ildemerca

Hildeswintha – (c940 – 976)
German countess
Hildeswintha was the daughter of an unidentified Croatian ruler. She became the wife of (c956) of the German ruler, Ekbert I, Count of the Ambergau (c937 – 994), a connection of the Saxon Imperial house. Her marriage was a dunastic arrangement organized by the emperor Otto the Great.  She left four children,

Hill, Alice – (c1675 – 1766)
British Stuart courtier
Alice was the daughter of Francis Hill, merchant of London, and his wife Mary, the daughter of Sir John Jennings, and she was the younger sister of Abigail, Lady Masham, favourite of Queen Anne. Brought to court through the influence of her powerful cousin Sarah Churchill, Lady Marlborough, from (1699 – 1700).
Alice served as laudress in the household of Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, the only surviving child of Queen Anne. With the young prince’s death in 1700, Alice remained a member of the queen’s household till that lady’s death (1714). Alice Hill was never married and received a state pension until her own death over fifty years later. Alice Hill appears as a character in the historical novel The Queen's Favourites (1966) by British author Jean Plaidy.

Hill, Lillie Rosa Minoka     see     Minoka-Hill, Lillie Rosa

Hill, May     see   Arbuthnot, May Hill

Hill, Octavia – (1838 – 1912)
British housing reformer
Her pioneer movement for improved housing and public open spaces was the fruit of her interest in bettering the conditions of the poor. Octavia Hill was born at Wisbech in Cambridgeshire, the daughter of James Hill, a banker and merchant, and his wife Caroline Southwood Smith. Octavia was the maternal granddaughter of the great pioneer of sanitary reform, Thomas Southwood Smith (1788 – 1861). She remained unmarried.
Working with her mother for the Ladies’ Co-Operative Guild, she was appalled by the conditions endured by the poor and needy, and with the assistance of the art critic John Ruskin, she established her first housing project in St Marylebone in London (1864). Octavia assisted with the founding of the Charity Organization Society (1869), she herself taking able and effective control of the district around Walmer in London. So successful was she in reforming the way charitable institutions operated, that she was later entrusted by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners with the management of their properties in Southwark, London (1884).
Octavia Hill also made recommendations concerning the passing of the Artisans’ Dwelling Bill (1875). Octavia Hill was the co-founder with Sir Robert Hunter and Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley, of the National Trust (1895) which resulted in the protection of such historical public places as Parliament Hill in London. She founded the Kyrle Society (1875) which was endowed to provide public parks and gardens. She was the author of Homes of the London Poor (1875) and Our Common Land (1878). Octavia Hill died in London, aged seventy-three (Aug 13, 1912).

Hill, Polly – (1907 – 2007)
American horticulturalist
Born Mary Louise Butcher Hill (Jan 30, 1907), at Ardmore in Pennsylvania, she was the daughter of wealthy parents. She studied at Vassar College and then travelled to Japan where she supported herself by the teaching of English, and learnt the ancient Japanese style of flower arrangement. Hill later studied horticulture at the University of Maryland, and was especially remembered for her extensive research into the growth of plants in colder climates. She founded the Polly Hill Arboretum on Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts, which property she inherited from her parents. Polly Hill died at Hockessin in Delaware (April 25, 2007) aged one hundred.

Hill, Rosamond Davenport – (1825 – 1902)
British educational and penal reformer and writer
Rosamond Hill was born in Chelsea, London, the daughter of Matthew Davenport Hill, the noted prison reformer. She attended boarding school in Clapton before returning home to finish her education with a governess. Rosamund later removed to Birmingham, Lancashire (1851), where she became involved with the administration of the Ragged Schools with Mary Carpenter. After a visit to Dublin she published the paper ‘A Lady’s Visit to the Irish Convict Prisons’ (1856), and with the death of her father (1872), she and her sister Florence visited Australia, after which they jointly published What We Saw in Australia (1875), and a memoir of their late father (1878). The two sisters settled in London (1879), where Rosamund was elected to the London School Board and performed much valuable community work, but she was chiefly remembred for reorganizing the Brentwood Industrial School, which was renamed the Davenport Hill Home for Boys in her honour (1896). Rosamond Hill died at Oxford, after sufferring a lengthy illness. She was the author of Lessons in Cookery (1885).

Hillback, Ella – (1915 – 1979)
Swedish lyric poet
Ella Johansson was born at Molndal near Gothenburg the daughter of a textile worker, and was raised there. After finishing school she worked as a literary critic for the Ny Tid newspaper, and was married to the poet Osten Sjostrand. With her husband she later removed to their estate at Mariefred above Lake Malaren, opposite Gripsholm Castle, in Sormland. Her collections of published verse included Hos en poet i kjol (1939), Det alksvarda (1956), Lovsangens falt (1962) and En morkbla redovisning (1969). Ella Hillback died at Mariefred.

Hiller, Dame Wendy – (1912 – 2003)
British stage, film and television actress
Hiller was born (Aug 15, 1912) in Bramhall, Cheshire, and joined the Manchester Repertory Theatre immediately after leaving secondary school (1930). She made her stage debut in London, appearing as Sally Hardcastle in Love on the Dole (1935) with great success. Hiller quickly moved to films, her first role being in Lancashire Luck (1937). She was the first to play Eliza Doolittle in the film Pygmalion (1938), at the request of the author George Bernard Shaw.
Hiller was married (1937) to the dramatist Ronald Gow (1897 – 1993), who adapted Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urberville’s, with Hiller in the title role of the stage production (1946). Her film credits included Major Barbara (1940), Separate Tables (1958) with Burt Lancaster and Rita Hayworth, for which performance she received an Academy Award, Sons and Lovers (1960) and A Man for All Seasons (1966). She appeared as the Princess Dragomiroff in the film adaptation of Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express (1974) with David Suchet as Poirot.
Miss Hiller was appointed OBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) (1971) and then DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1975) in recognition of her contribution to theatre and the arts. Dame Wendy Hiller died (May 14, 2003) aged ninety.

Hillersdon, Lydia – (1835 – 1857)
Anglo-Indian society leader
Lydia was the daughter of major in the Bengal army, and became the wife of the British magistrate and Collector of Kanpur (Cawnpore), Charles George Hillersdon. Personally accomplished and musically talented, she was a prominent member of cantonment society in Kanpur, and attended, with her husband and children, entertainments provided by Nana Sahib, adopted son of the former ruling prince.
During the ensuing Sepoy Rebellion, whilst she was pregnant with her third child, Mrs Hillersdon and her family were forced to seek protection behind General Wheeler’s entrenchment outside the city. Her husband was killed by cannonshot, and two days later she herself was buried under bricks when the wall of her room collapsed under cannon fire. She was dug out, but died from a crushed skull several hours later, aged only twenty-one (June 9, 1857).

Hillesum, Etty – (1914 – 1943)
Dutch diarist and letter writer
Esther Hillesum was born into a Jewish family (Jan 15, 1914) in Middelburg. She studied law and Slavic languages in Amsterdam and worked with the Jewish Council. With the Nazi takeover Etty and her family were imprisoned in Westerbork until being ultimately transported to the infamous Auschwitz concentration camp, where she died (Nov 30, 1943) aged twenty-nine.
Her diaries and letters were later edited and published as Het verstoorde leven (1981). A full collection of her works was published in 1986. Translations of her work include An Interrupted life (1985) and Letters from Westerbork (1986).

Hilliard, Harriet – (1914 – 2003)
American film actress and vocalist
Born Peggy Lou Snyder she was a popular leading lady of comic and musical films during the 1930’s and appeared in such movies as Follow the Fleet (1936), Cocoanut Grove (1938), and Sweetheart of the Campus (1941). She became the wife of the famous bandleader Ozzie Nelson (1906 – 1975) and appeared with their children in the movie Here Come the Nelsons (1951). This led to the extremely popular weekly television program Ozzie and Harriet (1952 – 1966).

Hillier, Hope    see   Topham, Mirabel

Hillier, Stella – (1914 – 2008)
British broadcaster and journalist
Born Stella Wedderburn Ogilvie Hillier (Nov 13, 1914) at Weston-Super-Mare, she finished her education abroad in Switzerland. She joined the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) as a junior secretary (1937) and then worked in radio in London. During the war years she worked on Radio Newsreel in Oxford Street and was later promoted as the organizer for BBC Radio Features. She forced Dylan Thomas from a local pub in order to make him finish Under Milk Wood (1954) which was completed in her office. She appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1963) in recognition of her services to broadcasting. Stella Hillier died (Nov 10, 2008) aged ninety-three.

Hillsborough, Mary Stawell, Countess of    see   Stawell, Mary

Hilton, Marie – (1821 – 1896)
British creche pioneer
Marie was bereft of both parents of an early age and was raised by her grandmother at Richmond, Surrey. She later became a Sunday school teacher at Westminster Congregational Church and was later employed as a governess. She then married (1853) a Quaker, John Hilton. After moving to the dockland of London with her family (1861), Marie Hilton joined the Quaker mission in Ratcliff, where she introduced the creche system for working mothers.
Despite initial opposition, the scheme prospered and developed, spreading to all the major cities in Britain, and overseas to the USA. She also organized accomodation for nurses and a established a retreat at Feltham in rural Middlesex. Marie Hilton was the author of The Creche at Ratcliff (1872).

Hime, Iwa no    see   Iwa no Hime

Himiko      see    Pimiko

Himiltrude – (c747 – c790)
Carolingian queen
Himiltrude was of unknown, but noble parentage. Some historians think her to be a daughter of Carloman I (747 – 754) and his unnamed wife, the daughter of the nobleman Alard but there is no specific evidence to support this claim. Sources which claimed that she was not Charles’s legal wife but only a concubine are incorrect. Himiltrude became the first wife (c761) of the Frankish king Charles (746 – 814), later the emperor Charlemagne, and became the mother of his eldest son, Pepin the Hunchback (c763 – 811). Himiltrude was Charles’s queen when he ascended the throne on the death of his father (768).
Charles later divorced Queen Himiltrude at the behest of his mother, Queen Bertrada (770) so that he could contract a foreign alliance with Gepurga of Lombardy (Desiderata). Her son Pepin was raised by his grandmother, Queen Bertrada. When her son Pepin was shorn as a monk after his failed rebellion against his father (792) his young son Bernard suffered the same fate. Based solely on onomastic evidence, Himiltrude may have been the daughter of Count Bernard, the illegitimate son of Karl Martel. She has also been tentatively identified as the daughter of Cout Grimbert I of Paris.
Queen Himiltrude retired to the Abbey of St Gertrude at Nivelles in Brabant where she was forced to become a nun. She appears to have died prior to Pepin’s abortive rebellion, and was buried at Nivelles. A grave discovered there containing the remains of a woman of about forty is speculated to have belonged to her.

Himiltrude of Lurngau – (c963 – after 1020)
Austrian countess
Himiltrude was the wife of Berthold I (living c1000), Count in the Lurngau. She was perhaps the daughter of Sieghard IV, Count of Sulzburggau and Chiemgau, and his wife Willa, the daughter of Bernard, count of Bavaria. Her son Dietmar (Thiemo) (died after 1040) became count in the Quinziggau, and was advocate of the abbey of St Emmeram in Regensburg, Bavaria.
Himiltrude was the maternal great-grandmother of Lothair II of Supplinburg (1075 – 1137), the Holy Roman emperor, and was ancestress of the emperors Friedrich I Barbarossa (1155 – 1190), Heinrich VI (1190 – 1197), and Friedrich II (1220 – 1250). Surviving charters refer to the countess as materfamilias, which would seem to indicate that her widowhood was of a lengthy duration.

Himnechilde, Himnechildis      see      Immachilde

Hind al-Hirah – (c490 AD – after 554)
Lakhmid queen
Hind al-Hirah was the Christian daughter of al-Harith (Arethas), king of Kinda, and was most probably related to the Ghassanid royal house. She married King Al-Mundhir III (Alamundarus) and left three sons, Amribn-Hind (Ambrus), Nu’mn (Naamenes), who was killed at the battle of Callinicum (531), and Qabas.  With her husband’s death (554), her eldest son ascended the Lakhmid throne, and Hind al-Hirah ruled successfully as regent for him. She became an independent and resourceful ruler, though she attained a reputation for great cruelty. She founded a Christian convent.

Hindley, Myra – (1942 – 2002)
British murderess
Hindley was born (July 23, 1942) in Gorton, near Manchester, Lancashire. She was emplyed as a typist, and then met Ian Brady. She fell under his influence, and the pair then became lovers. Their subsequent involvement in a series of gruesome child murders shocked and sickened Britain and the world. The couple had lured several children back to Hindley’s house in Manchester, where they cruelly tormented and then killed them, all whilst her invalid grandmother lay upstairs, unknowing. Eventually, Hindley’s brother-in-law, David Smith, contacted the police (Oct, 1965) and the two were quickly arrested.
The body of Edward Evans, aged seventeen, was discovered in the house by police, and a large scale search was organized on the Pennine moors. The graves of two other victims, Lesley Ann Downey, aged ten, and John Kilbride, aged twelve, were found on Saddleworth Moor, and their remains recovered by police. This discovery led to the pair being infamously referred to as the ‘Moors Murderers.’
Hindley was convicted on two separate counts of murder, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Information provided by her to police two decades afterwards, led to the recovery of the remains of Pauline Reade (1987), but others have never been located. Claims made several years afterwards that she had been rehabilitated, found religion, and had shown remorse for her crimes, led to a movement to organize her release, but this proved unsuccessfull and led to great public outcry, especially by the surviving parents of her victims. When artist Marcus Harvey reworked the famous bottle blonde image of Hindley for display in a London gallery (1997) it was attacked by angry protestors.
Ian Brady tired of his life in prison and later tried to commit suicide by starving himself, but was hospitalized and force fed. Myra Hindley died (Nov 15, 2002) aged sixty, at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.

Hineaturama (Hine-turama) – (1818 – 1864)
New Zealand Maori tribal leader
Hineaturama was born on Mokoia Island, Rotorua, the daughter of Kahana-tokowai, and his wife Te Koeke. She was raised at Ohinemutu. She became the wife (1831) of the Danish trader, Philip Tapswell, who had established himself on a station at Maketu. During the wars which ensued in the Bay of Plenty, Hineaturama’s tribal connections were able to keep the Tapswell family safe. She managed to arrange a short peace with Tupea, her kinsman, and the warring Te Arawa (1833).
However, when the war intensified, the Tapsell house and property were destroyed (1836). She and her daughter were rescued by Tupea and taken to safety. Hineaturama was retutned to Mokoia Island, being carried in a litter, as she was pregnant. She later resettled with her husband at Whakatane, and her marriage with tapsell was sanctioned by the visiting French Bishop Pompallier, who also baptized their children (1841). Despite this, Hineaturama later took a lover, and became involved in hostilities against the British. Hineaturama was later killed (April 2, 1864) at Oraku, with other Maori women who were bayoneted by British soldiers. One of her daughters perished with her. A memorial was later erected to her memory at Wharekahu, by her descendants (1978).

Hinkle, Beatrice Mores – (1874 – 1953)
American psychiatrist, writer and translator
Born Beatrice Van Geisen, after her marriage Mrs Hinkle developed the first psychotherapeutic clinic in the USA at the Cornell Medical College (1908). She was the author of Recreating the Individual (1923).

Hinkson, Katharine Tynan   see    Tynan, Katharine

Hinnisdal, Henriette d’ – (1874 – 1897)
French countess, charity worker and disaster victim
Comtesse Henriette Marie Raymonde Josephine d’Hinnisdal was born (Feb 6, 1874) at Boulogne-sur-Mer, near Calais, the elder daughter of Henri, Comte d’Hinnisdal, who had been given their title by the emperor Napoleon I. Her mother was Marie de Bourbon-Sully, the daughter of Charles Louis, Comte de Bourbon-Sully and his wife Charlotte Henriette de Vassinhac d’Imecourt.
Henriette perished in a fire at a charity bazaar in Paris (May 4, 1897) aged twenty-three. Henriette had been involved with charitable work for the Enfants de Marie association of which the Comtesse de Luppe was president. The Duchesse d’Alencon (formerly Sophie of Bavaria), the daughter-in-law of Louis Philippe (1830 – 1848) died in the same fire. A funeral service for the victims of the tragedy was celebrated at the Church of Sainte-Clothilde in Paris on May 8 following.

Hinsdale, Laura Aldrich – (1845 – 1925)
Southern American poet
Laura Aldrich was married firstly to Jean Baptist Feuling, professor of modern languages at the University of Wisconsin, and secondly (1868) to Robert Graham Hinsdale, president of Hobart College. Laura Hinsdale contributed many articles to various magazines, and retired to Biloxi in Mississippi, with her second husband (1883). Widowed in 1889, she died at Biloxi almost four decades later, aged seventy-nine. She was the author of Legends and Lyrics of the Gul Coast (1896).

Hinton, Mary – (1896 – 1979)
British actress
Born The Hon. (Honourable) Emily Rachel Forster, she was the second daughter of Sir Henry William, Lord Forster, and his wife Rachel Cecily Montagu-Scott-Douglas. She was the younger sister to Lady Wardington. Emily was married to Captain George Henry Lane Fox-Pitt-Rivers (died 1966), of the Royal Dragoons, and to whom she bore children before they were ultimately divorced (1930).
For the stage she adopted the professional name of ‘Mary Hinton.’ Mary’s son, Major Michael Augustus Fox-Pitt-Rivers (born 1917), of King John’s House, at Tollard Royal, in Wiltshire, was married (1958) to Sonia Brownell, the widow of noted author ‘George Orwell’ (Eric Blair).

Hipparchia – (fl. c320 – c300 BC)
Greek philosopher
Hipparchia was born in Maroneia, into a wealthy and distinguished family, sister to the philosopher Metrokles. She became the wife of Krates of Thebes (c365 – 285 BC), the most famous of the Cynic philosophers, having threatened to commit suicided if her family opposed the marriage.
Hipparchia was the only female philosopher to be included in Lives of the Philosophers by Diogenes Laertius in the third century AD, and she adopted male attire in order to be able to teach. Some of her letters to her husband have survived. None of her own works have survived, but the tenth century Suda listed them in antiquity as Hypotheses, Preliminary Proofs, and Propositions against Theodorus the Atheist.

Hippius, Zinaida     see     Gippius, Zinaida Nikolaievna

Hippolita (Maria Hippolita) – (1681 – after 1718)
Queen consort of Kongo in Africa
Hippolita was the niece of the powerful royal captain-general, Pedro Kibenga, her mother Petronilla being his sister. Hippolita was married (1701) to King Pedro IV, and later supported Apollonia Mafuta and Beatriz Kimpa Vita, the leaders of the ‘Antonian’ religious movement. Queen Hippolita converted to the movement, and when her uncle rebelled against her husband (1705), her political situation at the court became extremely difficult, though she continued to support the Antonian cause.
The queen later fled to Evulu and took refuge with her uncle, a move which lead to strengthened resistance against Pedro. When the king finally defeated Kibenga’s forces at Sao Salvador, and the general was shot dead, the queen fled to the province of Kiova in Soyo, along the Zaire River, where the prince of Soyo, Jeronimo de Almeida da Silva, was sympathetic to her plight. Hippolita survived Pedro’s death (1718).

Hiratsuka, Raicho – (1886 – 1971)
Japanese feminist
Raicho Hiratsuka was born in Tokyo and successfully studied economics at the Japanese Women’s University. She founded the literary magazine Seito (‘Bluestockings’) and later established the union for women consumers’ entitled Wareranole, of which she was appointed director.  Hiratsuka was later elected as president of the Federation of Japanese Women’s Organizations (1953). Her rallies urging women world-wide to ban the use of nuclear weapons led to the establishment of the World Mothers’ Convention.

Hirshon, Dorothy Hart – (1908 – 1998)
American socialite and philanthropist
Dorothy Hart was born (Feb 25, 1908) in Los Angeles, California, the only child of an insurance broker. She studied art history at college. A famously glamorous society figure, she was married firstly to John Randolph Hearst (1927 – 1932), the son of William Randolph Heart, secondly to William S. Paley (1932 – 1947), and lastly (1953 – 1961) to Walter Hirshon, the noted stockbroker.
Dorothy was a member of the Algonquin set, presided over by Dorothy Parker, and was a close friend of the British Randolph Churchill, son of the Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. She was sketched by the French painter Henri Matisse and photographed by Cecil Beaton, and was features in such fashionable magazines as Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar. Hirshon supported the social welfare program instigated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and served as a member of the New York City Human Rights Committee and with the Hospitality Committee of the United Nations. She also served as a trustee of Carnegie Hall and the New School for Social Research. Dorothy Hart Hirshon died (Jan 29, 1998) aged eighty-nine, at Glen Cove, Long Island, as the result of a car accident.

Hitchcock, Lady    see   Reville, Alma

Hit-him-Home, Joane – (fl. 1640)
English feminist writer
This was her pseudonym, and her real identity remains unknown. She co-wrote the work entitled The Women’s Sharpe Revenge (1640) with Mary Tattlewell.

Hlomuka, Daphney - (1949 - 2008)
Black South African stage, film and television actress
Daphney Hlomuka was born in Durban, and was raised in KwaMashu. She began her stage career in Durban under the guidance of the dramatist Welcome Msomi, in several of whose works she appeared including Umbatha, which was a Zulu adaptation of William Shakespeare's classic Macbeth.
Hlomuka appeared in various Zulu radio plays, but only became famous during the 1980's in the television series Hlala Kwabfileyo, in the role of the wealthy widow MaMhlongo. She was also known for her role opposite Joe Mafela in the television comedy series S'gudi S'naysi, and in Tarzan: The Epic Adventures (1996).
Miss Hlomuka appeared in the film Soweto Green (1995) with John Kani and portrayed Queen Ntombazi in the miniseries Shaka Zulu (1986). Daphney Hlomuka died (Oct 1, 2008) aged fifty-nine, in Johannesburg.

Ho, Xuan Hu’o’ng – (fl. 1765 – 1799) 
Vietnamese poet
Her family name was Ho, and Xuan Hu’o’ng was used by her as a pseudonym. Well educated and elegantly cultured, her verses were sensuous, witty, and eminently readable. Some of her seemingly topically ordinary poems contained hidden sexual meanings. Her surviving verses include ‘The Jackfruit’ and ‘A Buddhist Priest.’

Hoare, Dame Maud    see   Templewood, Maud Lygon, Lady

Hoare, Norah Mary Wheeler, Lady – (1914 – 1973)
British volunteer worker and pioneer activist for the physically handicapped
Norah Wheeler was the wife of Sir Frederick Hoare, Lord Mayor of London (1961 – 1962). Lady Hoare worked with the Red Cross and various institutions which cared for the interests of refugees, but was particularly drawn to the plight of handicapped children. 
Norah founded the Lady Hoare Trust, which treated children affected by the popular sedative drug thalidomide, for which she was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1972). At the time of her death (Sept 21, 1973), the Trust was caring for over nine hundred children.

Hobart, Alice Tisdale – (1882 – 1967)
American author
Alice Tisdale was born (Jan 28, 1882) at Lockport in New York, and became the wife of Earle Hobart. She was best known for her first work Pidgin Cargo (1929), which was republished several years later as River Supreme (1934). Other work includes Oil for the Lamps of China (1933), Yang and Yin (1936), The Peacock Sheds His Tail (1945), The Serpent-Wreathed Staff (1951), and The Innocent Dreamers (1964). Hobart published her autobiography Gusty’s Child (1959). Alice Tisdale Hobart died (March 14, 1967) aged eighty-five.

Hobart, Mary – (1630 – 1696)
English Stuart courtier
Born into a noble family, Mary was appointed as ‘mother’ of the maids-of-honour, at court of Charles II (1660 – 1685). Mary Hobart never married and was notorious, according to contemporary gossip, amongst both the maids and courtiers, for her lesbian proclivities.

Hobart, Rose – (1906 – 2000)
American character and romantic film actress
Born Rose Kefer in New York, she trained in the theatre as a teenager before joing Universal Film Studios. Her movie credits included A Lady Surrenders (1930), Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1931), Tower of London (1939), Susan and God (1941), The Soul of a Monster (1944), The Trouble with Women (1947) and Bride of Vengeance (1949). She retried from movies after being blacklisted (1949) and published the autobiography A Steady Digression to a Fixed Point (1994).

Hobbes, John Oliver – (1867 – 1906)
American-Anglo novelist and dramatist
Born Pearl Morgan Richards at Chelsea, near Boston, Massachusetts (Nov 3, 1867), she was the daughter of John Morgan Hobbes, a merchant from New York. She was married (1886) to Reginald Walpole Craigie, and adopted the extra Christian names of Mary Teresa after her conversion to Roman Catholicism (1892). Craigie adopted the pseudonym of ‘John Oliver Hobbes’ for the publication of her first novel, Some Emotions and a Moral (1891).
Other works were all published under her alias and included The School for Saints (1897) and Robert Orange (1900). Hobbes was closely involved with the activities of the Anti-Suffrage League and was president of the Society of Women Journalists (1895). John Oliver Hobbes died aged thirty-eight (Aug 13, 1906).

Hobbs, Lucy – (1833 – 1910)
American dentist and oral care practitioner and feminist campaigner
Lucy Hobbs was born (March 14, 1833) in Constable, New York, and she trained as a schoolteacher. She was denied entry to medical college as a physician because of her sex, and was advised to try dentistry. Hobbs managed to find work in a dentist’s office, and supported herself by taking in sewing. She was refused entry to the Ohio Dental College (1861) and was finally accepted by the Iowa State Dental Society (1865), and soon set up her own practise in Chicago, Illinois (1867), becoming the first woman in the USA to officially practice as a dentist. She was married (1867) to John Taylor. Lucy Hobbs died (Oct 3, 1910) aged seventy-seven.

Hobhouse, Emily – (1860 – 1926)
British journalist, writer and diarist
Emily hobhouse went to South Africa at the outbreak of the Boer War, and documented the appalling conditions of the British prisoner-of-war camps. Apart from numerous polemical letters, Hobhouse wrote The Brunt of War and Where it Fell (1902) and War Without Glamour: or Women’s War Experiences Written by Themselves, 1899 – 1902 (1924). She also annotated and published the diary of the Boer woman, Alie Badenhorst (1923).

Hobson, Katherine Thayer – (1889 – 1982) 
American sculptor
Hobson was born in Denver, Colorado. She studied art in America and Europe, and was particularly known for her sculpture of horses, such as the famous thoroughbreds ‘Buckpasser’ and ‘Dr Fager,’ and war memorials, notably a relief of St George installed in the St James Episcopal Church in New York. Katherine Thayer Hobson died in New York.

Hobson, Laura Kean Zametkin – (1900 – 1986)
American writer, journalist and publicist
Laura Zametkin was born (June 19, 1900) in New York, the daughter of the publisher, Michael Zametkin, the editor of the Jewish Daily Forward. Her marriage (1930) with Thayer Hobson ended in divorce (1935). Laura Hobson worked as an advertising copywriter and publishes short stiries in such magazines as Ladies’ Home Journal, and Cosmopolitan, and became the promotions director at Time magazine (1940 – 1952).
Laura Hobson’s published works included Gentlemen’s Agreement (1946), which was made into a film of the same name starring Gregory Peck, and was the winner of an Academy Award. This work was co-written by her husband and published using the joint pseudonym ‘Peter Field.’ Others work included The First Papers (1964), and, Consenting Adults (1975). Hobson also wrote articles for Good Housekeeping (1953 – 1956) and became the editorial consultant for the Saturday Review (1960). She published her autobiography in two volumes as Laura Z : A Life (1983) and (1986). Laura Hobson died (Feb 28, 1986) aged eighty-five, in New York.

Hoby, Elizabeth Cooke, Lady      see      Russell, Elizabeth Cooke, Lady

Hoby, Margaret Dakins, Lady – (1571 – 1633)
English diarist
Margaret Dakins was the only child and heiress of Arthur Dakins, of Linton, Yorkshire and raised in the Puritan faith, in the household of the Countess of Huntingdon. All her subsequent marriages were arranged by the Hastings family. Margaret was married firstly to Walter Devereux, son of the first Earl of Essex and Lettice Knollys, secondly to Thomas Sidney, brother to the poet, Sir Philip Sidney, and lastly (1596) to Sir Thomas Postumous Hoby (the son of Lady Elizabeth Russell). Lady Hoby is the earliest known example of an English woman of rank, whose personal diary has survived. It covered a six year period (1599 – 1605) and was edited and piblished by Dorothy M. Meads as, The Diary of Lady Margaret Hoby (1930).
Lady Hoby died aged sixty-two (Sept, 1633) and was interred at Hackness.

Hochstaden, Imaine von (Imagina) – (c1210 – 1270)
Flemish abbess and saint
Imaine von Hochstaden was the daughter of Lothar I, Count von Hochstaden, and his wife Matilda of Vianden. She was placed in the abbey of Salzinnes during childhood (1218), and was later elected as abbess. Imaine befriended Juliana de Cornillon when she fled to Salzinnes from Namur, and managed to arrange that Juliana’s former convent in Liege should send an allowance for her friend’s maintenance. She later received permission to shelter Juliana permanently within her convent (1256). Imaine retained her friendship with Maria of Brienne, Empress of Constantinople, the unpopular regent of Flanders during her husband’s absence in the East, and Salzinnes was destroyed in a riot aimed against the regent and her friends.
Imaine and Juliana then travelled to Fosse, and there resided in a small house, formerly occupied by a recluse. Juliana died there (1258), and Imaine arranged her burial at the abbey of Villiers. She was then appointed abbess of the Cistercian abbey of Flines (1261 – 1270). Her brother, Conrad von Hochstaden, archbishop of Cologne sent her some relics purporting to be the remains of some of St Ursula’s famous virgin martyrs. Imaine died at Flines, and the church venerated her memory (Jan 29).

Hocken, Elizabeth Mary (Bessie) – (1848 – 1933)
New Zealand painter and photographer
Born Elizabeth Buckland in Auckland, she was married (1883) to Thomas Morland Hocken, a physician. Elizabeth Hocken received an award for flower painting at the New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition at Dunedin (1889 – 1890) and exhibited her work with the Otago Art Society (1887 – 1914). An accomplished linguist and traveller, with her husband’s death (1910) she resided for awhile in England before settling in South Africa. She left generous bequests in her will to the University of Otago and the Dunedin Public Art Gallery in her home land. Elizabeth Hocken died (April 19, 1933) aged eighty-four, at Rondebusch, in Capetown.

Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary – (1910 – 1994)
British biochemist
Born Dorothy Crowfoot in Cairo, Egypt, she was married (1937) Thomas Hodgkin to whom she bore three children. She was made a fellow of Somerville College in Oxford and Girton College, Cambridge, and of the Australian Academy of Science (1968). Hodgkin was appointed as Wolfson research professor of the Royal Society (1960 – 1977), as chancellor of Bristol University (1970) and then a fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford (1977 – 1982).
Dorothy Hodgkin was particularly remebered for her use of X-ray techniques to determine the structures of biochemical compounds, especially penicillin and vitamin B 12, which was used to treat pernicious anaemia. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1964), she was the first woman since Florence Nightingale to be awarded the OM (Order of Merit) (1965). The Royal Society later conferred upon her the Copley Medal (1976) in recognition of her vital contributions to science and she also received the Mikhail Lomonosov Gold Medal from the Soviet Academy of Science (1982).

Hodgkins, Frances Mary – (1869 – 1947)
New Zealand landscape and still-life painter
Frances Hodgkins was considered a leader of the Romanticism movement. She was born in Dunedin, the daughter of painter William Mathew Hodgkins and travelled abroad for several years (1901 – 1904). Attempts to pursue her career in art in New Zealand failed, and Hodgkins eventually left for London, Italy, and France (1906). She became a watercolour painting teacher at the Academie Colarossi in Paris, whilst gradually establishing her own considerable reputation as a painter.
Her style was a harmonious use of flat colour considered to be reminiscent of that of the French Impressionist Matisse. She also acquired influences from Gauguin, Chagall, and Marie Laurencin. Best known of her works were The Belgian Refugees (c1916), Double Portrait (1922) and Self Portrait: Still-Life (1941).
During WW I Hodgkins lived in Cornwall, but eventually returned to Paris (1920), only to return again to England where she resided in Manchester in Lancashire for over a decade (1927 – 1939). During this time she was elected as a member of the Seven and Five Society (1929). With the outbreak of WWII she retired to Dorchester. Frances Hodgkins died (May 13, 1947) aged seventy-eight, at Dorchester. Examples of her work are preserved at the Tate Gallery in London, and at Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand.

Hodgson, Alfreda Rose – (1940 – 1992)
British contralto and concert vocalist
Alfred Hodgson was born (June 7, 1940) at Morecambe in Lancashire, and attended the Northern School of Music. She won the Kathleen Ferrier Memorial Scholarship (1964) and then made her first performance with the Royal Liverpool Philharminic Orchestra. She performed as a soloist with various orchestras in Europe and America, and appeared in Le Rossignol and L’Enfant et les Sortileges at Covent Garden in London (1983 – 1984). She made recordings of St John Passion and Benjamin Britten’s Spring Symphony amongst other operatic works. Alfreda Hodgson died (April 16, 1992) at Morecambe, aged fifty-one.

Hodgson, Jane Elizabeth – (1915 – 2006)
American obstetrician and gynaecologist
Jane Hodgson was born (Jan 23, 1915) in Crockston, Minnesota, and studied chemistry at Carleton College, prior to attending the University of Minnesota. She trained at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and opened her own clinic in St Paul (1947). Hodgson later performed an abortion on a woman who was infected with rubella, which caused serious birth defects, though abortion was illegal in Minnesota.
Jane Hodgson was tried and convicted, but this was later overturned with the Roe v. Wade decision by the United States Supreme Court (1973), which declared that abortion should be a decision between the woman and her physician. Hodgson later established the Duluth Women’s Health Center (1981), and continued to advocate reform in the health care provided for women. She was the author of Abortion and Sterilization: Medical and Social Aspects (1981), and was inducted into the Women in Medicine Hall of Fame (2001). Jane Hodgson died (Oct 23, 2006) aged ninety-one.

Hodierna of Jerusalem – (1115 – before 1161)
Crusader princess
Princess Hodierna was the second daughter of King Baldwin II (1118 – 1131), ahd his wife Morphia of Melitene. Hodierna was the younger sister to Queen Melisande (1131 – 1161), and to Alice, Princess of Antioch. She was married to Raymond, Count of Tripoli (1114 – 1152). The marriage was recorded as a stormy and tempestuous one, and these emotional scenes were later used as evidence that Hodierna was committed adultery, and her daughter Melisande was actually illegitimate. There are no facts to support this rumour, and after Raymond was assassinated, Countess Hodierna ruled as regent for her son, Raymond, and predeceased her sister Melisande. Her daughter Melisande of Tripoli, died young and unmarried.

Hodierna of Rethel    see    Cecilia of Rethel

Hodson, Henrietta – (1841 – 1910)
British stage actress
Henrietta Hodson was born in Westminster in London, the daughter of an Irish actor who maintained an inn. She was trained for the stage in Glasgow, Scotland, where she made her debut at the Theatre Royal (1858). Hodson performed with Henry Irving, and the two worked together at the Theatre Royal in Manchester, Lancashire. Popular as a dancer and as a burlesque performer, she retired from the stage after marriage with a solicitor.
However, her husband’s early death precipitated her return to the stage, and she appeared at the Queen’s Theatre in London. Her second husband (1868) was the noted politician Henry Labouchere. Henrietta later took over the management of the Royalty Theatre (1870 – 1878) before her eventual retirement.

Hodson, Margaret – (1778 – 1852)
British poet and translator
Margaret Holford was the daughter of the novelist and poet, Margaret Wrench Holford. She published the collection of verse entitled simply Poems (1811) and Margaret of Anjou: A Poem in Ten Cantos (1816).

Hoerner, Germaine – (1905 – 1972)
French soprano
Germaine Hoerner was born (Jan 26, 1905) at Strasbourg. She was best known for her appearances as Siegelinde in Richard Wagner’s Die Valkyrie and as Elsa in Lohengrin. Germaine Hoerner died (May 19, 1972) aged sixty-seven, at Strasbourg.

Hoey, Frances Sarah – (1830 – 1908)
Irish writer and journalist
Born Frances Johnston near Dublin, she was educated at home. She was married firstly (1846) to Adam Murray Stewart (died 1855), and secondly to John Cashel Hoey. Frances Hoey wrote articles which were published in various magazines and newspapers, including the Chambers’s Journal, and was a member of the Irish Literary Society.
As well as writing several translations of historical and scientific topics from French and Italian, her published works included A House of Cards, Griffith’s Double, The Question of Cain, The Lover’s Creed, The Queen’s Token, and Buried in the Deep. Frances Hoey died aged seventy-seven (July 9, 1908).

Hoffman, Malvina Cornell – (1885 – 1966)
American sculptor
Hoffman was born (June 15, 1885) in New York City where she studied technique under Herbert Adams and Gutzon Borglum. She later studied under Auguste Rodin in Paris (1910 – 1914), where her ‘Russian Bacchanale’ won first prize at the Paris Salon (1911). It was at his advice that Hoffman studied anatomical drawing and dissection at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York.
Hoffman specialized in portrait busts, producing three heads of Paderewski, portraying him as friend, statesman, and artist (1920), and a bust of Wendell Wilkie (1944), but was best remembered for her creation of over one hundred bronze studies for the ‘Races of Mankind’ exhibition at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois (1930 – 1935). Hoffman produced the war memorial entitled ‘The Sacrifice,’ in the Memorial chapel of Harvard University (1920). Others of her works included, the erotic ‘Offrande’ (1919), the impressionistic ‘Lover’s Prayer’ (1923), and the vividly realistic ‘The Coal Man’ (1928).
Miss Hoffman was the author of Sculpture Inside and Out (1939), and wrote her autobiography Heads and Tales (1936). Malvina Hoffman died (July 10, 1966) aged seventy-nine.

Hoffstot, Barbara Drew – (1919 – 1994)
American architect and preservationist
Born Barbara Drew in Pittsburgh, and attended the Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut and finished her education in Winter Park, Florida. Mrs Hoffstot established the Pittsburgh History and Landmark Foundation, serving as vice chairwoman of that organization, and was a trustee of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. She was the author of Landmark Architecture of Palm Beach (1974). Barbara Hoffstott died (Sept 18, 1994) aged seventy-five, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Hofland, Barbara – (1770 – 1844)
British children’s author
Born Barbara Wreaks, she was married twice. She took up writing stories for children after the death of her first husband, as a means of supporting her family. Barbara Hofland is best remembered for her novel The Son of a Genius (1812), which deals with a young boy’s successful quest to raise money to pays his father’s debts, and so obtain his release from prison. She also wrote The Young Crusoe (1828), and several moral tales such as Integrity (1823) and Fortitude (1835), as well as historical novels and instructive geographical works.

Hofmann, Leopoldine – (1842 – 1891)
Austrian courtier
Leopoldine Hofmann was born at Krems, near St Polten, the daughter of Ignaz Hofmann and his wife Anna Hausner. She became the mistress of the Hapsburg archduke Heinrich Anton (1828 – 1891). They eventually married morganatically at Bolseno in Italy (1868), and she was created Madame von Waideck after the birth of their daughter (1872). She was later created Baroness von Waideck (1878) by the Emperor Franz Joseph.
Her daughter Maria Raineria (1872 – 1936) bore the surname and style of Countess von Waideck. She was later married to Enrico Lucchesi-Palli, eleventh Prince di Campofranco and tenth Duca della Grazia (1861 – 1924). Leopoldine died in Vienna the day before her husband, aged forty-nine (Nov 29, 1891).

Hogan, Vicki Lyn    see   Smith, Anna Nicole

Hogarth, Georgina – (1827 – 1917)
British editor
Georgina Hogarth was the sister-in-law to the famous novelist and author, Charles Dickens. She resided with his family and ran his household as housekeeper, due to the mental incapacity of his wife Kate. Georgina later edited his letters for publication.

Hogg, Ima – (1882 – 1975)
American philanthropist, traveller and public benefactor
Born in Mineola, Texas (July 10, 1882), she was the daughter of James Stephen Hogg, the governor of Texas, and was raised in Houston. Ima Hogg remained unmarried and inherited the impressive family estate at Bayou Bend. A leading collector of Early American antiques, she presented her own collection of fine arts, as well as her home, to the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Her former home was opened to the public as the Bayou Bend Collection (1966).
Miss Hogg was the founder of the Houston Symphony Society (1913), and the Houston Child Guidance Clinic (1929). She also edited and published her father’s letters and papers. She established the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health at the University of Texas (1940). She left personal memoirs. Ima Hogg died (Aug 19, 1975) aged ninety-three, whilst on a trip to London.

Hogg, Lucy Jane Augusta – (1865 – 1960)
Australian educator and journalist
Lucy Hudspeth was born in Hobart, Tasmania, the daughter of a clergyman. She was sister to the dramatist and composer Francis Rowland Maule Hudspeth (1862 – 1912), to the genealogist and historian, Wilfred Hudspeth (1874 – 1952), and to the noted society hostess, Edith Maud Webster (1876 – 1973). A brilliant scholar, Lucy trained as a teacher and was employed at the Officer College in Hobart, and was closely associated with the Itinerant Club for young ladies which had been established in Hobart. She travelled in Europe and then married (1902) Evelyn Hogg (died 1951) on her return.
The couple then settled in Christchurch in New Zealand where her husband was employed as a teacher. Lucy then embarked upon a journalistic career, writing articles under a pseudonym for the Tasmanian News, the Mercury and Tasmanian Mail and the Illustrated Sydney News publications. She was greatly involved in work for the war effort during WW I, and established a Red Cross work party and was elected local president of the Victoria League. Lucy Hogg died (Dec 1, 1960) aged ninety-one, in Christchurch.

Hoguer, Blanche Lucie – (1786 – after 1839)
French painter
Blanche Hoguer was born at Versailles, near Paris. She studied painting under Jean Baptiste Regnault. She exhibited her work from 1810 – 1827 under the name of Hoguer, but from 1830 until her last exhibition (1839) she used her married name of Thurot. Her work Sully draws the portrait of Henry IV, was lithographed by N.H. Jacob.

Hoguet, Constance Middleton – (1919 – 1984)
American musical patron
Born Constance Roberts (Feb 10, 1919) in New York City, she attended the Brearley School there, before going on to complete her education at Smith College, where she studied music, a love she retained for the rest of her life. She was married (1940) to the banking executive, Robert L. Hoguet, to whom she bore several children. Constance Hoguet became the first woman to serve as president of the Philharmonic Symphony Society (1981 – 1984), after having worked for that company on a volunteer basis. She served on the board for over three decades (1951 – 1984). She assisted with the establishment of the Friends of the Philharmonic, which raised enormous funds, and was appointed as co-chairman. Constance Hoguet died (July 23, 1984) aged sixty-five, in Manhattan, New York.

Hohenau, Charlotte von der Decken, Countess von der – (1863 – 1933)
German courtier
Charlotte von der Decken was born at Melkhof, the daughter of Julius von der Decken, and was married (1881) Count Fritz (Friedrich) von Hohenau, a morganatic grandson of Frederick William III, King of Prussia, to whom she bore four sons. The countess was possessed of extremely beautiful hands which attracted her the attention of Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Their affair came to light during the infamous ‘Kotze scandal’ during which pornographic pictures of the Kaiser and several prominent courtiers were published in Potsdam (1892 – 1894). Letters depicted the Kaiser receiving the countess at his hunting lodge in the Grunewald, near Berlin, she being stark naked under her furs. Her husband died just prior to the outbreak of Word War I (1914), and the countess survived her him nearly twenty years. Charlotte von der Hohenau died (Jan 30, 1933) aged sixty-nine, in Berlin.

Hohenberg, Sophie Chotek, Duchess von – (1868 – 1914)
Bohemian courtier
Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa was born (March 1, 1868) in Stuttgart, Wurttemburg, Germany, the daughter of Count Bohuslav Chotek von Chotkowa. Countess Sophie became lady-in-waiting to the Archduchess Maria Theresa, stepmother to the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, from 1889 the heir to the emperor Franz Joseph. The archduke renounced his rights to the Imperial succession in order to marry Sophie (1900) who was created Duchess von Hohenberg by Imperial decree (1909). They had three children, two sons and a daughter.
Duchess Sophie was assassinated with her husband at Sarajevo in Bosnia-Herzegovina (June 28, 1914), whilst on an official visit, being gunned down in their carriage by the Serbian student Gavrilo Princip. The duchess had thrown herself in front of her husband in an heroic attempt to shield him from the assassin. They were interred together in the castle of Artstetten.

Hohenfels, Ida von – (c1140 – c1195)
German nun and saint
Ida von Hohenfels was married in her youth to Count Eberhard of Sponheim. With the death of her husband (1190) she retired from the court and became a Benedictine nun at the abbey of Bingen, established by the famous Abbess Hildegard, and where her own sister Margaret was abbess. Ida was especially noted for her piety and religious sanctity. Ida was venerated as a saint (Feb 24).

Hohenhausen, Elisabeth Philippine Amalia – (1789 – 1857)
German woman of letters
Elisabeth von Ochs was the daughter of General Ludwig von Ochs, and was married to the Baron Hohenhausen, founder of the Morgenblatt newspaper in Berlin. She was the author of Fleurs de Printemps (1817) and Tableaux de la vie (1833).

Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, Christiane Louise von Solms-Laubach, Princess von – (1754 – 1815)
German painter
Countess Christiane von Solms-Laubach was the daughter of Count Christian August von Solms-Laubach, and his wife Dorothea Wilhelmine Botticher. She was married Prince Friedrich Karl von Hohenlohe-Kirchberg (1751 – 1791), as his second wife but they remained childless.
Having studied art and technique in her youth, she became a ralented portrait painter, and was encouraged by Daniel Chodowiecki, who engraved her portrait of Andreas Bohm. Her self-portrait gained her honorary memebership of the academy of Kassel (1782) and she later exhibited two self-portraits and several pastel paintings in Berlin (1786). Princess Christiane died (March 3, 1816) aged sixty-one.

Hohenstaufen, Margeurita von – (c1232 – 1298)
German Imperial patrician
Margeurita was the natural daughter of the Emperor Frederick II and his mistress Bianca di Lancia, marchesa d’Anglano, whom he married morganatically on her deathbed (1245). She was married (1247) to Tommaso d’Aquino, Conte d’Acerra, whom she survived twenty-five years as the Dowager Contessa d' Acerra.
Through her daughter Joana d’Aquino, the wife of Pietro II di Ruffo (1212 – 1302), Conte di Catanzario, Margeurita became the ancestress, through the family of des Ursins, of Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry VII of England.

Hohenthal, Countess von  see  Berlepsch, Caroline Albertine von

Hohenzollern, Adelaide von – (c1437 – 1502)
German nun
Countess Adelaide von Hohenzollern was the daughter of Count Eitel Friedrich I of Hohenzollern and his wife Ursula von Razuns, the daughter of Heinrich von Razuns, and was the paternal aunt of Friedrich von Hohenzollern, Bishop of Augsburg (1486 - 1505). Adelaide never married and became a nun. She served as Abbess of Oberstenfeld for three decades (1472 – 1502).

Ho Hsiang-ning    see     He Xiangning

Holbrook, Elizabeth Bradford – (1913 – 2009)
Canadian portrait sculptor
Elizabeth Holbrook was born (Nov 7, 1913) in Hamilton, Ontario, and studied sculpture at the Royal College of Art in England, and then under Emanuel Hahn and then under Carl Miles in Michigan (1948). She was employed as an art lecturer in sculpture at the Dundas Valley School of Art and later at McMaster University in Hamilton (1995 – 1999). Her best known works included the statue of George Bernard Shaw (1997) at Niagara-on-the-Lake and the bronze bust of Colonel George Stanley, the designer of the Canadian flag. One of her last works were matching sculptures of Lord Conrad Black and his wife Barbara Amiel (2001).
Elizabeth Holbrook received several prestigious awards during her long and distinguished artistic career the gold medal of the National Sculpture Society of New York (1969) and the Cleeve Horne Award for Best Portrait Sculpture from the Canadian Portrait Gallery (1998). In honour of her contribution to the arts Holbrook was appointed a member of the Order of Canada (1995) and received the Order of Ontario (1997). Elizabeth Holbrook died (Feb 23, 2009) aged ninety-five.

Holden, Amy Phipps – (1914 – 1992)
American philanthropist
Audrey Phipps was the daughter of Henry Carnegie Phipps. Known as Amy, she organized low income housing for the poor. Mrs Holden was actively involved in several planned parent-hood campaigns, and with various types of drug rehabilitation. Amy Phipps Holden died (July 12, 1992) in New York.

Holden, Fay – (1894 – 1973)
Anglo-American stage and film actress
Born Dorothy Hammerton in Brimingham, Lancashire, England, she worked in the theatre as ‘Gaby Fay’and was married to the Scottish character actor David Clyde (1887 – 1945). She appeared on stage under her married name of Dorothy Clyde until aged over forty when she transferred her talent to films.
Fay Holden achieved lasting fame as Mrs Hardy in the Andy Hardy series of films including Judge Hardy’s Children (1938), The Hardy’s Rise High (1939), Andy Hardy’s Blonde Trouble (1944), and Andy Hardy Comes Home (1958). Her other credits included Blossoms in the Dust (1941) with Greer Garson, Ziegfeld Girl (1941) and Samson and Delilah (1949).

Holden, Gloria – (1908 – 1991)
Anglo-American film actress
Born (Sept 5, 1908) in London Gloria Holden achieved fame for playing the title role in the horror classic Dracula’s Daughter (1936) and for portraying Madame Zola in the Life of Emile Zola. She also made appearances in such films as Test Pilot (1938), A Child Is Born (1940), The Corsican Brothers (1941), The Eddy Duchin Story (1957) and This Happy Feeling (1968). Gloria Holden died (March 22, 1991) aged eighty-two.

Holden, Molly – (1927 – 1981)
British poet
Molly Holden was the wife of Alan W. Holden, the editor of the Housman Society Journal. Her husband penned a memoir of her in the volume entitled Selected Poems of Molly Holden.

Holdernesse, Frances Seymour, Countess of – (1622 – 1681)
English Stuart courtier
Lady Frances Seymour was the daughter of William Seymour, third Duke of Somerset, by his wife Lady Frances Devereux, the daughter of Robert Devereux, the second Earl of Essex, the ill-fated favourite of Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603). Lady Frances was married three times, firstly to Lord Richard Molyneux, secondly to Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, and thirdly to Conyers Darcy, Earl of Holdernesse (died 1692).

Holford, Margaret – (fl. c1770 – c1800)
British poet
Born Margaret Wrench, she was the mother of the poet and translator Margaret Hodson. Mrs Holford was the author of the collection of verse entitled Fanny and Selina, Gresford Vale and Other Poems (1798).

Holiday, Billie – (1915 – 1959)
Black American jazz vocalist and lyricist
Born Eleanora Fagan (April 7, 1915) in Baltimore, Maryland, her singing career began at an early age (1930), and she later worked with Bennie Goodman (1909 – 1986) and Count Basie (1904 – 1984). Billie Holiday developed a powerful and emotional style of blues singing.  Her early death in New York (July 17, 1959) was the result of heroin addiction, and she was portrayed in the film Lady Sings the Blues (1972). She was later inducted into the Recording Academy of Fame.

Holland, Bess – (c1505 – 1547)
English Tudor servant and mistress
Elizabeth Holland was the daughter of the steward of Kenninghall Palace. She was engaged as a laundress in the household of Thomas Howard (1473 – 1554), the third Duke of Norfolk. She became the duke’s mistress shortly after the birth of his younger children, Mary and Thomas (c1521), borne by his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Stafford, daughter of Edward, third Duke of Buckingham. Their relationship lasted fifteen years, and was the cause of much dissension in the ducal household, the duchess loudly and vociferously protesting against their liaison under her own roof, referring to Bess as, ‘a churl’s daughter who was but a washer in my nursey for eight years.’ She even later accused Bess of striking her.
With the rise of Anne Boleyn at the court of Henry VIII, Bess served in her household at court. When the duke and his son, Lord Surrey, were arrested on charges of treason by order of Henry VIII (1546), the interrogators gained information from both Bess and the Duchess of Richmond, Surrey’s sister, which led to his execution, whilst the Duke of Norfolk remained in the Tower of London until the reign of Queen Mary. Bess had callously abandoned her erstwhile lover in order to save herself and her ill-gotten gains. Bess Holland was remarried to Henry Reppes, but died in childbirth the following year.

Holland, Caroline Georgiana Lennox, Lady – (1723 – 1774)
British courtier and society figure
Lady Caroline Lennox was born (March 27, 1723) the daughter of Charles Lennox, second Duke of Richmond and his wife, Lady Sarah Cadogan. She was the paternal granddaughter of Charles II and his French mistress, Louise Renee de Keroualle, and was sister to Lady Sarah Lennox, who was greatly admired by George III. Lady Caroline eloped with the politican Henry Fox (1744), nearly twenty years her senior and she bore him four sons, including Stephen Fox, second Baron Holland, and the great Whig politician, Charles James Fox (1749 – 1806). The marriage had been disapproved by her parents, who disinherited her, but proved a very happy one, and they established a political salon at their home, Holland House, in Kensington, London.
George III raised Lady Caroline to the peerage as Baroness Holland (1762), whilst Fox was created Baron Holland of Foxley several months afterwards (1763). The marriage of her sister Lady Sarah Lennox to Sir Charles Bunbury was the cause of a family dissension between Caroline and her younger sister Emilia Fitzgerald, Duchess of Leinster, which was healed only shortly before Caroline’s death. She was already gravely ill when her husband died of a stroke. Lady Holland did not long survive, and died aged fifty-one (July 24, 1774). She appears in the historical novel The Third George (1969) by Jean Plaidy.

Holland, Eleanor de – (1373 – 1405)
English Planatagenet heiress
Lady Eleanor de Holland was the eldest daughter of Thomas de Holland, second Earl of Kent, and his wife Lady Alice Fitzalan. Her father was stepson to Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and half-brother to King Richard II (1377 – 1399). Lady Eleanor became the wife (1387) of Roger Mortimer (1374 – 1398), fourth Earl of March and Ulster, the grandson of Edward III (1327 – 1377). Mortimer had been brought up by Eleanor’s father, and Richard II had at one time sold to Lord Arundel the right of choosing a bride for young Mortimer, but as Arundel became more conspicuously opposed to the king’s policy, he transferred that right, at the request of his mother Princess Joan, widow of the Black Prince, to her son, Eleanor’s father, with the result that Mortimer was married to Eleanor, who was Richard’s half-niece.
The Countess of March, together with her husband and large retinue, attended King Richard in Ireland (Sept, 1394). When her husband was killed at Kells (Aug 15, 1398) Eleanor caused his body to be brought to England and interred in Wigmore Priory. The countess received royal permission to remarry to whomever she chose (June, 1399) and shortly afterwards became the wife of Edward Charlton (1370 – 1421), fifth Baron Charlton of Powys. She brought him the lordships of the castles of Usk and Caerlon as her dowry. Eleanor de Holland died (Oct 23, 1405) aged thirty-two, from the effects of childbirth. The child did not long survive her. Eleanor left four children by her first marriage with the Earl of March,

Eleanor left two daughters from her second marriage with Lord Charlton,

Holland, Elizabeth Vassall, Lady – (1771 – 1845)
British salon hostess
Elizabeth Vassall was born in London, the daughter of Richard Vassall, a wealthy Jamaican planter. She was married firstly (1786) to Sir Godfrey Webster, of Battle Abbey, Sussex, from whom she was divorced for adultery by Act of Parliament (1797). Lady Webster remarried two days later to her lover, Henry Fox, third Baron Holland. She was famous for her long presidence over an influential salon at Holland House in Kensington, where she received such literary luminaries as Monk Lewis (Matthew Gregory), Thomas, Moore and Lord Byron, and political figures as Lord Aberdeen, lord Brougham, and the French Prince de Talleyrand.
An ardent admirer of the Emperor Napoleon, Lady Fox was formally introduced to him at Malmaison (1802), and sent him sympathetic messages after his confinement on Elba (1814). With his death she retained several valuable momentos. Her private diaries were later edited by Giles Holland, Lord Ilchester as The Journal of Elizabeth Lady Holland (1791 – 1811) (1908) and The Spanish Journal of Elizabeth Lady Holland (1910). Lady Fox died (Nov 16, 1845) aged seventy-five, at her house in Grosvenor Square, London. She was interred at Ampthill Park, Bedfordshire.

Holland, Isabel Cope, Countess of – (c1597 – 1655)
English Stuart courtier
Isabel Cope was the only daughter and heiress of Sir Walter Cope of Kensington, Master of the Court Wards and one of the chancellors of the Exchequer, and his wife Dorothy Grenville, the daughter of Richard Grenville of Wootten, Buckinghamshire. Her father died in 1614 and her mother remarried to Sir Thomas Fowler of Islington. Isabel was married (c1613) to Henry Rich, first Earl of Holland (1590 – 1649) and attended the courts of James I and Charles I.
Lady Holland inherited the family property of Cope Castle in London which passed to her husband who caused the mansion to be renamed Holland House. Lord Holland was beheaded by the Parliamentarians and Isabel survived for several years as the Dowager Countess of Holland (1649 – 1655). Lady Holland died (Sept 1, 1655) aged in her late fifties. Her children included,

Holland, Joan de    see    Joan de Holland

Holland, Sheila see Lamb, Charlotte

Hollar, Constance – (1880 – 1945)
Jamaican poet
Constance Hollar was the sister of Anna Hollar, one of the first female students to attend university in Jamaica, and a famous teacher of Latin. Constance never married and her highly fanciful verse achieved great popularity in the 1930’s and 1940’s, but quickly went out of vogue.
Her works included, Flaming June (1941), and other verses which appeared in Voices from Summerland, An Anthology of Jamaican Poetry (1929). Constance was also the editor of the Songs of Empire (1932) anthology, the foreword of which was penned by Sir William Morrison.

Holley, Marietta – (1836 – 1926)
American writer, humourist and women’s rights activist
Holley was born (July 16, 1836) in Jefferson County, New York. Holley used the pseudonym ‘Josiah Allen’s Wife,’ and published several works including Wayward Pardner; or My Tirals with Josiah, America, and the Widow Bump and Etcetery (1880), Samantha at the World’s Fair (1893) and Around the World with Josiah Allen’s Wife (1899). Marietta Holley died (March 1, 1926) aged eighty-nine.

Holley, Mary Phelps Austin – (1784 – 1866)
American land speculator and writer
Mary Holley travelled extensively around the USA. She was the author of Texas: Observations Historical, Geographical and Descriptive (1833). Her private correspondence has been edited and published (1933).

Holliday, Judy – (1921 – 1965)
American comedienne and film actress
Born Judith Tuvim in New York (June 21, 1921), she originally worked as a telephnist for the Mercury Theatre, which was run by Orson Welles, and then worked in cabaret for several years (1939 – 1944). She was engaged by Twentieth Century Fox in Los Angeles, and appeared in several minor films. Holliday’s big break came when she was employed as an understudy for the Broadway play Born Yesterday (1946). She eventually replaced the leading lady in the role, which she made famous, and played the same role in the film (1950), for which she received and Academy Award as Best Actress.
Her other film credits included appearances in Adam’s Rib (1949), with Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy, and in The Solid Gold Cadillac (1956). Holliday returned to the stage with great success in Bells Are Ringing (1956), which role she reprised for her final film role (1960). Judy Holliday died of cancer (June 7, 1965) aged forty-three.

Hollingworth, Leta Stetter – (1886 – 1939)
American educational psychologist
Letta Stetter was born in Chadron, Nebraska. After attending a local secondary school, she studied at Nebraska University and was trained as a schoolteacher. She was married (1908) to Harry Hollingworth, after which she attended Columbia University. Leta Hollingworth was employed as a psychologist by the New York civil service, and later joined the staff of the Teachers College (1919). A decade later she was appointed as professor of Education (1929). Her published works included The Psychology of Subnormal Children (1920) and The Psychology of the Adolescent (1928).

Hollingworth, Pamela – (1936 – 1992)
American missing child
Pamela Hollingworht was born in Lowell, Massachusetts. She attended a picnic with her family, and became lost for eight days on Mount Chocorua, a high peak in the White Mountains National Forest in New Hampshire, dressed only in overalls and sneakers. Her disappearance and subsequently discovery, safe and well two miles away, was a cause celebre (Oct, 1941).
Hollingsworth later attended school in Chelmsford, and graduated from Smith College (1958). She began a public relations career in New York, and became vice president for creative services at the Cancer Society and communications director of the United States Committee for the United Nations Children’s Fund. She remained unmarried. Pamela Hollingworth died (Sept 11, 1992) aged fifty-six, at Orleans in Massachusetts.

Holm, Eleanor – (1913 – 2004)
American swimming champion
Holm was born (Dec 6, 1913) in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of a fireman. Taking to the water at an early age, Holm quickly became a champion athlete, and won her first national title at the age of thirteen (1928). Eleanor Holm participated in the 1928 Summer Olympics, where she finished in fifth place in the one hundred metre backstroke event. In the Olympic Games in Los Angeles, California (1932) she won the gold medal for the one hundred metre backstroke event.
Eleanor Holm was married firstly (1933) to the bandleader, Art Jarrett, and performed on stage as a vocalist with his group. She was selected for the 1936 Olympics under her married name, but due to what seemed excessive drinking, the team physician classified her as an alcoholic, which charge she strongly denied. She was suspended from the team, despite strong support from her fellow athletes, and always maintained that her rejection was caused from a personal grudge held against her by the Olympic team leader, Avery Brundage. Holm later starred with Olympic athlete Glenn Morris in the film Tarzan’s Revenge (1938) and appeared in several films herself.
After divorcing her first husband (1939) Holm was remarried to the impressario Billy Rose, and worked with Johnny Weissmuller (1904 – 1984) and Buster Crabbe (1907 – 1983). She later divorced Rose (1954) obtaining a large financial settlement, and remarried soon afterwards to Thomas Whelan, an oil executive. Eleanor Holm died (Jan 31, 2004) aged ninety, in Miami, Florida.

Holm, Hanya – (1893 – 1992)
German-American dancer and choreographer
Born Johanna Eckert in Worms-am-Rhein (March 3, 1893), she studied music under the Swiss composer, Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, and then worked as a dancer under Mary Wigman. Wigman later sent Holm to New York in order to establish the American branch of her dance school (1931). Holm later opened her own dance studio, in which she fused Wigman’s style with her own particular emphasis on speed. She choreographed the dance routines for several famous Broadway musicals including My Fair Lady (1956) and Camelot (1960). Hanya Holm died (Nov 3, 1992) aged ninety-nine, in New York.

Holm, Torfhildur    see   Porsteinsdottir, Torfhildur

Holman-Hunt, Diana – (1913 – 1993) 
British art critic and writer
Her first work, My Grandmothers and I (1960), was concerned with her chidlhood upbringing, whilst her second My Grandfather, His Life and Loves (1969), was a biography of her grandfather, the Pre-Raphaelite painter William Holman-Hunt. Diana also wrote Latin Among the Lions (1974), a critique of the life and work of the Chilean painter Alvaro Guevara. Diana Holman-Hunt died in London.

Holme, Constance – (1880 – 1955)
British novelist
Constance Holme was born at Milnthorpe in Westmorland, the daughter of a land agent. She was married (1916) to Frederick Burt Punchard, a land agent like her father. Her published works were set in her own country in the north of England, and dealt with the lives of rural communities. These novels included Crump Folk Going Home (1913), The Lonely Plough (1914) and The Splendid Fairing (1919), for which she was awarded the Femina Vie Heureuse prize.

Holme, Saxe    see   Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske

Holmes, Augusta Mary Anne – (1847 – 1903)
Irish-French composer and pianist
Holmes was born (Dec 16, 1847) in Paris, and studied first as a pianist, before trying her hand at composition, studying under Klose, Lambert and Cesar Franck. Augusta wrote the psalm In Exitu (1873) and Hero and Leander (1874) a stage work performed in one act.
Her later drama La Montagne Noire (1895) proved unsuccessful. She composed the symphonies Lutece and Les Argonautes (1883) and Irlande (1885). Augusta sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Hermann Zenta’ and also produced several operas and symphonic poems. Augusta Holmes died (Jan 28, 1903) aged sixty-five, in Paris.

Holmes, Emily – (1819 – 1857) 
Anglo-Indian captive
Born Alexandrina Sale, she was the daughter of Sir Robert Sale and his wife Florentia Wynch. She was raised in Calcutta and Agra, in India. Emily accompanied her mother to Kabul in Afghanistan (1840) and married (1841) Lt John Sturt of the Royal Engineers, who was in charge of the Public Works Department. From 1842 – 1843 Emily Sturt was held captive by the Afghans, led by Akbar Khan, together with her mother, Lady Macnaghten, and other British women and children. Her husband was killed in the Khoord Kabul Pass (Jan 9, 1842) and Emily gave birth to a daughter during her captivity.
Liberated by her father’s forces (Sept, 1843) she then returned to England with her parents (July, 1844). Emily later returned to India and remarried to Major James Holmes, later the commander of the 12th Irregular Cavalry at Segowlie in Bihar. Husband and wife were murdered during the Sepoy Mutiny (July 23, 1857) they both being beheaded by four mutineers of her husband’s troop, as they were seated in their carriage. Emily Holmes left daughters by both marriages.

Holmes, Mary Jane Hawes – (1828 – 1907)
American writer
Holmes was born (April 5, 1828) in Brookfield, Massachusetts. Her published work included the popular novels Tempest and Sunshine (1854), The Cameron Pride (1867), Rose Mather (1868) and The Tracy Diamonds (1899).

Holmes, Sarah Katherine Stone – (1841 – 1907)
Southern American diarist
Sarah Stone was born in Hinds County, Mississippi, the daughter of William Stone, and was educated privately at home. During the Civil War her family was forced to flee from their plantation of Brockenburn at Stonington, near Delta in Louisiana, which was burnt to the ground by Yankee troops, and they eventually settled in Texas. There she married (1896) Henry Bry Holmes.
Mrs Holmes later founded the Madison Infantry Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Tallulah, Louisiana, and her journal kept before her marriage during the Civil War was published posthumously as Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone (1955). Sarah Holmes died (Dec 28, 1907) aged sixty-six, at Tallulah.

Holst, Imogen Clare – (1907 – 1984)
British composer, musician and conductor
Imogen was the daughter of the composer Gustav Holst (1874 – 1934). She worked in close association with the composer Benjamin Britten (1913 – 1976)

Holt, Bertha – (1904 – 2000)
American adoption activist
Bertha was employed as a nurse in Eugene, Oregon, and married a farmer-cum-lumberjack, Harry Holt. Moved after seeing a film concerning the plight of American children in Korean orphanages (1954) the couple adopted eight abandoned children, all fathered by American servicemen, and attracted state wide attention. The couple worked togther to find American families willing to adopt Korean orphans, and it was due to their efforts that the American Congress passed the Bill for the Relief of Certain War Orphans (1955) in order to make the adoption process easier.
Their work evolved into the the Holt International Children’s services, which would eventually organize adoptions from twelve countries world wide. Widowed in 1964, Bertha continued to work tirelessly for the organization for another thirty-five years. Her work was recognized by President Lyndon Johnson who named her as National Mother of the Year (1966), and she was the only non-Korean to receive the Korea National Merit Award (1995). Bertha Holt died in Eugene, Oregon.

Holt, Victoria     see     Plaidy, Jean

Holt, Dame Zara    see   Bate, Dame Zara Violet

Holtby, Winifred – (1898 – 1935)
British feminist, novelist and social reformer
Holtby was born (June 23, 1898) in Ruddstone inYorkshire, the daughter of a farmer. She attended secondary school at Queen Margaret’s School in Scarborough before beginning her studies at Somerville College, Oxford. However, with the outbreak of WW I, she left study in order to serve with the WAAF (Women’s Auxiliary Air Corps) as a hostel forewoman in France (1918 – 1919). Holtby gave public lectures in South Africa, and later served as the director of Time and Tide from 1926, and published several novels including The Land of Green Ginger (1927), and her most successful work South Riding (1936), which was published posthumously, and for which she was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize.
Miss Holtby was the author of the feminist volume Women and a Changing Civilisation (1934), and of the collection of letters entitled Letters to a Friend, 1937, The Selected Letters of Winifred Holtby and Vera Brittain 1920 – 1935 (1960), was published posthumously. Winifred Holtby died in London aged thirty-seven (Sept 29, 1935). Her friend Vera Brittain wrote and published Testament of Friendship (1940) as a personal tribute to her.

‘Holy Maid of Kent, the’     see     Barton, Elizabeth

Homburg, Countess Schonetta von    see   Schonetta of Nassau

Home, Anne – (1742 – 1821)
Scottish poet and salon hostess
Anne Home was the wife of John Hunter, and was the mother of John Hunter, the noted physiologist and anatomist. A collection of her verse was published entitled Poems by Mrs John Hunter (1802), and included such well known poems as ‘The Lots of Thousands’ and ‘My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair.’.

Homer, Louise – (1871 – 1947)
American contralto
Born Louise Dilworth Beatty, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, she studied singing in Philadelphia, Boston, and Paris ubder Fidele Koenig, before making her stage debut in Vichy (1898) performing the lead role in, La Favorita, and was married (1895) to the composer Sidney Homer. Louise Homer appeared in the role of Amneris in Aida at Covent Garden in London (1899) and she later performed with the royal opera in Brussels, Belgium (1900).
Later recognized as a talented Wagnerian vocalist, she performed the contralto role in Lohengrin at Covent Garden, London (1900), and that of Maddalena in Enrico Caruso’s American debut of Rigoletto (1903). Louise sang in the first performance of Giacomo Puccini’s Madama Butterfly ever put on at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, and which was attended by the composer himself.
Louise later joined (1920), the Civic Opera Company of Chicago, Illinois, and was selected as one of the twelve greatest living Americans by the National Association of Women Voters. Louise Homer died (May 6, 1947) aged seventy-six, at Winter Park, in Florida.

Ho Nansorhon – (1563 – 1589)
Korean poet
Ho Nansorhon was sister to the novelist Ho Kyun. Her surviving verses include the poem ‘A Woman’s Sorrow’ and the untitled poem beginning, ‘Numberless are the sorrowful.’

Honda, Minako – (1967 – 2005)
Japanese popular vocalist
Known as ‘Japan’s Madonna,’ she was born Minako Koda (July 31, 1967) in Katsushika, Tokyo. She was raised in Asaka. Deciding to pursue a singing career, she adopted the name of ‘Minako Honda’ and produced her first album Satsui no Vacance (1985). This was followed by other successful collections of her songs such as M’ Syndrome (1985), Cancel (1986), and Oversea (1987) which was released in English, Midnight Swing (1987) and The Target of the Leopard (1989).
Honda also made appearances in such stage musicals as The King and I, Les Miserables and Miss Saigon, in which she sang the role of Kim. Brian May, the singer of the famous group, Queen, composed and wrote the song, ‘Crazy Nights/Golden Days’ for Minako. Her promising career was cut short when she was diagnosed with leukaemia in early 2005. Minako Honda died (Nov 6, 2005) aged thirty-eight, in Bunkyo, Tokyo.

Hone, Evie – (1894 – 1955)
Irish stained glass artist
Evie Hone was born in Dublin, and was crippled by infantile paralysis. She later attended Walter Sickert’s Westminster School of Art before going to Paris, where she worked under Andre Lhote and Albert Gleizes. Hone became increasingly interested in working with stained glass, and went to the workshop of Michael Healy at the An Tur Gloine (the Tower of Glass), to be further instructed in technique and design. She travelled abroad to Ravenna in Italy in order to study the mosaics there.
After her ultimate conversion to the Roman Catholic religion (1937), Evie Hone confined most of her work to churches and hospital chapels in Ireland. Her surviving works included the windows made for Eton College Chapel (1949 – 1951) and Lancercost Priory in Bournemouth. Some drawings of her designs are preserved in the Tate Gallery in London.

Hong, Xiao – (1911 – 1942)
Chinese novelist and author
Born Zhang Naiying in Hulan, Heilongjiang Province, she was the daughter of a farmer. She attended school in Harbin, but was discontented and she eventually fled to live with the newspaper editor, Xiao Jun in order to avoid an arranged marriage. This friendship proved the genesis of her won literary career. Her first major work was Sheng si Chang (The Field of Life and Death) (1935), which proved enormously successful, and dealt with the grim life of the rural peasants, amidst the disruption of war with the Japanese.
Xiao Hong published the semi-autobiographical Hulanhe zhuan (Tales of the Hulan River) (1942), shortly before her early death, a gripping account of her life and the semi-destroyed worls she was forced to live in. Her other works included the satirical novel Ma Bole (1940), and the collection of short stories Bashe (Arduous Journey), which she wrote together with Xiao Jun. Some of her works were published under the pseudonym ‘Qiao Yin.’ Xiao Hong died (Jan 22, 1942) aged thirty, after a botched hospital operation, in occupied Hong Kong.

Hongen, Elisabeth – (1906 – 1997)
German mezzo-soprano
Hongen was born (Dec 7, 1906) at Gevelsburg, and studied in Berlin under Hermann Wiessenborn. She performed in Dusseldorf (1935 – 1939) and then in Dresden (1940 – 1943), and appeared at the Salzburg Festival in Austria, and the Bayreuth Festival. She was particularly noted for her powerful performances in the operas of Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss, and was greatly admired in the title role of Giuseppe Verdi’s Lady Macbeth. She sang at La Scala in Milan, and performed the title role of Benjamin Britten’s The Rape of Lucrece. Hongen retired in 1971. Elisabeth Hongen died (Aug 7, 1997) aged ninety, in Vienna.

Hongo, Kamato – (1887 – 2003)
Japanese supercentarian
Born (Sept 16, 1887) on the island of Tokunoshima, Kamato was married and bore a daughter, with whom she later resided at Kagoshima, on Kyushu. From 1999, at the age of 112 years, she became the oldest living person in Japan, and was officially recognized as the oldest person in the world (March 18, 2002). She became something of a national celebrity. Kamato Hongo died (Oct 31, 2003) aged 116 years and one month.

Honoria, Justa Grata – (418 – c454 AD)
Byzantine Augusta
Princess Justa Grata Honoria was the only daughter of the Emperor Constantius III and his wife Galla Placidia, and full sister to emperor Valentinian III (425 – 455 AD). She was granted the Imperial title by her brother (433 AD), but remained unmarried.
Princess Honoria took her chamberlain, Eugenius, for her lover, but the liasion was discovered, and Eugenius was executed. Honoria was was sent to the eastern court in Constantinople, where the empress Pulcheria confined her within a convent for a period. When she later returned to her brother’s court in Ravenna she was married (450 AD), just before her mother’s death, to the senator Flavius Bassus Herculanus, who served as consul (452 AD).
Unhappy with this arrangement she sent secret word, along with a ring as a personal token, to the king of the Huns, Attila, to rescue her, offerring herself and the Imperial throne as his reward. Attila then demanded the Emperor Valentinian’s western provinces as Honoria’s dowry. Her husband Herculanus was later murdered by Valentinian. As she is not mentioned in connection with the captive empress of Valentinian or her daughters in 455 AD, it is assumed that Honoria had died by this date, though there were rumours that her family quietly arranged her liquidation in order to avoid further scandal. Whatever the truth, the Empress Honoria had died (sometime prior to March 16, 455 AD).

Hood, Mary Mackenzie, Lady   see   Stewart-Mackenzie, Mary Elizabeth Frederica

Hoodless, Adelaide – (1857 – 1910)
Canadian home economic educator and feminist
Born Adelaide Hunter in St George, she was married but the death of her infant son, which was caused by contaminated milk, led Hoodless to initiate a lifelong campaign to introduce home economics classes into schools. Adelaide Hoodless worked as a teacher and lecturer, and was appointed as president of the YWCA (Young Women’s Christian Association). She founded the first Women’s Institute (WI) at Stoney Creek in Ontario (1897), the first of many such branches to be established throughout Canada.

Hooker, Janet Annenberg – (1904 – 1997)
American stage actress and philanthropist
Janet Annenberg was born (Oct 13, 1904) in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of publisher Moses Annenberg. She was sister to Lita Hazen and to Walter Annenberg, the US ambassador to the Court of St James under Ronald Reagan, and received was educated at an Episcopal school in Kenosha, Wisconsin. Jean Annenberg was married firstly (1924) to Stanley Kahn, the publisher, to whom she bore several children. After their divorce she had a brief stage career in Detroit and Rhode Island as ‘Janet Kahn.’ She remarried secondly (1938) to Joseph Neff, and thirdly (1974) to James Stewart Hooker.
Janet Hooker was best remembered for her patronage of musical organizations and for her redecoration of the diplomatic rooms of the State Department, and of the White House in Washington. She became the figurehead of the White House Preservation Fund during the terms of six presidents. Janet Annenberg Hooker was one of the principal benefactors of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, and contributed five million dollars for the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals, which was opened a few months prior to her death. Janet Hooker died (Dec 12, 1997) aged ninety-three, in Manhattan, New York.

Hooker, Lois Ruth    see   Maxwell, Lois

Hookey, Mabel Madeline – (1871 – 1953)
Australian painter and author
Mabel Hookey was born at Rokeby in Tasmania, and studied art under H. Fullwood. She held exhibitions of her work at the Salon des Artistes Francaise and in London and several Australian cities. Examples of her work are preserved at the Art Gallery of New South Wales and in the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. Hookey was also engaged on a career as a journalist, and wrote several books concerning the history of Tasmania, The Edge of the Field (1913) and The Romance of Tasmania (1921).

Hookham, Margaret    see   Fonteyn, Dame Margaret

Hooten, Elizabeth – (c1600 – 1672)
English Quaker missionary
Elizabeth was the wife of Oliver Hooten of Skegby (died 1657). After meeting George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends (Quakers), she became a travelling Quaker preacher. Elizabeth Hooten was ousted by the authorities for causing disturbances during religious services in Derby, York, and Lincoln, before travelling with another female companion to Boston in Massachusetts (1662) in order to continue missionary work.
However, her arrival coincided with the harsh anti-Quaker laws then in force, and the two women were arrested, imprisoned, and expelled from Boston, necessitating their return to England. Despite obtaining a licence from King Charles II to settle in any American colony she wished, upon her return there, Hooten was still seized by authorities and publicly whipped. Mrs Hooten co-wrote the pamphlett entitled To the King and Both Houses of Parliament (1670), with the Quaker, Thomas Taylor, and later returned to America with George Fox. Elizabeth Hooten died (Feb, 1672) at Port Royal in Jamaica.

Hope, Laurence – (1865 – 1904)
British poet
Born Adela Florence at Stoke Bishop in Gloucestershire, she was the daugher of a British officer in India. She was married to Colonel Malcolm Hassels Nicolson, who served as aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria (1891 – 1894). Adela Nicolson adopted the literary pseudonym of ‘Laurence Hope,’ and wrote several collections of verse such as The Garden of Karma (1901), Stars of the Desert (1903) and Indian Love Lyrics (1905), which was published posthumously. The popular song ‘Pale Hands I Loved Beside the Shalimar’ was based on one of her poems. She committed suicide with poison two months after the death of her husband.

Hopkins, Ellice – (1836 – 1904)
British moral and legal reformer
Jane Ellice Hopkins was born at Cambridge, daughter to the noted mathematician, William Hopkins. She was given an extensive education by her father, particularly in the sciences. Hopkins began her social work amongst the working poor at Barnwell in Cambridge, which resulted in the publication of An Englishwoman’s Work among Working Men (1875). With her father’s death she went to Brighton to become involved in rescue work, a firm believer in prevention rather than punishment.
Her work received support from the philosopher James Hinton, and she was the guiding force behind the Ellice Hopkins Act (1880), which gave the law increased powers to remove children from the care of prostitutes. With the assistance of the Bishop of Durham, Hopkins founded the White Cross Army (1883), comprised of men who pledged to absolve from indecent behaviour. She campaigned successfully for the Criminal Law Amendment Act (1885) and was a strong supporter of female suffrage. Her published works included Notes on Penitentiary Work (1879) and The Power of Womanhood (1899).

Hopkins, Frances Anne – (1838 – 1918)
Anglo-Canadian traveller and painter
Frances Hopkins was born in England where she was married to the private secretary of the governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, whom she then accompanied him Canada. Husband and wife spent a decade exploring Canada, most notably by canoe. Frances made several paintings and sketches of the impressive rugged landscapes, and also of daily scenes of life during their travels. Hopkins and her husband later returned to England (1870). Her work includes the oil painting Shooting the Rapids (c1879).

Hopkins, Sarah Winnemucca    see    Winnemucca, Sarah

Hopper, Grace Brewster Murray – (1906 – 1992)
American mathematician and naval officer
Grace Hopper was born (Dec 9, 1906) in New York City and attended Vassar College. She later taught mathematics at her old alma mater (1931 – 1944) until WW II, when she left to join the WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) for the war effort, and remained a member of the Naval Reserve for the rest of her war career. Apart from rising through the ranks to become a naval rear admiral, Hopper helped to program Mark I, the first large scale automatic calculator ever built. She coined the computer term ‘bugs’ and was appointed as the Data Processing Managements’s first ‘Man of the Year’ (1969).
After WW II Hopper joined the Eckert & Mauchky Corporation (1949) as a senior mathematician, and evolved the first internal computer program that could operate automatically (1951). Hopper retired from the navy at the age of eighty (1986), and then became a senior consultant with the Digital Equipment Corporation. She was granted the rank of rear admiral by President Ronald Reagan in recognition of her prestigious career (1983). Grace Murray Hopper died (Jan 1, 1992) aged eighty-five, at Arlington, Virginia. She was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1994).

Hopper, Hedda – (1885 – 1966)
American columnist
Born Elda Furry in Hollidaysburg, Pasadena (May 2, 1885), she was the daughter of a local butcher. She studied the piano and had vocal training before making her stage debut with the Aborn Light Opera Company in Pittsburgh. After a stint on the New York stage as an actress she went to Hollywood where she established herself successfully, though not famously, as a silent film actress and married the actor De Wolf Hopper (1858 – 1935).
Her early silent films included Virtuous Wives (1919), Has the World Gone Mad ? (1923), Don Juan (1926) and His Glorious Night (1929). She also appeared in Alice Adams (1935) with Katharine Hepburn and in the horror flick Dracula’s Daughter (1936).
As her acting career began to decline she tried her hand at journalism, estsblishing herself as a gossip columnist (1938) to rival the famous Louella Parsons. Her syndicated Hollywood scandal column made her wealthy, and she named her new mansion in Beverly Hills, ‘The House That Fear Built.’ Hopper famously appeared as herself in the classic films The Women (1939) with Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, Rosalind Russell, and many others, and Sunset Boulevarde (1950) with Gloria Swanson and William Holden. She also appeared as herself in The Oscar (1966).
Equally famous for wearing her trademark elaborate hats, Hopper produced two volumes of memoirs From Under My Hat (1952) and The Whole Truth and Nothing But (1963). Hedda Hopper died (Feb 1, 1966) aged eighty, in Los Angeles, California.

Hopper, Nora – (1871 – 1906)
British poet
Nora Hopper was born at Exeter, the daughter of Captain Harman Baillie Hopper, of the 31st Bengal Native Infantry, and his wife Caroline August Francis. Educated in London, she became the wife (1901) of novelist and critic Wilfred Hugh Chesson. Nora produced two volumes of poems Under Quicken Boughs and Songs of the Morning, and two novels Aquamarines (1902) and The Bell and Arrow (1905).

Hopton, Susanna – (1627 – 1709)
English devotional author
Susanna was born in Staffordshire and studied theology. She supported the crown during the Civil War, and was later converted to Roman Catholicism. Susanna was married to Richard Hopton, a former Parliamentarian who had converted to the Royalist cause. With the Restoration (1660) the couple returned to the Protestant faith, and resided at Kington in Herefordshire.
Susanna Hopton entertained the mystic poet, Thomas Traherne, rector of Credenhill, who is said to have written his Centuries for her. Her own works were published anonymously by Dr George Hickes, her friend, and included Daily Devotions (1673), and the Catholic manual Devotions in the Ancient Way of Offices Reformed by a Person of Quality (1701). Her letter to the Catholic priest, Father Tuberville, which explained her return to the Protestant fold, was printed in A Second Collection of Controversial Letters (1716), published after her death by Nathaniel Spinckes, a clergyman friend.

Horan, Alice – (1895 – 1971)
British trade unionist
Horan was born in London, the daughter of a tailor, and was employed during WW I as a factory worker. She remained unmarried. After working for a court dressmaker, she became involved in a factory strike organized by piece-work girls. She was then appointed as shop steward, and won a scholarship to train at Ruskin College, where she studied political science.
Alice Horan eventually became a full-time union official, and was appointed the Women’s District Organizer for the National Union of General and Municipal Workers in Lancashire, a post she held for twenty years (1926 – 1946). During WW II she assisted with the promulgation of a regulatory code to cover the earnings of female factory workers, the Extended Employment of Women Agreement (1940). After this she was appointed National Women’s Officer and was a longtime member of the Labour Party National Executive. Alice Horan retired in 1958.

Hordeonia Pulchra – (fl. c170 – c190 AD)
Graeco-Roman priestess
Hordeonia Pulchra was the daughter of the sophist and orator P. Hordeonius Lollianus, and his wife Antonia Quintiliana. She became a priestess of the goddess Artemis at Ephesus and is attested by surviving inscription from Greece as holding that particular office.

Hordern, Mary – (1911 – 1961)
Australian fashion editor
Born Ursula Mary Bullmore (April 1, 1911) in Woollahra, Sydney, New South Wales, she the daughter of a physician. She attended school at edgecliff and later worked as a receptionist for her father. She was married (1932) to Anthony Hordern, a grazier, to whom she bore two daughters. Tall and attractive, Mary Hordern became the fashion editor of the Australian Women’s Weekly (1946 – 1957) which was owned by her brother-in-law, Sir Frank Packer.
Mary Hordern organized Paris fashion shows in Melbourne and Adelaide, and was a founding member of the Art Gallery Society of New South Wales (1953). She was later appointed an officer of the Legion d’Honneur (1957). Mrs Hordern died (June 5, 1961) aged fifty, at Point Piper, Sydney.

Hore-Belisha, Cynthia Sophie – (1916 – 1992)
British Red Cross activist
Cynthia Elliot was the daughter of Gilbert Compton Elliot, of the family of the earls of Minto, and his wfe Margeurita Barbey, who was a native of New York. She was married firstly to Leslie, first Lord Hore-Belisha (1893 – 1957), and second to Ian Victor Major, but both marriages remained childless. Lady Hore-Belisha served with the Red Cross in Europe from the outbreak of WW II, but was captured and made a prisoner of war (1940). She was finally freed and returned to England, where she received the BEM (British Empire Medal) from King George VI (1944). She later seperated from her husband (1956) and survived him as the Dowager Lady Hore-Belisha (1957 – 1992). Lady Hore-Belisha died at Broadfield, in Chobham, Surrey.

Horikawa, Lady – (fl. 1135 – 1165)
Japanese poet
Lady Horikawa served at the Imperial court as lady-in-waiting to the Dowager Empress Taiken. Her poem, ‘Will he always love me?’ has survived.

Horn, Agneta – (1629 – 1672)
Swedish autobiographer
Agneta Horn was born (Aug 18, 1629) at Riga in Latvia, the daughter of Field Marshal Gustav Horn and was the maternal granddaughter of the Swedish chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. Her husband was killed on military campaign in Poland (1656). She resided during the catastrophic Thirty Years’ War and her autobiography was discovered in 1885 and published and edited seventy-five years afterwards by Gosta Holm as Agneta Horn. Beskrivning over min vandringstid (1959). Agneta Horn died (March 18, 1672) aged forty-two, in Stockholm.

Horn, Camilla – (1903 – 1996)
German actress
Horn was born at Frankfurt, the daughter of a railway worker. She enrolled at the Rudolf Laban School and was a pupil of actress Lucie Hoflich. Her performance as Gretchen in F.W. Murnau’s silent film classic, Faust (1925 – 1926) brought her lasting fame. She went to Hollywood and made several films before finally returning to Germany where she became a popular actress, and also worked in England, Italy, and France.
Prevented from escaping to Switzerland in WW II, after the war Camilla worked as an interpreter for the US military. Camilla continued with her stage work, appearing in Jean Cocteau’s The Eagle Has Two Heads (1948), and her final screen appearance was in 1989. She left memoirs Verliebt in die Liebe (In Love With Love) (1985). Camilla Horn died (Aug 14, 1996) at Gilching, Bavaria.

Horn, Isabella Philippine Florence de – (1664 – 1741)
Flemish Catholic nun
Countess Isabella de Hornes was born (March 25, 1664) of the anicent family of the counts of Horn, being the eldest daughter of Philip Eugen de Horn (1629 – 1677), Count de Houtekercke, and his wife Eleonore de Merode-Westerloo (1635 – 1669), the daughter of Floris, Marquis de Merode-Westerloo. Countess Isabella never married and was veiled as a nun, being later appointed to serve as abbess over the convent of Maubeuge, near Mons, Hainault for more than two decades (1719 – 1741). Isabella de Horn died (Sept 20, 1741) aged seventy-seven.

Horn, Shirley – (1934 – 2005)
American vocalist and jazz pianist
Shirley Horn was born in Washington, and studied piano and composition at Howard University, being strongly influenced by the music of Errol Garner, Oscar Peterson, and Ahmad Jamal. Jazz legend Miles Davis heard Horn’s first album, Embers and Ashes (1960), and brought her to perform at the Village Vanguard. Horn only achieved world fame in later middle age.
Her sensitive recordings of classic American songs made Horn a great favourite among musicians, and she attracted a large coterie of supporters and fans world wide through her recordings. She recorded the themes for the films For Love of Ivy, starring Sidney Poitier, and Dandy in Aspic (both 1968). Horn produced two more albums A Lazy Afternoon (1978), which featured drummer Billy Hart, and At Northsea (1981). Later albums included I Thought about You (1987), Here’s to Life (1991) with Johnny Mandel, and Light Out of Darkness (1993), in which she performed the songs of Ray Charles.
Her haunting tribute to Miles Davis I Remember Miles (1997), won her a Grammy Award for her jazz vocals, and her last work was the elegant piano composition May the Music Never End (2003). Later sufferring from diabetes, Horn lost her right foot to amputation (2001) but continued to perform with the help of a prosthetic limb.

Horncastle, Jane – (fl. 1863 – 1869)
British artist
Jane Horncastle was a native of London and specialized in the painting of flowers. Her work was exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and at various galleries.

Horne, Amy     see    Bennett, Amelia

Horne, Victoria – (1911 – 2003)
American actress
Victoria Horne was born in New York, the daughter of movie director James A. Horne. She was married (1950 – 1978) to actor Jack Oakie (1903 – 1978) and wrote several books including, Jack Oakie’s Oakridge, about their estate, which had been the venue of actors Robert Taylor and Barbara Stanwyck when they married (1939), and the memoirs Life with Jackie Oakridge (2001).
Victoria was a well known and talented character actress and she played the role of the judge’s housekeeper Nora in the Sherlock Holmes mystery The Scarlett Claw (1944), and that of Daisy Gingras in To Each His Own (1946). She then made an appearance as a poor Quaker woman imprisoned for debt in Newgate Prison in Forever Amber (1947) with Linda Darnell and Cornell Wilde, and an asylum inmate in The Snake Pit (1948) with Olivia de Havilland. Memorable as Gene Tierney’s obnoxious sister-in-law Eva in The Ghost and Mrs Muir (1947), she also and appeared as Mrs Wallace in With A Stranger (1953).
Victoria Horne retired after her last film The Wonderful Country (1959). She survived Jack twenty-five years, and died in Beverly Hills, California. She donated the Oakridge estate to the University of Southern California, which then established the Oakie Chair of Comedy.

Horneith     see    Herneith

Horner, Frances Graham, Lady – (1858 – 1940)
British salon hostess
Frances Graham was the wife of Sir John Fortescue Horner (1842 – 1927). Lady Horner and her family were members of the aristocratic circle known as ‘the Souls’ that flourished in British society from the 1890’s until WW I. Her son Edward was killed in action during that war (1916), as was Raymond Asquith (1878 – 1916), the husband of their daughter Katharine Horner (1885 – 1976).

Horney, Karen Clementine – (1885 – 1952)
German-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst
A pioneer of the theory of female psychology, she was born Karen Danielssen (Sept 15, 1885) in Hamburg. She completed her medical and psychiatric training in Berlin, Prussia, where she was married (1909) to a fellow student, Oscar Horney. Karen worked for several decades in Berlin, setting her own practice, and also working as a teacher. She and her husband later removed to the USA (1932), where Karen took up several academic posts. She was particularly remebered for her anti-Freudian works The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (1937) and New Ways in Psychoanalysis (1939), which placed more emphasis on the biological make-up of the individual, instead of concentrating on social or cultural influences, which was what Freud maintained were the cause of mental breakdowns.
Karen Horney was eventually expelled from the New York Psychoanalytic Institute (1941) because of her refusal to accept the theories of Freud. She then established the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. She published several other works including Feminine Psychology (1926), Self-Analysis (1942), Our Inner Conflicts (1945) and Neurosis and Human Growth (1950). Karen Horney died (Dec 4, 1952) in New York. The Karen Horney Clinic in New York was named in her memory.

Horniman, Annie Elizabeth Fredericka – (1860 – 1937)
British theatrical manager, acting teacher and suffragist
Annie Horniman was born at Forest Hill, in London, the daughter of a wealthy Quaker merchant. Educated at home with a governess, she later studied art at the Slade School under Alphonse Legros. Always interested in the theatre, her first try at running a theatre, the Avenue in London, proved a failure (1894). She eventually went to Ireland (1903), where she was associated with the Abbey Theatre in Dublin, the building of which she sponsored herself (1904), and paid subsidies to maintain the Irish National Theatre Society.
Annie Horniman is best remembered for her establishment (1908) of the repertory theatre movement in Manchester, Lancashire, at the Gaiety theatre. She managed this theatre with outstanding success for almost fifteen years (1907 – 1921). Among the most famous works presented under her financing were the first stage productions of The Land of Heart’s Desire, by William Yeats, and The Gadfly, by George Bernard Shaw. Annie Horniman died (Aug 6, 1937) aged seventy-six, in Surrey.

Hornsby-Smith, Margaret Patricia – (1914 – 1985)
British politician
Hornsby-Smith was born (March 17, 1914) the only daughter of Frederick Charles Hornsby-Smith, of East Sheen, London. Remaining unmarried, she devoted her life to her career, and from (1951 – 1957) she was parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Health, and was then attached to the State Home Office (1957 – 1959), and the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance from (1959 – 1961).
Miss Hornsby-Smith was later appointed British delegate to the United Nations in 1958 and led the Commonwealth Parliamentary Delegation to Australia in 1962 and to Kenya in 1972.  From (1950 – 1966) she was member of parliament for Chislehurst, Kent, and was made DBE (Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1961). Her work was further recognized with the grant of a life peerage, and she became Baroness Hornsby-Smith of Chislehurst, Greater London (1974). Lady Hornsby-Smith died (July 3, 1985) aged seventy-one.

Hornyold-Strickland, Mary Constance Elizabeth Christina – (1896 – 1970)
British volunteer activist and advocate for women
The Hon. (Honourable) Mary Hornyold-Strickland was the eldest daughter of the first and last Baron Strickland, and maternal granddaughter of the seventh Earl De La Warr. Educated privately under the supervision of a governess, she was married (1920) to Henry Hornyold, to whom she bore three children.
Mrs Hornyold-Strickland served with the WRNS (Women’s Royal Naval Service) during WW I (1917 – 1919) and was awarded the MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George V. She served as chairman of the Westmorland Women Unionists (1929 – 1933) and later as chairman of the Women’s Advisory Committee of the Conservative National Union (1942 – 1945).
Mrs Hornyold-Strickland also served on the Kendal Women’s Employment Committee at the ministry of Labour and National Service (1940 – 1945) and was appointed as an organiser of the Westmorland county WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service – later to become the WRVS, Women’s Royal Volunteer Service). Mary Hornyold-Strickland died (Jan 18, 1970) aged seventy-three, at her family estate of Sizergh Castle, near Kendal, in Westmorland.

Horrell, Elizabeth – (1826 – 1913)
New Zealand educator
Elizabeth was born at Topsham in Devon, England, the daughter of a farm bailiff. She was married (1849) John Horrell and they immigrated to New Zealand aboard the Charlotte Jane (1850). Mrs Horrell taught the children aboard ship during the voyage and on her arrival with her family, she was appointed assistant schoolmistress at Lyttelton in Canterbury, and became the first female schoolteacher at that school. Her teaching career ended with the birth of her second child (1851). Elizabeth Horrell died (Jan 18, 1913) aged ninety-four, at Morrinsville, near Waikato.

Horrock, Bertha Crone – (1896 – 1983)
American writer, feminist and editor
Horrock was born in Fort Spokane, Washington. An early convert to the burgeoning women’s suffrage campaign, she picketed the White House protesting for women’s rights (1917), and during WW II she joined the War Manpower Commission, which helped place women in defense careers.
From 1950 – 1956 she was the research editor at E.W. Williams Publications, from which company she retired in 1971, having also worked privately as an occupational consultant for women. Bertha Horrock died (Sept 18, 1983) aged eighty-six, in Washington, D.C.

Horsbrugh, Florence Gertrude, Lady – (1889 – 1969)
British Conservative politician
The first female Conservative Cabinet minister, Florence Horsbrugh was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the daughter of Henry Moncrieff Horsbrugh, and was educated at Lansdowne House in Edinburgh, and at St Hilda’s College at Folkestone in Kent, England. During World War I (1916 – 1918), she volunteered for the war effort and worked in canteens and kitchen providing meals for the troops. For this she was awarded the MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George V.
After the war she decided upon a career in politics, and was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Dundee (1931 – 1945). She later served as minister for Education (1951 – 1954) and was appointed delegate to the Council of Europe and Western European Union (1955 – 1960). Horsbrugh remained unmarried and was created a life peer by Queen Elizabeth II, as Baroness Horsbrugh (1959). Lady Horsbrugh died aged eighty (Dec 6, 1969).

Horsford, Alice – (fl. c1360 – 1370)
English ship owner and merchant
Alice was the wife of John Horsford, a prominent shipping merchant. In 1370, before the Guildhall of London, Alice, then a widow, brought a lawsuit, in which she claimed half ownership of a vessel named the Saynte Mariebot. The ship had been seized and impounded by the bailiff of Billingsgate after it had been illegally claimed as the property of another merchant. Alice Horsford successfully proved her claim to ownership, and the court found in her favour.

Horsman, Dame Dorothea Jean – (1918 – 1994)
New Zealand activist and feminist
Born Dorothea Horsley (April 17, 1918), she attended the University of New Zealand. She also studied Russian at the University of Otago and was trained as a schoolteacher. She was married (1943) to Ernest Alan Horsman, to whom she bore three children. Dorothea Horsman served as the president of the New Zealand Federation of University Women (1973 – 1976).
Mrs Horsman then served as vice-president (1980 – 1982) and then president (1982 – 1986) of the National Council of Women of New Zealand. She received a Silver Jubilee Medal (1977) and was later appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1986) in recognition of her valuable contribution to society. She co-wrote two works with J.J. Herd, What Price Equality? (1974) and Women at Home (1976).

Hortense de Beauharnais – (1783 – 1837)
Queen consort of Holland
Born Eugenie Hortense Cecile de Beauharnais (April 10, 1783) in Paris, she was the daughter of Vicomte Alexandre de Beauharnais, and his wife Josephine, later famous as the wife of emperor Napoleon I. Hortense was married (1802) by her stepfather to his younger brother, Louis Bonaparte, who was installed by the emperor as King of Holland (1806). They were the parents of two sons, Louis Napoleon (1804 – 1831), crown prince of Holland, and the last Bonaparte emperor, Napoleon III (1808 – 1873).
The marriage proved unhappy and Louis tried to obtain a divorce from her. Napoleon intervened to prevent an open breach and scandal within the Imperial family, and permitted the couple to separate, outwardly at least on amicable terms. Involved in events surrounding her stepfather’s downfall, Queen Hortense eventually settled at Arenenberg Castle in Switzerland, where she died, aged fifty-four (Oct 5, 1837). Hortense is remembered as composer of the song ‘Partant pour la Syrie,’ which became the national anthem of the Second Empire. Her correspondence survived, and was edited by her descendant Prince Napoleon de Bonaparte. It was finally published by Jean Hanoteau as Les Memoires de la reine Hortense (The Memoirs of Queen Hortense) (1928).

Hortensia – (c95 – after 42 BC) 
Roman orator
Hortensia Hortala was the daughter of the distinguished rhetorician, Quintus Hortensius Hortalus, consul (69 BC), and his wife Lutatia Catula, the daughter of Quintus Lutatius Catulus, consul (102 BC). She was married (c77 BC) to Gnaeus Servilius Caepio, who died in 67 BC. Hortensia never remarried, and was still living as Caepio’s widow over two decades later.
Hortensia gained fame for her speech in protest against a proposed law to tax the possessions of women to fund the civil war (42 BC). Hortensia claimed that since women were not allowed to hold office or take part in politics, they shoud not be forced to pay for the mistakes of men. Quintilian admired her style in the first century AD, but no fragments now survive. The Greek historian Appian, also from the first century, had his own version, which may have been based upon the original.

Horton, Juanita    see   Love, Bessie

Horton, Priscilla    see   Reed, Priscilla Horton

Horwitch, Elaine – (1933 – 1991)
American art patron and gallery owner
Horwitch removed from Chicago, Illinois to Scottsdale, in Arizona with her husband (1955), where she established the Elaine Horwitch Gallery for contemporary art (1973). Horwitch opened similar galleries at Santa Fe, New Mexico (1976), at Sedona in Arizona, and at Palm Springs, in California. Elaine Horwitch died of a heart attack at Santa Fe, aged fifty-eight.

Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue – (1830 – 1908)
American sculptor
Hosmer was born at Watertown in Massachusetts, the daughter of a physician, who permitted her to study anatomy in order to facilitate her talent for modelling. A friend of Charlotte Saunders Cushman, the two women travelled to Rome, where Harriet was the pupil of the British sculptor, John Gibson. She resided in Rome for most of the remainder of her life. In Italy Hosmer frequented the literary salons attended by the likes of Nathaniel Hawthorne, William Makepeace Thackeray, George Eliot, and George Sand, amongst many others, and was also a guest of the Brownings in Florence.
Her earlier works included the idealised heads, ‘Daphne’ and ‘Medusa’ (1853), and her first life-sized figure entitled ‘Oenone’ (1855), which is preserved in the St Louis Museum of Fine Arts, in Missouri.  Other works were ‘Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, in Chains’ (1859) which remains in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, a monument to President Abraham Lincoln, and bronze gates, which she made for Lord Brownlow’s private art gallery at Ashridge Hall in England.
Her work was also represented at the the Columbian exposition held at Chicago, Illinois (1893), where she produced a statue of the Maria Sophia of Bavaria, Queen of Naples as the ‘heroine of Gaeta.’ Harriet Hosmer died (Feb 21, 1908) aged seventy-seven, at Watertown.

Hoss, Crescentia – (1682 – 1744)
German nun and saint
Crescentia Hoss was born in Kaufbeuren, in Bavaria, the daughter of a weaver. She was able to become Franciscan nun after the necessary dowry was provided by the local Protestant mayor (1703). Early on in her novitiate she sufferred from the insults of other nuns, who mocked her poor origins, but in time came to be respected for her religious sanctity, and was appointed mistress of the novices, and was later elected abbess. Hoss experienced mystical visions which are said to have tormented her last years. Crescentia was later beatified by Pope Leo XIII (1900) and honoured as a saint (April 5).

Hostia    see   Cynthia

Hostun, Marie Victoire de Prie, Comtesse d’ – (1717 – 1738)
French Bourbon courtier
Marie Victoire de Prie was born (Nov 28, 1717) in Turin, Piedmont, Italy, the daughter of Louis, Marquis de Prie (1671 – 1751), the ambassador to the Court of Savoy, and his wife Agnes Jeanne Berthelot de Pleneuf. She became the wife of Louis Charles, Comte d’Hostun (1716 – 1739).
The couple attended the court of Louis XV at Versailles, being members of his inner circle, as Madame d’Hostun was the granddaughter-in-law of Charlotte Eleonore, Duchesse de Ventadour, the beloved governess of Louis XV. The Comtesse d’Hostun died (Aug 3, 1738) aged only twenty.

Hotephirnebty – (fl. c2690 BC) 
Queen consort of Egypt
Hotephirnebty was possibly the daughter of King Khasekhemy or King Sanakhte. She was the wife of King Djoser (died c2680 BC), and was probably the mother of the Princess Intkaes, mentioned in Djoser’s tomb. Two chapel-like buildings adjoining the base of Djoser’s step pyramid at Sakhara, near Memphis, were once believed to be the tombs of this queen and her daughter, their names being carved on some sixty pieces of broken round-topped stelae found nearby, but recent excavation have failed to reveal anything of a funerary character in their composition, and a different explanation need to be found. The queen was portrayed on stones in the walls around Djoser’s pyramid complex, and also on a broken statue of her husband, where she is titled ‘She Who sees Horus.’

Houdetot, Elisabeth Francoise Sophie de La Live de Bellegarde, Comtesse de – (1730 – 1813) 
French verse writer
Elisabeth de La Live de Bellegarde was born (Dec 18, 1730) in Paris, the daughter of a financier, and married (1748) Claude Constance Cesar, Comte de Houdetot, a lieutenant general of the French army. Their son Cesar Louis Marie Francois Ange, Comte de Houdetot (1749 – 1823) served as governor of Martinique from (1803 – 1809), and served under Napoleon I as a lieutenant general.
Her connection with the famous poet Jean Francois de Saint-Lambert (1716 – 1803) began in 1753, after the comtesse seperated from her husband, and lasted for five decades until his death. She achieved literary fame due to a mention of her in the Confessions of Jean Jacques Rousseau, where the philosopher described a passion he felt for the comtesse. Though he recorded that these feelings remained unreciprocated, the comtesse herself, when questioned, replied that the entire subject had been considerably exaggerated. However, her sister-in-law, Madame d’Epinay has provided a considerably different viewpoint in her own Memoires. Madame de Houdetot’s poetry was later published in a volume of the works of the poet Saint-Jean Crevecoeur (1833). The comtesse died (Jan 28, 1813) aged eighty-two, in Paris.

Houel, Drasta – (c1886 – c1949)  
Haitian poet, novelist and historian
Drasta Houel was born on the island of Martinique, and her married name was Hurard. She was the author of Les Vies legeres: evocations antillaises (1916) and Cruaute et tendresse (1925).

Houselander, Caryll – (1901 – 1954)
British Catholic mystic, poet and book illustrator
Frances Caryll Houselander was born in Bath, Somerset. After a varied convent and private school education, she then attended St John’s Wood Art College in London. Caryll Houselander was variously employed as an interior designer, with advertising and did illustrations for magazines and books.
Caryll Houselander was the author of the autobiographical volume Rocking-Horse Catholic (1935), among many others, most of which have a strongly religious theme. She also published several collections of stories for children. Her private letters and other correspondence were later edited and published as The Letters of Caryll Houselander: Her Spiritual Legacy (1965).

Houssa, Nicole – (1930 – 1959)
Belgian scholar and poet
Nicole Houssa was born in Liege and was noted for her four critical studies of the works of the French novelist Colette. She also published Le souci de l’expression chez Colette (1958) and the volume of verse entitled Comme un collier brise (Like of Broken Necklace) (1970) which was published posthumously.

Houston, Drusilla Dunjee – (1876 – 1941) 
Black American historian
Drusilla Houston was born in Winchester, Virginia, the daughter of an educator. Raised in Minneapolis in Minnesota, she eventually settled in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, where she worked with her brother Roscoe Dunjee, the editor of the Black Dispatch. After much research into the civilization of her African ancestors, Drusilla published The Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire (1926) which was reprinted (1985).

Houston, Eleanor Cathcart, Lady – (1720 – 1769)
Scottish Hanoverian novelist
The Hon. (Honourable) Eleanor Cathcart was born (March 3, 1720) the daughter of the Scottish peer Charles, eighth Baron Cathcart and his wife Marian Shaw, the daughter of Sir John Shaw, third and last baronet. Eleanor was married (1744) to Sir John Houston (c1710 – 1751), fourth baronet but the union remained childless. She survived her husband for almost two decades as the Dowager Lady Houston (1751 – 1769).
Her comic works written for the stage included The Coquette and In Foro. Lady Houston died (Nov 3, 1769) aged forty-nine.

Houston, Dame Lucy – (1857 – 1936)
British philanthropist and eccentric
Born Fanny Lucy Radnall (April 8, 1857) in Kennington, London, she was the daughter of a warehouse worker. With little proper education she began her career as a stage actress and popular beauty. Her first husband (1883 – 1895) was Sir Theodore Brinckman (1862 – 1937), baronet, from whom she was divorced. There were no children. Lucy’s second marriage (1901) was with George Frederick, ninth Baron Byron (1855 – 1917). She was an avid supporter of the campaign for women’s suffrage, and established and financed a series of rest homes for nurses. For this philanthropy she was appointed DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V (1917).
Dame Lucy remarried (1924) to Sir Robert Houston, the noted shipping magnate, and with his death not long afterwards (1926), Dame Lucy inherited the enormous fortune of five and a half million pounds. Because of her wealth, and her own innately colourful personality, Dame Lucy and her activities were wideley covered by the contemporary media. She refused to pay death duties, but then presented Winston Churchill, then the Chancellor of the Exchequer, with a cheque for one million and a half pounds, as an exgratia payment. She later financed the first flight over Mount Everest and purchased the Saturday Review newspaper (1933), of which she became editor. Dame Lucy made considerable benefactions to the Miners’ Relief Fund and St Thomas’s Hospital. Dame Lucy Houston died (Dec 29, 1936) aged seventy-nine, in Hampstead, London. She was interred within the cemetery of St Marylebone, Westminster.

Houston, Renee – (1902 – 1980)
Scottish commedienne and character actress
Born Katherina Houston Gribbin, in Renfrewshire to a noted theatrical family, she worked firstly in vaudeville with her sister Billie, being billed throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s as The Houston Sisters. She married three times, and performed together with her last husband, Donald Stewart, until his death (1965).
Renee Houston made over a dozen films including A Girl Must Live (1939), The Belles of St Trinians (1954), A Town Like Alice (1956), about the capture of British women in Singapore by the Japanese, Time Without Pity (1957), Carry On at Your Convenience (1971), and the horror flick Legend of the Werewolf (1971). Renee Houston also wrote her autobiography Don’t Fence Me In (1974).

Houville, Gerard d’    see   Heredia, Marie Louise Antoinette de

Hovick, Rose Louise     see     Lee, Gypsy Rose

How, Beatrice – (1867 – 1932)
British painter
How was born (Oct 16, 1867) at Bideford in Devon, Cornwall and studied under Herkomer at Bushey, and in Paris. She produced mainly figure studies, and occasionally painted flowers. Examples of her work were exhibited at the Paris Salon. Beatrice How died (Aug 19, 1932) aged sixty-four, at Hoddesden in Hertfordshire.

Howard, Alice Lovel, Lady   see   Lovel, Alice

Howard, Andree – (1910 – 1968)
British dancer and choreographer
Howard was born (Oct 3, 1910) in London, and studied dance under Liubov Egorova, Olga Preobrazenskaia, and Mathilde Kschessinska. She appeared in the ballets Carnival of the Animals (1943), The Sailor’s Return (1947) and in the romantic ballet A Mirror for Witches (1952). Andree Howard died (March 18, 1968) aged fifty-seven, in London.

Howard, Annabella Dives, Lady – (1674 – 1728)
British music patron
Annabella Dives was the daughter of John Dives, Clerk of the Privy Council. A maid-of-honour to Princess Anne, the sister of Mary II, she became the fourth wife (1693) of the Stuart poet, statesman, and dramatist, Sir Robert Howard (1626 – 1698). A poem celebrating the marriage of the couple was written by the wit Charles Sedley, the father of Lady Dorchester, mistress of James II.
A young woman of cultural appreciation and education, Lady Annabella was the talented pupil of the composer Henry Purcell, and many of his compositions were written for her. At his death she erected a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey, and Frances Purcell, the composer’s widow, dedicated to Annabella her late husband’s Orpheus Britannicus (1698). She was appointed sole executrix of Sir Robert’s estate at his death (1698). Lady Howard later remarried to the Reverend Edward Marten, and was buried at Hammersmith.

Howard, Anne Douglas     see   Irvine, Anne Howard, Lady

Howard, Catharine    see    Catharine Howard

Howard, Charlotte Rebecca – (1785 – 1854)
British heiress
Charlotte Howard was born in Monmouth, Wales, the illegitimate daughter of Edmund Alexander Howard, of Leicestershire, and his mistress Henrietta Maria Charlotte, the daughter of Thomas Snow, a schoolmaster of Hampstead, London. Several months after her birth she was taken by her parents back to Monmouth, where they were legally married. Despite this subsequent marriage, a legal action by the High Court later upheld the fact of her illegitimacy (1854).
With her father’s death (1829) his estates were held by his widow, after which they were inherited by Charlotte, with the priviso that, if she were to marry (by that time unlikely), her male heir should take the surname of Howard. Charlotte never married and long resided at her estate of Pinner, near Ware. She left almost fifty thousand pounds with the intention having houses built in Pinner for the widows of military officers and clergymen. However, the Crown appropriated this fund at her death, due to her illegitimate status, and formed a trust known as the Howard Institute, which included Charlotte’s entire estate, and was used for the benefit of benevolent institutions and charities.

Howard, Constance – (1906 – 1980)
American actress
Howard was born in Omaha, Nebraska, and appeared in nearly a dozen minor films before retiring from the cinema (1935). Constance Howard appeared as Marjorie Brand in Hold That Lion (1926) and as Dorothy Croker-Kelley in Women Love Diamonds (1927). Other film credits included Mother Machree (1928), The Smart Set (1928) and The Poor Millionaire (1930). Her last roles in The Wedding Night and Splendor (both 1935), were unredited. Constance Howard died (Dec 7, 1980) aged seventy-four, in San Diego, California.

Howard, Elizabeth      see also   Norfolk, Elizabeth Stafford, Duchess of

Howard, Elizabeth – (fl. 1856 – 1881)
British artist
Elizabeth Howard was a native of Hemel Hempstead in London, and specialized in the production of still-lifes of fruit. Her work was exhibited in London for over two decades at various galleries and at the Royal Academy.

Howard, Elizabeth Dacre, Lady – (1564 – 1639)
English Tudor heiress
Elizabeth Dacre was born at Naworth Castle in Cumberland, the stepdaughter of Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of Norfolk through his third wife Elizabeth Audley. Elizabeth was married (1577) at Audley End, to her stepbrother Lord William Howard (1563 – 1640) to whom she had been betrothed from an early age. William returned to his studies at Oxford after the wedding, whilst Elizabeth remained with her own family. Husband and wife did not cohabit together until 1581, when they established their household at Enfield Chase in Middlesex. The couple had ten children
Lady Elizabeth was the heiress of Naworth Castle, the ancient seat of the Dacre family, and of Hinderskelle, the site of Castle Howard. Lord William became the proprietor of these estates in the right of his wife, and became involved in several lengthy lawsuits concerning them. The main litigant was Lady Elizabeth’s paternal uncles, Leonard and Francis Dacre, and with encouragement from the queen, many of these properties wwre taken by the crown. Queen Elizabeth later permitted Lady Elizabeth and her elder sister, Anne, Countess of Arundel, to purchase their properties back from the crown at a rather price (1601). A partition was made of the various properties, and Lady Elizabeth and her husband received Naworth House (1603) where they henceforth resided.
Lady Howard was popularly known as ‘Bessie with the braid (broad) apron,’ a reference to her generous dower lands. Their Household Books (1612 – 1640) have survived. Her portrait remained at Gilling Castle in Yorkshire (1900). Her grandson Charles Howard (1629 – 1685) was created the first Earl of Carlisle by Charles II (1661). Lady Howard died (Oct/Dec, 1639) aged seventy-five, at Naworth.

Howard, Lady Frances – (1590 – 1632)
English courtier and scandal figure
Lady Frances Howard was born (May 31, 1590) the second daughter of Theophilus Howard, first Earl of Suffolk, and his wife Catherine Knevet, the daughter of Sir Henry Knyvet, of Charlton, Wiltshire. Lady Frances was married (1605) to Robert Devereux (1591 – 1646), the third Earl of Essex. There were no children, and Lady Essex was later divorced from her husband (1613) on the grounds of impotence, in order to marry Robert Carr (1587 – 1645), earl of Somerset, the favourite of King James I (VI of Scotland).
The countess was said to have obtained Carr’s love through love philtres obtained for her by the astrologer, Simon Forman. Lady Frances was deeply implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury in the Tower of London (1613), who protested against the association of his friend Carr with Frances, because he feared the power of her Catholic family connections. Her marriage followed Overbury’s death, but her plot was exposed and the couple arrested. Frances’s trial was delayed due to the birth of her child, Lady Anne Carr (1615). She then confessed and was imprisoned within the Tower of London. Both she and Carr were convicted and condemned to death. Both were spared, the countess being immediately pardoned, whilst Carr was later pardoned in 1624.
The couple remained in custody until 1622, after which they were forced to live together in retirement, and were never received at court. Her death from cancer of the womb (Aug 23, 1632) at the age of forty-two, at Chiswick, was viewed by her contemporaries as the just retribution for her crimes. She was buried at Saffron Walden, Essex. Her only child was Lady Anne Carr (1615 – 1684). She became the wife of William Russell (1613 – 1700), Earl and later the first Duke of Bedford, by whom she left descendants.

Howard, Henrietta – (1688 – 1767)
British courtier and memoirist
Henrietta Hobart was born at Blickling Hall, Norfolk, the daughter if Sir Henry Hobart, and his wife Elizabeth Maynard, of Clifton Reynes, Buckinghamshire. She was married to the impoverished Charles Howard (1675 – 1733), and the couple attended the Hanoverian court in Germany. With the accession of George I (1714) she was appointed bedchamberwoman to the prince’s wife, Princess Caroline, and occupied rooms in St James’s Palace. Becoming mistress to the prince, Henrietta remained at court despite the attempts made by her husband to remove her. She built her villa at Marble Hill, Twickenham (1724) to the cost of which the prince contributed twelve thousand pounds.
When the prince became king (1727), Mrs Howard was installed in St James’s Palace, and was formally seperated from her husband, who settled an annuity upon her. Though ardently admired by Lord Peterborough, who sent her several romantic letters, Henrietta had little power at court. She retained her position in the royal household because of financial necessity, but this eventually became humiliating because of the slights put upon her by the queen, and exceedingly difficult because of her own encroaching deafness. When her estranged husband succeeded as ninth earl of Suffolk (1731), Henrietta was appointed groom of the stole to Queen Caroline, with a salary of eight hundred pounds a year.
Widowed in 1733, she retired from court and remarried (1735) to George Berkeley, the master of St Katherine’s Hospital. She survived her royal lover and formed a friendship in old age with Horace Walpole. The Countess of Suffolk died (July 26, 1767) aged seventy-nine. She appears in the historical novel Caroline the Queen (1968) by Jean Plaidy.

Howard, Katherine       see also      Catharine Howard

Howard, Katherine – (fl. c1440 – 1447)
English literary patron and book owner
Several lives of the saints, written by Osbern Bokenham, and now known collectively as the Legendys of Hooly Wummen, was dedicated to Katherine Howard, who may have taken religious vows.

Howard, Mabel Bowden – (1893 – 1972)
New Zealand politician and cabinet minister
Mabel Howard began her upward career as secretary of the General Labourer’s Union in Canterbury, and was appointed as a member of the Christchurch City Council. Howard was elected to parliament (1943), and became the first woman to be appointed as a cabinet minister in New Zealand, and within the Commonwealth, when she was appointed as Minister for health and Child Welfare (1947 – 1949) by the first Labour government. She fought continuously to improve the lot of women and children within the legal system, but was not an overt feminist.

Howard, Margaret Plaiz, Lady    see   Plaiz, Margaret de

Howard, Mary – (1913 – 2009)
American stage and film actress
Mary Howard was born (May 18, 1913) in Independence, Kansas. She first performed on the Broadway stage with her sisters in the Ziegfeld Follies (1931). Then under the name of Mary Rogers she made her first movie appearance as Diana Griffiths in My Weakness (1933) and in The Great Ziegfeld (1936). She then adopted the professional name of Mary Howard (1937) which she retained for the rest of her acting career.
Mary Howard appeared in the lead opposite Edwin Maxwell in the film Torture Money (1937) which won an Academy Award. In all her career in movies lasted a decade (1933 – 1942) and she appeared in various other lead roles during this period such All Over Town (1937), The Face Behind the Mask (1938), Hold That Kiss (1938), Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938), Four Girls in White (1939), Nurse Edith Cavell (1939) which dealt with the British nurse shot by the Germans during WW I for assisting prisoners to escape, Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1940) in which she portrayed Ann Rutledge, Billy the Kid (1941), The Riders of the Purple Sage (1941), and Thru Different Eyes (1942).
Mary Howard retired from films after appearing in The Loves of Edgar Allan Poe (1942) and during WW II she travelled and worked entertaining the troops. She removed to New York where she became the wife (1945) of the producer Alfred de Liagre (1904 – 1987) who had originally launched her career. She bore him two children. As Mrs Liagre she became a member of various prominent charitable organizations serving on the board of the Princess Grace Foundation and the American Academy of the Dramatic arts. Mary Liagre became a founding member of the Recording for the Blind organization. Miss Howard received a lifetime achievement award from the Arizona National Board of Film, Theatre and Television (2007). Mary Howard died (June 9, 2009) aged ninety-six in Manhattan.

Howard, Lady Muriel – (c1480 – 1512)
English Tudor noblewoman
Lady Muriel Howard was the elder daughter of Thomas Howard (1443 – 1524), second Duke of Norfolk, and his first wife Elizabeth Tilney, the widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk. Her stepmother was Agnes Tylney, whilst her younger sister, Lady Elizabeth Howard, the wife of Sir Thomas Boleyn, was the maternal grandmother of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603).
Lady Muriel was married firstly to John Grey (1480 – 1504), second Viscount Lisle (1492 – 1504), to whom she bore an only child, Elizabeth Grey (1504 – 1519), de jure third Baroness Lisle from birth. She became the first wife of Henry Courtenay (1496 – 1538), second Earl of Devonshire, the grandson of Edward IV, but died childless.
Lady Muriel was remarried secondly to Sir Thomas Knyvett (died Aug, 1512), of Buckenham in Norfolk, with whom she attended the court of the youthful Henry VIII and his first wife Catharine of Aragon. Muriel survived her second husband barely six months as the Dowager Lady Knyvett. Lady Muriel died (Dec 14, 1512) aged about thirty-two. The children of her second marriage included Sir Henry Knyvett (c1506 - 1549) who was married to Anne Pickering, the widow of Sir Francis Weston, who was executed (1536) as a supposed lover of Queen Anne Boleyn, and Sir Edmund Knyvett (c1507 - 1551) of Buckenham, from whom were descended the later Barons Knyvett.

Howard, Mrs Robert Jared     see    Strathcona, Margaret Charlotte Smith, Baroness

Howard, Rosalind Frances    see    Carlisle, Rosalind Frances Stanley, Countess of

Howe, Caroline – (c1721 – 1814)
British society figure
Caroline was well educated with a reputation for scholarly attainment. Originally linked with Sir Edward Walpole, but became the wife (1742) of John Howe of Hanslope, Buckinghamshire. Caroline Howe was prominent in British society, known to Horace Walpole, whom she visited at Strawberry Hill at Twickenham, Mary Berry, and the Countess of Hertford. She was received by Princess Amelia, the unmarried daughter of George II, at her London salon and by Lady Spencer at Althorp.

Howe, Dorothy Campbell Hurd    see    Campbell, Dorothy Iona

Howe, Helen – (1905 – 1975)
American novelist and monologist
Helen Howe was born (Jan 11, 1905) in Boston, the daughter of Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe, the noted author and biographer. She attended school in Boston before studying at Radcliffe College. Howe was the author of the novel, The Whole Heart (1943), The Circle of the Day (1950) and, We Happy Few (1946). She also published The Gentle Americans, 1864 – 1900: Biography of a Breed (1965). Known for her remorseless satiric monologues, she performed throughout the USA and at the White House. The New York Times drama critic, Brooks Atkinson observed, “ She can lampoon a whole gallery of female annoyances without wasting time.” Helen Howe died (Feb 1, 1975) aged seventy, in New York

Howe, Julia Ward – (1819 – 1910) 
American lyricist, writer and social reformer
Julia Ward was born (May 27, 1819) in New York City, and educated at private schools there. She was married (1843) to Dr Samuel Gridley Howe, the noted philanthropist and reformer. A prolific writer, her poetry included the works Passion Flowers (1854), Words for the Hour, and From Sunset Ridge (1898). She also produced the play The World’s Own (1857), and travel memoirs From the Oak to the Olive and Trip to Cuba, besides a memoir of her husband and a Life of Margaret Fuller (1883).
Mrs Howe also wrote a Te Deum, in commemoration of the deliverance of the British detained in the several legations surrounding the Imperial palace in Peking, during the Boxer Rebellion (1900). Actively involved with the advocacy of Negro emancipation, women’s suffrage, and education, Mrs Howe had much to do with the formation of women’s clubs throughout America. She was honorary vice-president of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, and a delegate to the Prison Congress of London, and the Peace Congress of Paris, both of which took place in 1874.
Mrs Howe remains most famous for her poetic composition of The Battle Hymn of the Republic (1862), written during the Civil War in America. She was the author of Sketches of Representative New England Women (1904) and was the first woman to be honoured by the American Academy of Arts and Letters (1908). Julia Ward Howe died (Oct 17, 1910) aged ninety-one, at her summer residence of Oak Glen, in Newport, Rhode Island.

Howe, Sophia – (1700 – 1726)
British courtier
Sophia was a descendant of Prince Rupert of the Rhine and his mistress Margaret Hughes. Sophia was appointed as lady-in-waiting to Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II, whilst she was Princess of Wales. The contemporary verses, Monimia to Philocles, were written about her. Her romantic liasion with the suave courtier Anthony Lowther, and her subsequent pregnacy created a scandal at the British court. Sophia Howe died (April 4, 1726) aged twenty-five, from the effects of childbirth. She appears in the historical novel Caroline the Queen (1968) by Jean Plaidy.

Howell, Deborah - (1941 - 2010)
American journalist and editor
Deborah Howell was born (Jan 15, 1941) in San Antonio, Texas, the daughter of a journalist. She studied journalism at the University of Texas in Austin before working as a reporter for the Minneapolis Star newspaper. She rose to become the managing editor of that publication before joining the St Paul Pioneer Press as vice president and editor.
Howell later served as bureau chief and editor of the Newhouse News Service for fifteen years (1990 - 2005) prior to joining The Washington Post where she was appointed as ombudsman (2005 - 2008), one of the first women to lead a major American newspaper. Her tenure not being without some controversy due to the outspoken content of her column. Deborah Howell died (Jan 2, 2010) aged sixty-eight, in New Zealand as the result of a car accident.

Howell, Mary Catherine Raugust – (1932 – 1998)
American paediatrician and pioneer in child development
Mary was born (Sept 2, 1932) in Grand Forks, North Dakota, the daughter of a businessman. She studied languages at Radcliffe College. She was married and produced a son, but after the marriage ended she studied to become a paediatrician. Mary Howell became an active and forceful public promoter of modern health care for women, and attracted considerable attention with her publication Why Would a Girl Go into Medicine? Medical Education in the Unites States: A Guide for Women (1973).
Mary Howell also wrote articles for Working Mother magazine, and contributed to the work Our Bodies Ourselves: A Book by and for Women (1971), which was published by the Boston Women’s Book Collective. Her other works included Healing at Home: A Guide to Health Care for Children (1978). She was a member of the Division of Medical Ethics at the Harvard Medical School (1992 – 1994). Mary Howell died (Feb 5, 1998) aged sixty-five, at Watertown in Massachusetts.

Howells, Mildred – (1872 – 1966)
American painter and poet
Mildred was the daughter of the noted artist, novelist, and poet, William Dean Howells (1837 – 1920). She was remembered for popular poems such as ‘The Different Seed.’ She also edited her father’s correspondence.

Howells, Ursula – (1922 – 2005)
British actress
Ursula Howells was born in London, the daughter of composer Herbert Howells, and was educated at St Paul’s Girls’ School where her father taught music. She was said to have suggested his composition of his masterpiece Hymnus Paradisi (1935). Howells became determined on a stage career and joined a repertory theatre in Dundee as a secretary. She made her debut as a leading lady in 1940. She worked for two seasons with the Oxford Repertory Company before joing actor Anthony Hawtrey at the Embassy Theatre, Swiss Cottage.
Miss Howells achieved critical acclaim in her stage roles of Henrietta Turnbull in Quality Street and Judith Drave in No Room At The Inn (1945). She was also involved with broad work notably in Sweet Lavender (1946). Howell made her film debut in the medieval epic, Flesh and Blood (1950), with Joan Greenwood, Glynis Johns, and Richard Todd, and other film credits followed The Constant Husband (1955) opposite Frank Launder, The Long Arm (1956), with Jack Hawkins, along with several horror films including Dr Terror’s House of Horrors (1965), and the cult classic Mumsy, Nanny, Sonny and Girly (1969).
During the latter part of her career, Howell was a familiar figure in television comedy and drama. Distinctly feminine and elegant, she was best known in the role of Frances Forstye in The Forstye Saga (1967) and as Kitty Cazalet in The Cazalets (2001), as well as for her comic role in Father Dear Father (1968 – 1973). Her second husband was the director and screenwriter Anthony Pelissier.

Howitt, Mary – (1799 – 1888)
British poet and translator
Born Mary Botham into a Quaker family in Coleford, Gloucestershire, and was raised at Uttoxeter. She was married (1821) to the author William Howitt (1792 – 1879), to whom she bore seven children. Mary Howitt collaborated with her husband on several published works such as The Forest Minstrel and Other Poems (1823) and The Literature and Romance of Northern Europe (1852).
Other works included The Book of the Seasons (1830) and Sketches of Natural History (1834). A skilled linguist in the Scandanavian languages, she was honoured by the Literary Academy of Stockholm in Sweden for her translation of the works of Fredrika Bremer. Her support of the campaign for female suffrage was though radical, as she espoused the creation of women members of parliament. With the death of her husband Mary Howitt was granted a pension from the Civil List. Her son was the Anglo-Australian explorer Alfred William Howitt.

How-Martyn, Edith – (1880 – 1954)
British suffrage leader and birth control campaigner
Born Edith How in Cheltenham, she attended the North London Collegiate School for Girls in Aberystwyth, and the London University. After her marriage (1899) to Herbert Martyn, she adopted the hyphenated surname. Edith How-Martyn joined the Women’s Social and Political Union, and served that organization as secretary (1906 – 1907), but eventually left in order to join with Teresa Billington and Charlotte Despard to establish the Women’s Freedom League.
Mrs How-Martyn stood unsuccessfully for election to parliament (1918) but was elected as the first female member of the Middlesex Council (1919). She was the founder of the Birth Control International Information Centre (1929) and was the author of The Birth Control Movement in England (1931). Edith How-Martyn died in Sydney, Australia.

Ho Xuan Huong    see    Ho, Xuan Hu’o’ng

Hoyers, Anna Ovena – (1584 – 1655)
German poet and devotional writer
Anna Oven was born in Koldenbuttel, Holstein the daughter of the astronomer Hans Oven (1560 – 1584). She was married (1599) to Herman Hoyer von Hoyersworth (died 1622), an official in the household of the Duke of Holstein, to whom she bore nine children. She used the pseudonym ‘Anna Ovena Hoyers’ which included parts of her maiden and married names.
Later financial difficulties during her widowhood caused Anna to leave Sweden for the court to seek help at the court of the Duchess of Holstein. By 1642 she had been granted the estate of Westerwick near Stockholm. Her collected works were published in Amsterdam as Anna Ovenae Hoijers Geistliche und Weltiche Poemata (1650). Anna Ovena Hoyers died at Westerwick.

Hrotsvitha (Rosvitha) (1) – (c880 – 927)
Saxon Benedictine nun and scholar
Hrotsvitha came from exalted royal lineage. Hrotsvitha was one of the younger daughters of Duke Otto I of Saxony and his wife Hedwig, the daughter of Henry of Saalgau, Duke of Austrasia and his Carolingian wife Ingeltrude of Friuli, the granddaughter of the Emperor Louis I the Pious (816 – 840).
Hrostvitha never married and was appointed to rule the royal abbey of Gandersheim, near Goslar, as abbess (923) in succession to her sister Luitgarde. Extremely well educated and a competente scholar, Hrotsvitha wrote treatises on logic and rhetoric, which have not survived. She was regarded a saint. The younger Hrotsvitha, famous for her plays, poems, and panegyrics, was her close kinswoman, and the two are often confused.

Hrotsvitha (Rosvitha) (2) – (c935 – after 1001)
Saxon abbess and dramatist
Born Helena von Rossen, she was veiled as a Benedictine nun (c955), and was later appointed to head the Imperial Abbey of Gandersheim, and was most probably a connection of the Imperial family. She is believed to have survived the Abbess Gerberga, the daughter of Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, the brother of the Emperor Otto II (973 – 983).
Six of her didactic plays were discovered at Regensburg in Bavaria by Conrad Celtes, who caused them to be published (1501). They were, Gallicanus, which deals with the story of a general of the emperor Constantine I, who becomes a martyr, the rather humourous Dulcitius, which deals with the corruption of Imperial officials Abraham and Paphnutius, Calimachus and Sapientia, which deals with the theme of the demise of faith, hope and charity.
Hrotsvitha was the earliest female poet from the Middle Ages whose works have survived and was the first female dramatist and poet in German literary history. She wrote a history of the Abbey of Gandersheim, and a narrative account of the martyrdom of St Pelagius of Cordova.

Hrzic de Topuska, Emilie – (1868 – 1961)
German courtier
Emilie Hrzic de Topuska was the daughter of Simon Hrzic, and was married (1892) to Prince Heinrich of Hesse-Darmstadt (1838 – 1900) as his second wife. They were married morganatically, any children being denied royal rank or a place in the royal succession. From 1895 Emilie was known officially as the Baroness von Dornberg. The couple remained childless and Emilie survived her husband over six decades. Emilie Hrzic de Topuska died aged ninety-two.

Hsiang Ching Yu      see     Xiang Jingyu

Hsiao, Shu-sien    see    Xiao, Suxian

Hsiao Hung    see   Hong, Xiao

Hsiao Tuan Chuang    see   Xiao Zhuang Wen

Hsiao-Tz’u Kato    see   Xiaoci Gao

Hsien-hsi   see   Eastern Jewel

Hsin, Ping    see   Bing Xin

Hsueh T’ao   see    Xue Tao

Hua Mu Ian (Mu-lan) – (fl. c450 – c500 AD)
Chinese heroine
Hua Mu Ian sometimes known as Mu-lan, lived at some time during the Tartar Wei dynasty (386 AD – 557). She took the place of her invalid father to fight with the Imperial troops, and spent twelve years in the army disguised as a man. She achieved a great reputation for personal courage, before returning to private life.

Huatosa     see     Atossa I

Hubbard, Dorothy Isabel – (1888 – 1964)
British community activist and civic leader
Hubbard was born (April 7, 1888), the daughter of the Hon. (Honourable) Arthur Gellibrand Hubbard (1848 – 1896), Secretary for Native Affairs in the Cape Colony in South Africa, who served as accountant to the government of Basutoland. He was a relative of Lord Addington. Her mother was Amy d’Esterre (1858 – 1930), the daughter of Charles Hugh Huntley, C.M.G., the civil commander and resident magistrate of Albany in South Africa.
Miss Hubbard was appointed MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George VI (1951) and was appointed as a D.ST. J. (Dame of Grace of the Order of the Hospital St John of Jerusalem) (1955) in recognition of her hospital work during WW II. She remained unmarried. Dorothy Hubbard died (Jan 11, 1964) aged seventy-five.

Hubbard, Louisa Maria – (1836 – 1906)  
British philanthropist, editor, social reformer and churchwoman
Louisa Hubbard was born in St Petwrsburg, Russia, the daughter of William Egerton Hubbard, a wealthy merchant from Leonardslee, Horsham, in Essex. From 1864 – 1874 Louisa was prominent in the Deaconess movement within the Anglican church, and from 1870 she laboured to impress upon poor, but well-bred ladies that a teaching career was respectable for them. To this end she established Otter College, Chichester, as a training school for ladies as elementary teachers.
Miss Hubbard wrote a series of articles concerning employment for women of all classes (1874), which was printed in 1875 as a Handbook for Women’s Work, and ultimately became The Englishwoman’s Year Book in 1880, and which she issued annually until 1898. Also in 1875 she brought out the Women’s Gazette periodical which ran till 1893. Her health failed in 1894, and she was forced to reside in Europe till her death. She was the author of The Beautiful House and Enchanted Garden (1885).

Hubble, Margaret Elinor – (1914 – 2006)
British radio broadcaster
Margaret Hubble was born (Dec 29, 1914) in Kent, the daughter of a farmer. She attended boarding school in Sussex, and was then employed in the radio department of an advertising agency (1938). With the outbreak of WW II, Hubble joined the Women’s Land Army, but she soon left to work in broadcasting at the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). She quickly rose to become a presentation assistant before being appointed as chief announcer for the BBC African Service (1942), and presented the request program ‘Forces Favourites.’
Miss Hubble was the first woman announcer to host the Allied Expeditionary Forces Programme (1943). She was best known as the presenter of ‘Family Favourites’ (1945 – 1952) and ‘Woman’s Hour’ (1951 – 1952). She resigned from the BBC, but returned to host ‘Woman’s Hour’ (1957) and narrated ‘Children’s Newsreel’ from 1959. Margaret Hubble died (Aug 30, 2006) aged ninety-one.

Huber, Marie – (1695 – 1753)  
French woman of letters
Huber was born into a Protestant family in Geneva, Switzerland. She later resided in France where she published Le Monde fou prefere au monde sage (Madness is Better than Wisdom) (1751). Her other works included Le Systeme des anciens et des modernes concilie … (Ancient and Modern Systems Reconciled) (1739) and Lettres sur la religion essentielle (Letters About Basic Religion) (1738) which was translated into English and German. Marie Huber died (June 13, 1753) at Lyon, Burgundy.

Huber, Therese – (1764 – 1829)
German writer, journalist and translator
Therese Hyne was born (May 7, 1764) at Gottingen, the daughter of a philology professor. With the death of her first husband (1794) Therese remarried to her second husband Ludwig Ferdinand Huber. Her volume of translated plays from the French was published as Neueres franzosisches Theater (1795 – 1797). She was later the managing editor of the Morgenblatt publication (1816 – 1824). Therese Huber died (June 15, 1829) aged sixty-five, in Augsburg, Bavaria.

Huch, Ricarda Octavia – (1864 – 1947)
German historical novelist and poet
Ricarda Huch was born (July 18, 1864) in Brunswick, the daughter of a wealthy merchant, and was sister to the novelist, Rudolf Huch. She was educated there and in Zurich, Switzerland. Appointed secretary to the public library in Zurich, she was married firstly to Ermano Ceconi and secondly to her lawyer cousin, Richard Huch. Huch travelled to Italy and eventually settled in Munich, Bavaria, where she began writing romantic novels, which were equipped with astute psychological characterizations, and used the pseudonym, ‘Richard Hugo.’
Some of these works included Erinnerungen von Ludolf Ursleu dem Jungeren (Memoirs of Ludolf Ursleu the Younger) (1893) and Aus der Triumphgasse (Out of Triumph Lane) (1902). Her important historical writings included Aus dem Zeitalter des Risorgimento (1908), Der grosse Krieg in Deutschland (The Great War in Germany) (1912 – 1914), Luthers Glaube (Beliefs of Luther) (1915) and Das Romische Reich deutscher Nation (1934).
Ricarda Huch was the first woman to be elected to Prussian Academy of Literature (1931), but resigned after Jewish writers were expelled due to the rising Nazi influence. During WW II she resided at Jena, near Weimar. Ricarda Huch died (Nov 17, 1947) aged eighty-three, at Schonberg, near Frankfurt-am-Main.

Hudnut, Winifred Shaughnessey    see   Rambova, Natacha

Hudson, Ethel – (1896 – 1992)
American religious figure
Ethel Hudson was born in Salem, Massachusetts. At her death which took place at Concord in New Hampshire, at the age of ninety-six, she was the last surviving member of the Shaker colony of New Hampshire, having been a member of that community for over eight decades (1907 – 1992).

Hudson, Jan – (1954 – 1990)
Canadian children’s author
Jan Hudson began her career in the legal profession, working as an editor and legal researcher, eventually being appointed as editor for the attorney general of British Columbia. She wrote several works of fiction for children and juveniles such as Sweetgrass (1984) and Dawn Rider (1990).

Hudson, Mary – (1913 – 1999)
American businesswoman and entrepreneur
The only female member of the Twenty-Five Year Club, an organization made up of the most successful oil company executives, after the early death of her husband (1913), Mary Hudson established the Hudson Oil Company at the age of twenty-one (1934). She built this into a chain of over three hundred gas-stations with a reputation for low prices and no-frills services.
Her business empire later collapsed after she became involved in legal battles concerning overcharging customers and underpaying some of ther employees during the decade following 1980, which saw the collapse of the US petrol industry. Mary Hudson died of cancer (Sept 2, 1999) aged eighty-six, at Prairie Village in Kansas.

Hudson, Mary Elizabeth Milner, Lady – (1868 – 1963)
British patron
Mary Milner was the elder daughter of Robert Milner, of Kidlington, Oxford, and her family held estates in the West Indies. She was married firstly (1888) to Sir Alfred Harmsworth (1865 – 1922) later the first Lord Northcliffe (1905 – 1922), and secondly to Sir Robert Arundell Hudson of Hill Hall, Theydon Mount.
Lady Hudson was actively involved in volunteer work with the Royal Red Cross (RRC), and was an especial patron of the London Hospital and the Westminster Hospital. She served as chairwoman of the Friends of Poor Disabled Soldiers Needlework Industry, which sought to raise funds for permanently disabled servicemen, and for her work was awarded the GBE (Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire) (1918) by King George V (1918). Lady Hudson died (July 29, 1963) aged ninety-four.

Hudson, Rochelle – (1914 – 1972)
American film actress
Rochelle Hudson played mainly young innocent roles during the 1930’s and 1940’s and thereafter character roles. Her film credits included She Done Him Wrong (1933) with Mae West, Les Miserables (1935), Island of Doomed Men (1940), Queen of Broadway (1943), Rebel Without a Cause (1955) and Broken Sabre (1965).

Huerlimann, Bettina – (1909 – 1983)
German publisher and children’s writer
Bettina was born in Weimar, East Germany. She was married to Martin Huerlimann, and together they ran the Atlantis Verlag publishing company in Zurich, Switzerland from 1933. Bettina wrote many children’s books, including Three Modern Picture-books for Children From Twenty-four Countries. Her own autobiography Seven Houses: My Life With Books was published in 1977. Bettina Huerlimann died in Zollikon, Switzerland.

Hugeburc – (fl. 761 – 780)
Anglo-German nun and hagiographer
Hugeburc was an English nun who travelled to Germany and became a nun at the Abbey of Heidenheim. She worked as a missionary and wrote a life of Bishop Willibald of Eichstatt and his brother Abbot Winnibald of Heidenheim the Vita s. Willibaldi episcopi Eichstetensis et s. Wynnebaldi abbatis Heidenheimensis (767 – 780). The work includes the Hodoeporicon, a narrative of Willibald’s journey to Palestine, the details of which he recounted personally to Hugeburc.

Huggins, Margaret Lindsay Murray, Lady – (1849 – 1915)
Irish astronomer and author
Margaret Murray was born in Dublin, the daughter of a solicitor. She was educated at home under the supervision of a governess before attending a private school at Brighton, London. Margaret was intensely interested in the science of astronomy, studying the written works available by Herschel, Dick, and Lardner. She also worked experimentally whith physics, chemistry, and photography.
After her marriage (1875) with the noted astronomer Sir William Huggins (1824 – 1910), Margaret acted as her husband’s personal observatory and laboratory assistant. With him she co-wrote An Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra (1899). Lady Huggins's own published works included Monograph of the Astrolabe (1899), for which they received the Actonian prize from the Royal Institution, and the biographical work Lives of Agnes and Ellen Clerke. Lady Huggins died (March 24, 1915) aged sixty-five.

Huggonai-Wartha, Vilma – (1847 – 1922)
Hungarian physician
Vilma Huggonai-Wartha was the daughter of a count, and was married (1865) to Giorgi Szillassy. Her interest in medicine began with the death of her only child. She was married secondly to Professor Vincent Wartha, and wrote two papers, one on tracheotomy in diphtheria and the other concerning the treatment of burns. Her medical degree, obtained in 1879, but denied because of her sex, was eventually officially recognized by the ministry of Culture (1897) and Madame Huggonai-Wartha built up her own considerable medical practice.

Hughes, Alice – (fl. c1840 – 1892)
Australian colonial diarist
Alice Hughes was raised on a sheep station along the Murray River in South Australia, and later attended school in Adelaide. Her father was often absent of station business and her memoirs My Childhood in Australia.A story for my children (1892), which was later published in London, provided much detail concerning the life and diversified routine of a farmer’s wife in the outback, as well as her own firsthand observations of the the customs of the local aboriginal tribes.

Hughes, Elizabeth Phillipps – (1851 – 1925)
British educator, lecturer and organizer
Elizabeth Hughes was born (June 22, 1851) at Carmarthen in Glamorganshire in Wales, the daughter of a physician. She received her education at Taunton, Cheltenham Ladies’ College, and the University of Cambridge, and remained unmarried.Trained as a teacher Hughes joined the staff at Cheltenham, and spent five years at Newnham College as a student (1881 – 1885). Hughes was then appointed as principal of the Cambridge Training College for Secondary Teachers (1885 – 1899). She then travelled wideley and lectured on educational issues in the USA and in Japan, where she worked briefly as a professor of English.
Elizabeth Hughes later retired to Wales where she worked with several royal commissions and established the first Red Cross Women’s Camp, and assisted with the foundation and organization of the first Red Cross Hospital in South Wales, during the latter part of WW I. In recognition of this valuable work she was awarded the MBE (Member of the British Empire) by King George V. Elizabeth Hughes died (Dec 19, 1925) aged seventy-four, at Barry.

Hughes, Eva – (1856 – 1940)
Australian political organizer
Born Agnes Eva Snodgrass, at South Yarra, in Melbourne, Victoria, she was educated locally. She married Frederic Hughes (1885). Mrs Hughes assisted with the establishment of the conservative Australian Women’s National League (1904), and later served as president (1909 – 1922). During the war she supported conscription, and refused to support the pacifist platform advocated by Adela Pankhurst and others. She advocated the segregation of women from all forms of political life and urged their full involvement only in domestic and local issues. Eva Hughes died (June 10, 1940) aged eighty-three, at St Kilda in Melbourne.

Hughes, Margaret (Peg) – (1654 – 1719)
English actress
Margaret Hughes was said to have been the mistress of the notorious rake, Sir Charles Sedley, father of the Countess of Dorchester (mistress of James II), before she appeared on the stage in London (1668). Peg Hughes’ best remembered roles were as Desdemona in Shakespeare’s, Othello. Peg Hughes retired from the stage after becoming mistress to Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619 – 1682), the cousin of Charles II. She was the mother of his child Ruperta Howe (1673 – 1740), who left descendants. After a brief return to the stage (1676 – 1677) the prince established Peg in a mansion with a pension and servants, and at his death, his fortune was divided between Peg and their daughter.

Hugh-Jones, Siriol Mary Aprille – (1924 – 1964)
Britsih journalist
Siriol Hugh-Jones was the daughter of a military officer and was educated at Cheltenham Ladies’ College and Somerville College at Oxford. She married Derek Osborne Hart, and bore him a daughter. During WW II she was employed by the Inter-Services Topographical Department (1944 – 1945) and later joined the feature department of the BBC (1946 – 1947). Hugh-Jones was the feature editor at Vogue magazine after the war (1947 – 1955).
During the last decade of her life she worked in broadcasting and as a freelance journalist, providing articles to several papers and periodicals such as New Statesman, the Sunday Times and Punch magazine. She was also employed as a book critic for the Tatler. Siriol Hugh-Jones died (March 11, 1964) aged thirty-nine.

Hugo, Richard    see   Huch, Ricarda

Hui, Empress     see    Yang Xianrong

Hulda – (1881 – 1946)
Icelandic lyric poet
Born Unnur Benediktsdottir Bjarkland she was the daughter of a librarian, and received an excellent education which included languages. She was married and raised a family, and published a total of seven collectionf of verse which included kvoedi (Poems) (1909). The last was published posthumously (1951).

Huldah – (fl. c600 – c586 BC)
Hebrew prophetess
Huldah was wife of Shallum, and the daughter-in-law of Tikvah. She acted as the political adviser to King Josiah of Judah (c640 - 609 BC).

Hull, Eleanor (1) – (fl. c1400 – 1415)
English translator
Eleanor Hull was connected to the courts of kings Henry IV and his son Henry V (1413 – 1422). Her confessor was from the Bridgettine monastery at Twickenham, London, founded by Henry V (1415). Hull translated a commentary on the seven penitential psalms and meditations on the seven days of the week from French into English, and is believed to have composed certain prayers.

Hull, Eleanor (2) – (1860 – 1935)
Irish writer and historian
Hull was born (Jan 15, 1860) in Manchester in Lancashire, England, the daughter of a geologist. She attended college and the Royal College of Science in Dublin. After travelling to London she became a member of the London Irish Literary Society and the Gaelic League. Eleanor Hull’s published works included The Cuchulain Saga in Early Irish Literature (1898), and Early Christian Ireland (1904).
Other works included the two volume work A Textbook of Irish Literature (1906 – 1908), the two volume work History of Ireland and Her People (1926 – 1931). She also translated several Irish hymns and edited several lives of the Celtic saints. Eleanor Hull died (Jan 13, 1935) aged seventy-four, in London.

Hull, Hannah Hallowell Clothier – (1872 – 1958)
American pacifist and suffragist
Hannah Hull was born in Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania (July 21, 1872), and raised within the tenets of the Quaker faith. She attended the Second Hague Conference for International Peace (1907). Hannah fought determinedly for the pacifist cause throughout WW I, and was appointed as chairwoman of the Pennsylvania branch of the Women’s Peace Party (1917 – 1920). She met Jane Addams at the WILPF (Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom), and later succeeded her as national chairwoman of the American section of that organization (1924). Hannah was also the vice-chairwoman of the AFSC (American Friends Service Committee) for two decades (1928 – 1947). Hannah Hull died (July 4, 1958) aged eighty-five in Swarthmore.

Hulme, Alice – (fl. 1877 – 1890)
British artist
Alice Hulme was a resident of London, and specialized in the painting of still-lifes in watercolours. Her work was exhibited in London at the Royal Academy.

Hulme, Kathryn – (1900 – 1981)
American writer
Hulme was born (Jan 6, 1900) in San Francisco, California. She was the author of such works as The Wild Place (1953), The Nun’s Story (1956), Annie’s Captain (1961) and Undiscovered Country (1966).

Huma Hatun – (c1412 – 1450)
Ottoman sultana
Huma was originally a slave girl of Turkish origins though legends claimed her to have been a high-born French lady. Huma entered the harem of Sultan Murad II and became the mother of Sultan Mehmet II (1432 – 1481) who became his father’s heir in 1443. Huma Hatun died (Aug, 1450) and was interred at Brusa with an inscription to her memory by her son.

Humbeline of Fontaines     see    Fontaines, Humbeline de

Humberga of Montbard – (d. after 1035)
French mediaeval noblewoman
Humberga was the wife of Bernard I (c1035 – c1102), seigneur of Montbard in Burgundy. She was perhaps a connection of the Burgundian seigneurs of Ricey. Her daughter Aelith (Adelaide) de Montbard married Tescelin Sorrel, and became the mother of St Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 1153), founder of the Cistercian Order.

Hume, Anna – (fl. 1644)
English Stuart writer
Anne Hume published a translation of The Triumphs of Love, Chastity, Death, by Petrarch. To this was prefaced her own work ‘To the Reader.’

Humility     see    Umilta of Faenza

Hummel, Elisabeth – (1783 – 1883)
German operatic soprano
Born Elisabeth Rockl, she became the wife of the famous pianist and composer, Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778 – 1837), whom she survived almost five decades. Elisabeth Hummel died a centenarian at Weimar.

Hummonya, Madam – (fl. 1898 – 1919)
African chieftain
Hummonya was born into the Nongowa tribe in Sierra Leone. Her mother, Madam Matolo, the wife of Faba of Dodo, was appointed as paramount chief of the Nongowa (1898 – 1908). With her mother’s death, Hummonya was appointed to rule in her place, with the assistance of the British colonial government. Hummonya became despised because of her tyranny, and was feared as a despot.
Eventually her reputation, together with the general discontent against her rule, led to the colonial government naking an official enquiry, and Governor Wilkinson found the charges levelled against her to be based on substance. Hummonya managed to defeat a coup led against her by the paramount chiefs (Dec, 1918), but she was soundly defeated by elections held the following year (Aug, 1919), and was removed from office, being replaced by Boakei Kekura. Because of Madam Hummonya’s evil reputation, the Nongowa people considered her the worst ruler in their history.

Humphrey, Doris – (1895 – 1958)
American dancer and choreographer
Doris Humphrey was born in Oak Park, Illinois (Oct 17, 1895), and studied dance as a young girl. She began her career as a ballroom dancing teacher in Chicago, and then worked for a decade (1917 – 1927) as a dancer with the Denishawn Company. Her first choreographed work was Tragica (1920), and with her longtime partner, Charles Weidman (1901 – 1975), she founded and established the Humphrey-Weidman school and company in New York (1928).
Doris Humphrey was the originator of the Juilliard Dance Theatre (1935) and the Bennington College Summer School of Dance (1934 – 1942). Her choreographed works included the trilogy New Dance (1935), Theatre Piece (1935) and With My Red Fires (1936). Forced to retire from dance due to encroaching illness (1944), Humphrey worked as a choreographer at the school run by her best student, Jose Limon (1908 – 1972), and served as artistic director (1946 – 1958). Humphrey was the author of The Art of Making Dances (1959). Doris Humphrey died of cancer (Dec 29, 1958) in New York.

Humphrey, Muriel Buck   see   Brown, Muriel Humphrey

Hundi Khatun – (fl. 1396)
Ottoman princess
Hundi Khatun was the daughter of Sultan Bayezid I (1389 – 1402) and was a direct descendant of the first Sultan Osman (c1281 – 1324). She was given in marriage (1396) to Sheikh Emir Bukhari, a leading religious scholar. This was the first recorded instance of intermarriage between an Ottoman princess and the sheikhly class.

Hunegund – (c640 – 690)
Merovingian saint
Hunegund was born at Lembais, near St Quentin, Vermandois, to a wealthy family. Her godfather was St Eligius (Eloy), the friend of Queen Balthild, wife of Clovis II. She accompanied her betrothed husband Eudaldus to Rome, where they were received by the pope, wither Martin I (649 – 654) or Vitalian (657 – 672). In Rome Hunegund swore a vow of virginity in the papal prescence, and Eudaldus and his entourage deserted her. She returned to Frankia and joined the community of nuns established at the convent of Homblieres in Vermandois, Aisne, to which she transferred all her estates.
Hunegund built a church dedicated to the Virgin, so was regarded as founder of the order. Hunegund later made peace with Eudaldus, who repented of his former conduct and was forgiven, leaving all his estates to the nuns of Homblieres at his death. Regarded as a saint, her veneration feast (Aug 25) was recorded in the Acta Sanctorum. One of her ribs was obtained as a relic by the Valois king Louis XI (1461 – 1483).

Hungerford, Agnes Cotell, Lady – (c1485 – 1523)
English murderess
Agnes had murdered her first husband John Cotell (1518) and had remarried to Sir Edward Hungerford (c1475 – 1522). She was safe from prosecution until the death of Sir Edward. Now the sole executrix of Sir Edward’s estate, Lady Hungerford and her accomplices were arrested and tried for the murder. All three were found guilty and were publicly hanged at Tyburn for the crime (Feb 20, 1523). Lady Hungerford was interred in the Church of the Grey Friars, London.

Hungerford, Anne Basset, Lady    see   Basset, Anne

Hungerford, Eleanor de Moleyns, Lady    see   Moleyns, Eleanor de

Hungerford, Margaret Wolfe – (1855 – 1897)
Irish novelist
Born at Millen, near Ross Carbery, in County Cork, Margaret Hungerford was the daughter of the Canon of Ross Cathedral. She was educated at home by a governess. Margaret was the author of such popular novels as Molly Bawn (1878), Lord Beresford, The Duchess, In Durance Vile, A Born Coquette, A Little Irish Girl, The Hoyden and A Point of Conscience. Margaret Wolfe Hungerford died (Jan 24, 1897) at Bandon in Cork.

Hunila – (fl. c270 – 282 AD)
Roman Augusta
Hunila was the daughter of a Gothic king and became the wife of the usurper emperor Bonosus (276 – 282 AD). She fought with nine other Gothic warrior women, disguised as men, under Prince Carnobaud, and was captured by the Roman emperor Aurelian. Aurelian treated Hunila with the courtesies due to their rank, but kept the women as hostages for the Goths behaviour.
The emperor gave Hunila in marriage (c270 AD) to Bonosus, the governor of Rhaetia, and she bore him two sons. Fearing Imperial retribution because of a political bungle, Bonosus caused himself to be proclaimed emperor by his troops in Gaul, where his cause received some support. He maintained a precarious position for several years before being defeated by Probus (282 AD), whereupon her committed suicide. Probus spared the empress and her children, settling an annual pension on her, and allowing her sons to inherit their late father’s estates.

Hunna – (c630 – 679)
Merovingian saint
Sometimes called Huva, she was born into the ducal family of Alsace, and was married to Hunno, Count of Hunnaweyer in the diocese of Strasbourg. Hunna devoted herself to helping the poor and needy of Strasburg, and became popularly known as the ‘holy washerwoman’ because of her insistence upon washing the feet of the poor and sick. Her son Deodatus entered the monastery of her friend St Deodatus, bishop of Nevers, at Ebersheim. A local cult developed around Hunna after her death. She was later canonized by Pope Leo X (1520) at the instance of Duke Ulrich of Wurttemburg (1520) after which her feast was celebrated (April 15).

Hunnewell, Julie Desloge – (1929 – 1992) 
American art consultant and civic leader
Born Julie Haggerty, in St Louis, Missouri, she attended the Manhattanville College. After her marriage Julie Hunnewell was president of the Corporate Art Inc, an art consulting firm, and had a distinguished career as an expert in interior design within corporate buildings. She was also the founder and director of the Long Island Council on Alcoholism, and was actively involved with drug and alcohol rehabilitation. She was patron of the Metropolitan Opera and established the Hazelden Fellowship Club in New York. Julie Hunnewell died (Aug 19, 1992) aged sixty-three, in Glen Cove, Long Island.

Hunolstein, Aglae de Puget de Barbantane, Comtesse d’ – (1753 – 1795)
French courtier and society figure
Charlotte Gabrielle Aglae de Puget was the daughter of Joseph Pierre Balthasar Hilaire de Puget, Marquis de Barbantane, and his wife Charlotte Francoise Elisabeth Catherine Du Mesnildot de Vierville. She became the wife (1770) of Philippe Antoine, Comte d’Hunolstein (1750 – 1831) and was the mother of Comte Felix Philippe Charles d’Hunolstein (1778 – 1838).
A famous beauty the comtesse served at the court of Versailles as lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette, the wife of Louis XVI. She was famous for her liaison with the statesman the Marquis de La Fayette and is mentioned in the correspondence of the British antiquarian Horace Walpole. Several of her letters have survived. The comtesse survived in Paris for the duration of the Revolution. Madame d’Hunolstein died in Paris in poverty.

Hunsdon, Elizabeth Spencer, Lady – (1552 – 1618)
English literary patron
Elizabeth Spencer was the daughter of Sir John Spencer, of Althorp, and his wife Catherine, the daughter of Sir Thomas Kitson, of Hensgrave, Suffolk. She was married (1576) to Sir George Carey (1547 – 1603), cousin to Queen Elizabeth I, who later succeeded his father as Baron Hunsdon (1596). Lady Hunsdon was herself a translator of Petrarch and a valued patron of Elizabethan writers, the most notable being the dramatist Thomas Nash (1567 – 1601), and her own kinsman the poet Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599). Spenser dedicated to her his poem, ‘Muipotmas,’ and commemorated her in one of the introductory sonnets to, The Faerie Queen (1596).
Either Lady Hunsdon or her daughter, Elizabeth Carey (later Lady Berkeley), wrote and published a remarkably dull poetic drama entitled, The Tragedy of Marian, the Fair Queen of Jewry. A decade after the death of her first husband, Lady Hunsdon remarried (1612) to Ralph, third Baron McEure, who died in 1617. Lady Hunsdon died aged fifty-eight (Feb, 1618) and was interred in the Chapel of St Nicholas in Westminster Abbey. Her monument there was restored by Francis, Lord le Despenser (1764).

Hunt, Dame Agnes Gwendoline – (1866 – 1948)
British nurse and pioneer reformer for medical treatment of the physically handicapped
Agnes Hunt was born in Shropshire, the daughter of a wealthy landowner. A childhood illness left her crippled for life, but she persevered and attained great independence for herself. Agnes trained successfully as a nuse at the Alop Infirmary (1896), and then worked for several years as a district nurse. With financial backing from her family she managed to establish small nursing home at Baschurch for crippled children. She was assisted in her endeavours by yhe noted orthopeadic surgeon, Sir Robert Jones. This establishment was later enlarged to permit the entry of disabled servicemen, and finally was re-established at Oswestry (1921). Agnes Hunt founded the Derwen Cripples’ Training College, which sought to provide trades to enable the handicapped to earn a living. She was appointed as DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by King George V in recognition of her valuable pioneering work. She wrote her autobiography This is My Life (1938).

Hunt, Arabella – (c1648 – 1705)
English musician, vocalist and teacher
Arabella Hunt was raised in a boarding school, and had contracted an uncongenial marriage. Due to her beauty as well as her obvious musical talent, she secured an appointment at the royal court as teacher of music to the princesses Mary and Anne Stuart, nieces of Charles II. Hunt’s portrait was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, and the famous composer, Henry Purcell produced songs in her honour. She remained ever a favourite musician and performer of her former pupil Mary II, until that lady’s death (1694). William Congreve produced the ode On Mrs Arabella Hunt Singing, after her death.

Hunt, Harriot Kezia – (1805 – 1875)
American physician
Harriot Hunt was born (Nov 9, 1805) in Boston, Massachusetts, and was trained as a schoolteacher. With her sister she studied anatomy and physiology, and were established in practice by their mother. After her sister married, Harriot continued the practice solo. Harriot corresponded with Oliver Wendell Holmes, and was admitted to Harvard University, but was forced to withdraw, due to rioting led by the male students gainst female admissions to their ranks. She established the Ladies’ Physiological Society (1843) and gave public lectures on health issues.
Finally, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania appointed her an honorary doctor after she had already been practiisng for almost two decades. She was present at the Women’s Rights Convention held in Worcester, Massachusetts (1850), and her autobiography was published as Glances and Glimpses (1856). Harriot Hunt died (Jan 2, 1875) aged sixty-nine, in Boston.

Hunt, Isabel – (fl. c1440 – 1447)
English literary patron and book owner
Several lives of the saints, written by Osbern Bokenham, and now collectively known as the, Legendys of Hooly Wummen, were dedicated to Isabel Hunt, who may have been a nun.

Hunt, Margaret – (1831 – 1912)
British novelist and translator
Margaret Raine was born at Durham, the daughter of James Raine, of Crook Hall, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Rev. Thomas Peacock, of Denton. Margaret married Alfred W. Hunt, a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, to whom she bore three daughters, including the novelist Violet Hunt. Besides being the author of a Bohn translation of Grimm’s folk tales, Mrs Hunt, in conjunction with her daughter Violet, produced the novel The Governess (1912). Other of her works included The Leaden Casket, Thornicroft’s Model, and Under Seal of Confession.

Hunt, Maria (Mary) – (fl. 1852 – 1866)
British fruit and still-life painter
Maria was the daughter of noted artist Andrew Hunt, and she resided in Liverpool. Her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy on several occasions.

Hunt, Martita – (1900 – 1969)
British stage and film character actress
Martita Hunt was born (Jan 30, 1900) in Argentina, South America, and was educated at Queenwood at Eastbourne, in London. She made her first stage appearance with the Liverpool Repertory Company (1921), and made her first London stage appearance in 1923. Her stage roles included those of the nurse in Romeo and Juliet, the Queen in Richard II, Portia in Julius Caesar, Lady Macbeth, and Queen Elizabeth in the Dark Lady of the Sonnets.
Other roles included that of the Countess Aurelia in The Madwoman of Chaillot, which she performed in New York and on tour in America (1948 – 1950), and which brought her international recognition, and the Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna in The Sleeping Prince (1953). She made her film debut in, I Was a Spy (1933), and also appeared in such classics as The Man in Grey (1943) and The Wicked Lady (1945).
Usually cast as society ladies, she was perhaps best remembered for her performance in the role of Miss Haversham in Great Expectations (1946). Later film appearances were in Anastasia (1956) with Ingrid Bergman, Yul Bryner, and Helen Hayes, the horror flick, Brides of Dracula (1960) and The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964). Martita Hunt died aged sixty-nine (June 13, 1969).

Hunt, Violet – (1866 – 1942)
British novelist and biographer
Isobel Violet Hunt was born in Durham, the daughter of a pre-Raphaelite painter, Alfred William Hunt. She was trained as a painter during childhood, but later turned to writing instead. Hunt’s first published work was The Maiden’s Progress: A Novel in Disguise (1894). This was followed by popular novels such as Unkist, Unkind! (1897), White Rose of Weary Leaf (1908), considered her best work and Tales of the Uneasy (1911).
A committed supporter of the women’s suffrage movement, her novels all retain an undercurrent of feminist themes, such as psychological disorders and sexual repression in women. Her personal memoirs were published as Those Flurried Years (1926).

Hunter, Alberta – (1895 – 1984)
Black American blues vocalist, actress and composer
Alberta Hunter became popular with her composition Downhearted Blues (1921), and performed all over the world. During WW II she organized the first Black USO tour.

Hunter, Anne    see    Home, Anne

Hunter, Hon. Mrs Margaret    see   Hargreaves, Margaret

Hunter, Dame Pamela – (1919 – 2001)
British civil servant and unionist
Born Pamela Greenwell (Oct 3, 1919) she was educated at the Westonbirt School and at the Eastbourne School of Domestic Economy. She served during WW II with the WRNS (Women’s Royal Naval Service) and was married (1942) to Gordon Lovegrove Hunter, to whom she bore two children. Pamela Hunter served as a member for the Conservative National Union Executive Committee (1972 – 1988), and served as a chairperson to various union committees, such as the Northern Area Conservative Women’s Advisory Committee (1972 – 1975) and the Conservative Women’s National Advisory Committee (1978 – 1981) representing the interests of female consitituents. Her work was recognized with her appointment as DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1981). Dame Pamela served for a decade (1973 – 1983) as a member of the borough council for Berwick-on-Tweed. Dame Pamela Hunter died at Alnwick in Northumberland.

Hunter, Ruby - (1955 - 2010)
Australian aboriginal vocalist and lyricist
Ruby Hunter was born (Oct 31, 1955) in South Australia, a member of the Ngarrindjeri tribe. She was removed from her family and placed into foster care (1963), and later lived on the streets in Adelaide, where she met her lifelong partner, the musician Archie Roach (1971), with whom she performed. Miss Hunter released her first album Koorie (1989), and was nominated for several ARIA (Australian Record Industry Association) Awards including Best Indigenous Release for her album Thoughts Within (1995) and Best Blues & Roots Album for Feeling Good (2000). She recieved Deadly Awards for Female Artist of the Year (2000) and for Excellence in Film & Theatrical Score (2004) for the documentary entitled Ruby's Story, which she wrote with assistance from Roach and composer Paul Grabowsky. A talented musical storyteller, who was revered as an inspiration to the 'Stolen Generations,' Miss Hunter appeared in the film One Night the Moon (2001), as the wife of the aboriginal tracker Kelton Pell. Ruby Hunter died (Feb 17, 2010) aged fifty-five, in Victoria.

Huntingdon, Anne Stafford, Countess of – (1482 – after 1545)
English Tudor aristocrat and courtier
Lady Anne Stafford was the second daughter of Henry Stafford, second Duke of Buckingham, and his wife Lady Catherine Woodville, the daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, first Earl of Rivers. Anne was sister to Edward Stafford, third Duke of Buckingham, executed by Henry VIII (1521) and of Elizabeth, Lady Fitzwalter (first wife of Robert Radcliffe, first Earl of Sussex), who was a prominent lady at the court of Catharine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII. Lady Anne was a descendant of the Carolingian emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814), and was the niece to Elizabeth Woodville, the queen of Edward IV (1461 – 1483), and of Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers. With her father’s execution for treason (1483) she joined the household of her stepfather, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, the uncle of King Henry VII (1485 – 1509).
Lady Anne Stafford was married firstly (c1498) to Sir Walter Herbert (c1468 – 1507), a younger son of William Herbert, first Earl of Pembroke. This marriage remained childless. With Herbert’s death, Lady Anne was remarried (Dec, 1509) to Sir George Hastings (1488 – 1544) to whom she bore eight children. Not long after her second marriage, Lady Hastings indulged in an affair with the young King Henry VIII, these trysts being arranged with the assistance of the king’s friend, Sir William Compton. However, when the liasion was discovered, her elder sister, Lady Fitzwalter, in order to save the family honour, informed their brother, the Duke of Buckingham, of what was going on. The duke was enraged, and the ensuing scandal was made public. Sir George caused Anne to be removed from court and placed in a convent. King Henry, in retaliation, caused Lady Fitzwalter to be banished from court for a time. However, she appears to have retained her connections with Compton, and later became his mistress prior to his death from the sweating sickness (1528). The relationship began sometime prior to 1522, when Compton made his will and left Lady Hastings several valuable estates. Her husband was later ennobled as first Earl of Huntingdon by Henry VIII, and Lady Hastings became the Countess of Huntingdon (1529 – 1544).
Lady Anne was portrayed in the television series, The Tudors (2007) by actress Anna Brewster where she was called Anna Buckingham, though her supposed affair with Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk is entirely fictional. She also appears in the historical romance Katherine of Aragon (1968) by Jean Plaidy. Lady Anne survived her husband for an indeterminate period as the Dowager Countess of Huntingdon and was living in 1545. Her exact date of death remains unknown. She was interred with Lord Huntingdon at Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire. Her eight children were,

Huntingdon, Beatrix of Portugal, Countess of    see   Arundel, Beatrix, Countess of

Huntingdon, Catherine Pole, Countess of – (c1511 – 1576)
English Tudor courtier
Catherine Pole was the daughter and coheiress of Henry Pole (1492 – 1538), Lord Montague, and his wife Jane Neville (c1484 – 1538), the daughter of Sir George Neville, fourth Baron Abergavenny.  Catherine was the niece of Cardinal Reginald Pole (1500 – 1558), being the granddaughter of Sir Richard Pole and his wife Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, the niece of kings Edward IV (1461 – 1483) and Richard III (1483 – 1485).
Her marriage (1532) with Francis Hastings (1514 – 1561), the son and heir of George Hastings, first Earl of Huntingdon, was facilitated by Cardinal Pole.  The couple attended the coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn (June 1, 1533) and Lord and Lady Hastings were amongst the group of nobles presented to Anne of Cleves at Greenwich after her arrival in England (Jan, 1540). Francis Hastings then succeeded his father as second Earl of Huntingdon (1544) and Lady Hastings became the Countess of Huntingdon.
The couple accompanied Edward VI on his progress (May, 1552) and the countess was present at the marriage of her son, Henry Hastings, with Catherine Dudley (May, 1553). With her husband she attended the coronation of Queen Mary, and later acted as executor to the will of her uncle, Cardinal Pole (1558). Lady Huntingdon was present at the coronation of Elizabeth I (Jan, 1559), and with the death of her husband (1561) she became the Dowager Countess of Huntingdon (1561 – 1576).
Lady Huntingdon’s great-grandfather was George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV, and as one of the last survivors of the direct descendants of the Yorkist house, the countess transmitted to her eldest son Henry, a claim to succeed Queen Elizabeth on the English throne, which he and his father freely asserted. Estates were granted to the countess by Queen Elizabeth in 1569 and 1571. The Countess of Huntingdon died (Sept 23, 1576) aged about sixty-one, being buried with her husband at Ashby Church, Ashby-de-La-Zouche. Lady Huntingdon bore eleven children, six sons and five daughters, of whom,

Huntingdon, Margaret, Countess of    see   Lane, Margaret

Huntingdon, Mary Woodville, Countess of    see   Woodville, Mary

Huntingdon, Selina Shirley, Countess of – (1707 – 1791)
British religious patron
Lady Selina Shirley was (Aug 24, 1707), the second daughter of Washington Shirley, second Earl Ferrers, and his wife Mary Levinge. She was married (1728) to Theophilus Hastings (died 1746), ninth Earl of Huntingdon, and resided at Donington Park, Leicestershire. The countess was influenced by her sister-in-law, Lady Margaret Hastings (later Ingham) to join the Methodists (1739), and later appointed George Whitefield, one f the founders of Methodism, as her personal chaplain (1748). Because of her patronage, a Calvinist Methodist offshoot of the sect became popularly known as ‘The Countess of Huntingdon’s Connection.’
Lady Huntingdon established a college for evangelical clergymen in Trevecca, Brecknockshire (1768), which was later re-established at Cambridge (1904). She was a supporter of John and Charles Wesley, and is revered as the ‘mother’ of the Methodist sect in Britain. She did her best to persuade Charles Wesley from joining the Moravians. The two factions fostered within the Methodist sect meant that her chapels had to be registered unter the Toleration Act (1689) as dissenting houses of worship in order to save them. She exercised her right as a peeress to appoint as many chaplains as she pleased and this protected mnay clergymen suspected of Methodism. Selina survived her husband forty-five years as the Dowager Countess of Huntingdon (1746 – 1791). The countess died (June 17, 1791) aged eighty-three, at Spa Fields, Ashby-de-La-Zouche. Most of her chapels later developed in to Congregational Churches. Her children were,

Huntington, Anna Vaughn Hyatt – (1876 – 1973) 
American sculptor
Anna Huntington was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (March 10, 1876). Brilliantly successful, she was a prolific sculptor and worked in Paris, London, Italy, and New York. She was married (1923) to Archer Milton Huntington, the noted poet and Hispanic scholar. Her most noted work was El Cid Campeador, which was erected in Seville, Spain. Anna Huntington died (Oct 4, 1973) aged ninety-seven, at Stanerigg, in Redding County, Connecticut.

Huntley, Elizabeth Hay, Countess of – (c1457 – after 1509)
Scottish medieval aristocrat
Lady Elizabeth Hay was the daughter of Sir William Hay (died 1462), first Earl of Erroll, and his wfe Lady Beatrix Douglas, the daughter of James Douglas (c1371 – 1443), seventh Earl of Douglas. She was sister to Nicholas Hay, second Earl of Erroll. Her brother instigated divorce proceeding against George Gordon and his second wife Princess Annabella Stuart, the daughter of King James I (1466), in order that he might marry his daughter Elizabeth to Gordon instead, though she and the princess Annabella was already related within the third and fourth degreees of consanguinity. The divorce took several years to accomplish and was not granted until (July 24, 1471) at Aberdeen. Soon afterwards (c1472), Lady Elizabeth Hay became the third wife of George Gordon (c1430 – 1501), second Earl of Huntley, to whom she bore several children,

After the death of her first husband at Stirling (1501), Lady Huntley was remarried to Andrew Gray (died 1514), the fourth Baron Gray, as his fourth wife. The countess was living in 1509, but does not appear to have survived her second husband.

Huntley, Henrietta Stuart, Marchioness of – (1573 – 1642)
Scottish aristocrat
Lady Henrietta Stuart was the eldest daughter of Esme Stuart (1542 – 1583), the first Duke of Lennox, and his wife Katherine de Balsac d’Entragues. She became the wife (1588) of George Gordon (1561 – 1636), sixth Earl and first Marquess of Huntley, whom she survived as Dowager Marchioness of Huntley (1636 – 1642). Lady Huntley left nine children,

Hunt-Lieberson, Lorraine – (1954 – 2006)
American mezzo-soprano and musician
Particularly admired for her performances of the works of Handel and Bach, Lorraine Hunt was born (March 1, 1954) in San Francisco, California, the daughter of an opera conductor. She learnt the piano and violin, and then studied singing and the viola at the San Jose State University. Hunt performed with string quartets, after which she was employed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and studied at the Boston Conservatory. She first attracted attention in the role of Sesto in the Peter Sellars’ production of Handel’s, Giulio Cesare (1985). She went on to work with conductor, Nicholas McGegan at the Philharmonic Baroque Orchestra, and produced recordings of many of Handel’s operas and oratorios.
Other important roles included, Charlotte in Werther, at the Opera de Lyon, and Phedre in Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie, in Paris (1996 – 1997). She later appeared as Queen Jocasta in Oedipus Rex, with the Netherlands Opera, and as the Empress Octavia, wife of Nero in L’Incoronazione di Poppaea, at the San Francisco Opera (1997 – 1998). Hunt was married (1999) to the composer Peter Lieberson, who wrote Neruda Songs, a setting of five Spanish sonnets by Pablo Neruda, especially for her. She worked around the world, attending the Glyndebourne Festival in England, and the Salzburg Festival in Austria. Lorraine Hunt-Lieberson died of cancer (July 3, 2006) aged fifty-two, in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Huo Xuan Huo’n’g      see    Ho, Xuan Hu’o’ng

Hurd, Dorothy Campbell    see   Campbell, Dorothy Iona

Hurd, Judy – (1949 – 2008)
British politial secretary and civic activist
Hurd was born in Witney, and attended the Courtauld Institute of Art in London. She was then employed as a political secretary at Westminster, where she met her husband, Lord Douglas Hurd, becoming his second wife in 1982. Always active with community concerns, Lady Hurd served as a trustee of the Cogges Manor Farm Museum in Oxfordshire, and was a member of the Cancer Research Campaign (1988). She later returned to study history at Birkbeck College, but was diagnosed with leukaemia. Lady Hurd died (Nov 22, 2008) aged fifty-nine, at Oxford.

Hurd-Mead, Kate Campbell – (1867 – 1941)
American medical historian and author
Kate Hurd-Mead was born (April 6, 1867) in Danville, Quebec, Canada, the daughter of a physician. She was raised in Newport, Massachusetts, where she attended school. Kate then studied at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, and did her internship at the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston, as well as further study which she did abroad. She was married (1893) to an academic William Edward Mead, a professor of early English.
Dr Hurd-Mead later removed to Middletown, Connecticut, where she became the consulting gynaecologist at the Middlesex County Hospital (1907 – 1925). She served as vice-president of the State Medical Society of Connecticut (1913 – 1914) and of the American Medical Women’s Association.
Her best known works are Medical Women of America: A Short History of the Pioneer Medical Women of America and a few of their Colleagues in England, usually known by the shortened title Historia medicinae (1933) and A History of Women in Medicine (1938). Kate Hurd-Mead died aged seventy-three, in a freak accident, being burnt to death in a fire with her caretaker, after sufferring a heart attack.

Hurnscot, Loran – (1900 – 1970)
American writer
Loran Hurnscot sometimes used the pseudonym ‘Gay Stuart Taylor.’ Her works included A Prison, a Paradise (1959).

Hurry, Polly – (1913 – 1963)
Australian painter
Polly Hurry studied art under Max Meldrum and was married to the painter John Farmer. Her work was exhibited with the Victorian Artists’ Society, the Meldrum Group, the Paris Salon, and the Royal Society of Portrait Painters in London. Examples of her work are preserved at the Castlemaine Art Gallery in Melbourne, Victoria.

Hurst, Fannie – (1889 – 1968)
American writer
Fannie Hurst was born (Oct 19, 1889) in Hamilton, Ohio, the daughter of Samuel Hurst, and was educated at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. She was married (1915) to the pianist, Jacques Danielson, but retained her maiden name for literary purposes. Hurst travelled extensively and lectured on a wide circle of subjects. She was also active in many public causes and was appointed by the White House as US delegate to the United Nations World Health Assemby in Geneva, Switzerland, and visited Israel at the especial request of the Israeli government.
Hurst was a prolific author and her novels included Stardust (1921), Appasionata (1926), A President Is Born (1928), Anitra’s Dance (1934) and Hallelujah (1944). She also published several collections of short stories such as Every Soul Hath Its Song (1916), Gaslight Sonatas (1918) and Humoresque (1919). Several of her plays and novels were made into films notably, Humoresque (1946), which starred Joan Crawford, and she later published her autobiography Anatomy of Me (1958). From 1958 she appeared on television, and was a broadcasting commentator, and she served as both vice-president and president of the Authors’ Guild. Fannie Hurst died (Feb 23, 1968) aged seventy-eight, in New York.

Hurst, Margery – (1913 – 1989)
British recruitment officer and businesswoman
Margery Hurst attended secondary school at Kilburn, and attended the Royal College of Dramatic Art in London. Married and with a child, she joined the WTS (Women’s Territorial Service) during WW II but was invalided out. After the war, with no husband and a child to support, Hurst began a private secretarial company from scratch, beginning in the home of her parents in Portsmouth. She later took an office in Mayfair, London (1946), and her business thrived. Within a decade she was providing ‘temps’ (temporary secretaries) through twenty separate offices throughout London and the rest of England. She even established offices in the USA and in Australia. Margery Hurst was the first woman to be elected to the New York Chamber of Commerce. Her original office was sold for almost twenty million pounds (1985), but Hurst remained chairman until she was forced to resign due to ill health (1988).

Hurston, Zora Neale – (1903 – 1960)
Black American novelist and author
Zora Hurston was born (Jan 7, 1903) in Eatonville, Florida, the daughter of a Baptist preacher who served as the local mayor. Stable family life ended with the death of her mother (1912) and her father’s remarriage.  She was employed as a wardrobe assistant with an acting troupe and as a secretary to the novelist Fannie Hurst before she was able to enroll at the Morgan Academy, in Baltimore, Maryland, and was one of the first black students to graduate from Barnard College (1925). She later attended Howard University in Washington, D.C., which period stimulated her later writing career.
Hurston became a prominent figure of the Harlem Renaissance, and her works included the novel Jonah’s Gourd Vine (1934), Mules and Men (1935), a study of African-American folk-lore in Louisiana and Florida, the the novels Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), Moses, Man of the Mountain (1939), and Seraph on the Suwanee (1948). She was the recipient of a Rosenberg fellowship (1935) and two Guggenheim fellowships in the same decade. Hurston drew upon her early childhood experiences to write the autobiographical Dust Tracks in a Road (1942), but gradually withdrew from public life, and made a highly controversial attack upon the Supreme Court’s ruling on school desegregation, which she believed undervalued the black educational institutions then established. Zora Hurston suffered a stroke and died in poverty (Jan 28, 1960), aged fifty-seven, at Fort Pierce in Florida. She was posthumously inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1994).

Hussein, Rummana – (1951 – 1999)
Indian conceptual artist
Rummana Hussein was born into a Muslim family in Bombay. Hussein became famous as a painter of allegorical fugurative subjects. She later became an alternative artist at art in General in Manhattan. Political unrest at home later led to her involvement in politics, where she protested against the growing religious nationalism. Rummana Hussein died (July 5, 1999) aged forty-seven, in Bombay.

Hussey, Agnes – (fl. 1877 – 1887)
British artist
Agnes Hussey was a native of Salisbury, Wiltshire. She specialized in water colour paintings of flowers. Her work was exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and various important galleries.

Hussey, Ruth – (1917 – 2005)
American film actress
Born Ruth Carol O’Rourke she achieved her fame during the 1930’s and 1940’s, with a reputation as an acerbic one liners. Her film credits included Madame X (1937), Marie Antoinette (1938) with Norma Shearer and Tyrone Power, Spring Madness (1938), The Women (1939), Northwest Passage (1940), Susan and God (1940), The Philadelphia Story (1940) with Katharine Hepburn for which Hussey received an Academy Award nomination, Pulham Esq. (1941), The Uninvited (1944), Bedside Manner (1945) and The Great Gatsby (1949). Her later credits included Stars and Stripes Forever (1952), The Facts of Life (1960), and the television movie My Darling Daughter’s Anniversary (1972).

Hut, Katherine – (c1500 – 1556)
English Protestant martyr
Katherine Hut was born at Bocking in Essex, and was arrested during the persecutions instigated by Mary I. She was burned alive at Smithfield, in London, for refusing to abjure the Protestant faith (May 16, 1556).

Hutchins, Grace – (1885 – 1969)
American Labour researcher and social reformer
Grace Hutchins was born in Boston, Massachusetts (Aug 19, 1885), the daughter of a prominent attorney. She was the close friend of the Marxist historian and economist, Anna Rochester with whom she co-wrote Jesus Christ and the World Today (1922). Hutchins was the author of Labor and Silk (1929), which was an account of the conditions of women working in the textile industry. Grace Hutchins died (July 15, 1969) aged eighty-three, in New York City.

Hutchinson, Anne – (1591 – 1643)
American religious radical
Anne Marbury was born in Lincolnshire, the daughter of Francis Marbury, a clergyman, and was said to have been a cousin of the famous poet and dramatist, John Dryden (1631 – 1700). She was married to a merchant, William Hutchinson, and the couple immigrated to the colony of Boston in Massachusetts (1634), where she organized religious meetings. Hutchinson rebuked the clergy of Massachusetts, accusing them of being the prisoners of religious doctrine, but was herself accused of antinomianism (the belief that the gospel free people from the restrictions imposed by moral laws), the whole affair being referred to as the ‘Antimonian controversy.’
Though she had the support of Governor Vane and the great majority of the Boston congregation, she was opposed by the deputy governor, John Winthrop, and was eventually arrested, tried and found guilty of religious hersey and sedition. Hutchinson and several followers were then expelled from the colony. She acquired land on the island of Aquidneck from the Naragansett Indians of Rhode Island, and organized a democratic community (1638).
With the death of her husband (1642), Anne Hutchinson removed to the settlement at Pelham Bay in New York state, where she and all but one of her family, were eventually murdered by natives (Aug, 1643). Anne Hutchinson was later inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1994).

Hutchinson, Josephine – (1903 – 1998)
American stage and film actress
Josephine Hutchinson was born in Seattle, Washington, and later joined Eva Le Gallienne’s Civic Repertory Theatre. She later became a contract player at Warner Brothers in Hollywood, and made her film debut in Happiness Ahead (1934) directed by Mervyn LeRoy. Other film credits included The Story of Louis Pasteur (1936) and Somewhere in the Night (1946) directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz.
Apart from appearances in popular television series such as The Twilight Zone and Perry Mason, she also appeared in North by Northwest (1959) with Gary Cooper, and Baby, the Rain Must Fall (1965), with Steve McQueen. Josephine Hutchinson died (June 4, 1998) aged ninety-four, in Manhattan, New York.

Hutchinson, Lucy – (1620 – after 1675)
English diarist and author
Lucy Apsley was born in the Tower of London, the daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, the lieutenant of the Tower. Studious by nature, she received an excellent education, becoming particularly proficient in Latin. She was married (1638) to John Hutchinson, of Owthorpe, Nottinghamshire, to whom she remained devoted until his death (1664).
Lucy Hutchinson kept personal diaries from the time of the Civil War hostilities when they supported the parliamentarian cause as governor of Nottinhgam, through to the Restoration (1660) and she published the Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson (1664) after her husband’s death in prison. She herself wrote two devotional treatises On Theology and On the Principles of the Christian Religion.

Hutton, Barbara – (1912 – 1979)
American heiress and socialite
Famous for her great wealth and her unhappy private life, her interesting array of husbands included (1933 – 1935) the Georgian prince Alexei Mdivani (1905 – 1936), Count Kurt Reventlow, to whom she bore a son Lance Reventlow, to (1942 – 1945) the actor Cary Grant (1904 – 1986), as his second wife, the Russian prince Igor Nikolaievitch Troubetzkoy, and Count Kurt Heinrich Eberhard von Haugwitz (1895 – 1969).

Hutton, Betty – (1921 – 2007)
American actress, vocalist and dancer
Born Betty June Thornburg (Feb 26, 1921) in Battle Creek, Michigan, she was the daughter of a railroad worker. Her father deserted her mother, and Betty and her sister sang to entertain customers. She also sang in the streets before becoming a nightclub performer (1936 – 1941). Betty then tried stage work, and appeared in, Panama Hattie (1941) which was produced by Buddy De Sylva, and starred Ethel Merman. When De Sylva moved to produce films at Paramount Studios, he cast Betty in her first film successes in The Fleet’s In (1942) and Star Spangled Rhythms (1942).
Her later successes included The Miracle of Morgan’s Creek (1943), The Perils of Pauline (1947) and The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), but she was best remembered for playing the title role in, Annie Get Your Gun (1950). Popularly known as the ‘Blonde Bombshell,’ Hutton played the colourful female figure Texas Guinan in the film Incendiary Blonde (1945). She later hosted her won television program The Betty Hutton Show (1959 – 1960) but her career thereafter spiralled downwards, with large debts, chronic depression, and alcoholism.
During the latter part of her life, Hutton converted to Roman Catholicism (1974) and worked as a church housekeeper in Providence, Rhode Island. Betty Hutton died (March 11, 2007) aged eighty-six, in Palm Springs, California.

Hutton, Deborah Helen – (1955 – 2005)
British editor and author
Deborah Hutton was the daughter of a farmer, and was raised near Langley, in Norfolk. She was educated at Benenden, and at York University. Originally employed by the British Council, she won a contest which gave her a job with Vogue magazine. Hutton married the director Charles Stebbings, to whom she bore four children. She later became editor of health at Vogue magazine, and wrote four books concerning preventitve health and medicinal procedures.
Hutton also contributed numerous articles to various publications such as the Evening Standard, the Guardian, and the Sunday Times. Discovering that she was sufferring from inoperable cancer of the lung (2004), she produced a practical guide for people suffering from this disease and their relatives, entitled What Can I Do To Help? Deborah Hutton died (Aug 13, 2005) aged forty-nine.

Hutton, Ina Ray – (1918 – 1984)
American bandleader
Ina Ray Hutton performed in vaudeville from early childhood, and later played with famous bandleaders such as Artie Shaw and Harry James (1916 – 1983). Blonde and sexy, she organized her own band, the Melodears (1935), and became popularly known as ‘the Blonde Bombshell of Swing.’ Also a talented conductor, she later organized an all woman orchestra in California, which appeared on television. Ina retired from the stage after her fourth and last marriage with Jack Curtis, an important business executive.

Hutton, Marjorie Post    see   Post, Marjorie Merriweather

Huxley, Elspeth Josceline – (1907 – 1997)
British novelist, journalist and travel writer
Elspeth Huxley was born (July 23, 1907) in London. She was taken to Kenya, Africa, as a child, and was raised on a coffee plantation, becoming an excellent horsewoman and shot. Elspeth attended school in Nairobi, and then travelled to England and the USA to finish her education at Reading and Cornell universities. Elspeth then became the wife (1931) of Gervase Huxley (1894 – 1971).
During WW II she worked for the propaganda department of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) and assisted with the establishment of the East Africa Literature Bureau (1948). Elspeth Huxley wrote Red Strangers (1934) about the Kikuyu people of Africa, and four autobiographical novels The Flame Trees of Thika (1959), which dealt with her childhood, The Mottled Lizard (1962), Love Among the Daughters (1968), and Out in the Midday Sun (1985). She also published the travel work Livingstone and his African Journeys (1974) and Elspeth Huxley, A Bibliography (1996). Espeth Huxley died (Jan 10, 1997) aged eighty-nine, in Tetbury, Gloucestershire.

Hyams, Leila – (1905 – 1977)
American film actress
Leila Hyams was born in New York the daughter of actor John Hyams (1869 – 1940) and actress Leila McIntyre (1882 – 1953). Leila was married (1927 – 1977) to Philip Berg. An attractive blonde haired and green-eyed beauty of silent and early sound films, Leila was better known in her role as Venus in the classic horror flick, Freaks (1932) and as Ruth Thomas in Island of Lost Souls (1933). She retired from acting after her last film, Yellow Dust (1936). Leila Hyams died at Bel Air, in California.

Hyatt, Anna     see    Huntington, Anna Vaughn Hyatt

Hybernia, Alexander    see   Bronte, Anne

Hyde, Anne      see     York, Anne Hyde, Duchess of

Hyde, Ida Henrietta – (1857 – 1945) 
American physiologist
Ida Hyde was born in Idaho, and attended Cornell University. She became the first woman to be awarded a doctorate at Heidelberg in Germany (1896), and after her return to the USA, she became a professor at the University of Kansas. During WW I she was chairwoman of the national Women’s Commission on Health and Sanitation. Her physiological research at Kansas revolved around systems physiology in vertebrates and invertebrates, and she pioneered the use of micro-electrode techniques in single cells. She was the first woman to be elected to the American Physiology Society (1902) and established the Ida H Hyde Woman’s International Fellowship of the American Association of university Women.

Hyde, Lady Jane    see   Clarendon, Jane Leveson-Gower, Countess of

Hyde, Marion Feodorowna Louise Glyn, Lady – (1900 – 1970)
British courtier
Marion Glyn was born (Aug 23, 1900) the daughter of Frederic Glyn, fourth Lord Wolverton, and his wife Lady Edith Amelia Ward, the daughter of William Ward, the first Earl of Dudley. Marion was married (1932) to George Hyde Villiers, Lord Hyde, the son and heir of the sixth Earl of Clarendon, who died young (1935) leaving her with two children, the elder of whom, George Hyde Villiers (born 1933) succeeded his grandfather as seventh Earl of Clarendon (1955). Her daughter, Rosemary Villiers (born 1935), later Mrs Jordan Steel, was raised to the rank and precedence of an earl’s daughter, becoming Lady Rosemary Steel (1956).
Lady Hyde served the royal household at court for over three decades, first as woman of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth, the widow of George VI (1937 – 1961). Retiring from full time attendance in 1961, Lady Hyde was retained as an extra lady of the bechamber to the queen mother. Having already been honoured by appointment as CVO (Commander of the Victorian Order) (1945), Lady Hyde was later appointed DCVO (Dame Commander of the Victorian Order) (1961). Lady Hyde died (Dec 13, 1970) aged seventy, at her residence of Freckenham House, in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.

Hyde, Mary    see   Eccles, Lady

Hyde, Robin – (1906 – 1939)   
New Zealand journalist, poet, feminist and novelist
Her real name was Iris Guiver Wilkinson, and she was born in Cape Town, South Africa. She settled in Wellington with her Australian mother as an infant. She trained as a journalist after leaving school. Her style of writing challenged established views on gender roles and inequality. Popular with the modern feminist writers, she was considered one of New Zealand foremost women writers.
Her published work included Passport to Hell (1936), Nor the Years Condemn (1938), The Godwits Fly (1938), and several collections of verse such as The Desolate Star (1929), Persephone in Winter (1937), Later Poems (1952), and the autobiographical work A Home in this World (1937). Robin Hyde committed suicide in London, aged thirty-three, having long sufferred from a debilitating illness.

Hydna – (fl. 480 BC)
Greek heroine
Hydna was born in Scione, on the shores of the Thracian Sea, the daughter of Scyllis. She was taught to swim and dive from childhood by her father. When the Persians invaded Greece under Xerxes I, Hydna and her father disabled the fleet anchored off Mt Oelion, by cutting the ship’s ropes underwater, with the result that many of the vessels drifted and were destroyed. Statues were dedicated at Delphi to Hydna and her father, to memorialize their brave act.

Hylton-Foster, Audrey Pellew – (1908 – 2002)
British and life peeress, the patron and president of the British Red Cross Society
The Hon. (Honourable) Audrey Pellew Clifton Brown was born (May 19, 1908) the daughter of Douglas Clifton Brown, the first Viscount Ruffside, and his wife Violet Cicely Kathleen Wollaston. She was educated at Ascot and Wimbledon and was married (1931) to Sir Harry Hylton-Foster (died 1965), Queen’s Counsel and Speaker in the House of Commons. There were no children. Lady Hylton-Foster was the president and chairman of the British Red Cross Society for over two decades (1960 – 1983) and was the convener of the Cross Bench of Peers from 1974. She was honoured for her voluntary service by being created a life peeress as Baroness Hylton-Foster of the City of Westminster by Queen Elizabeth II (1965). Lady Hylton-Foster died (Oct 31, 2002) aged ninety-four.

Hyman, Flo – (1954 – 1986)
Black American athlete
Flo Hyman was born in Inglewood, California. She played volleyball at school and later joined the US national team (1974), which went on to win two world championships (1978) and (1982). Hyman was chosen as one of the six members of the All-World Cup Team (1981), and the US women’s volley ball team went on to win the silver medal (1984). She then retired from amateur competition, and played professionally in Japan till her tragic early death. The Flo Hyman Award from created in her memory (1987) by the Women’s Sports Foundations.

Hyman, Libbie Henrietta – (1888 – 1969)
Jewish-American zoologist
Libbie Hyman was born in Des Moines, Iowa (Dec 16, 1888), and graduated from the University of Chicago in Illinois (1915). She then joined the teaching staff, remaining a member of the faculty till 1931. Apart from the research texts entitled A Laboratory Manual for Elementary Zoology (1919) and A Laboratory Manual for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (1929), Libbie spent three decades producing the six volume study The Invertebrates, which was completed by her colleagues at the American museum of Natural History in New York, shortly after her death. Libbie Hyman was the first woman to be awarded the Daniel Giraud Medal from the National Academy of Science. Libbie Hyman died (Aug 3, 1969) aged eighty in New York.

Hyman, Phyllis – (1949 – 1995)
Black American jazz vocalist and actress
Hyman was born (July 6, 1949) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was educated there. She became a vocalist with several groups such as New Direction and All the People, and appeared in the film Lenny (1974). Her first solo album, Phyllis Hyman (1977) was released by the Buddha label. Her first hit success came with the song ’Can’t We Fall In Love Again’ (1981) a duet she performed with Michael Henderson. She appeared on Broadway in the musical Sophisticated Ladies, and received a Tony Award nomination for best supporting actress in a musical. Hyman’s later albums included Living All Alone (1986) and Prime of Life (1991). Her other film credits were School Daze and The Kill Reflex. Phyllis Hyman committed suicide (June 30, 1995) aged forty-five, in New York.

Hyman, Trina Schart – (1939 – 2004)
American children’s book illustrator and writer
Trina Schart was born (April 8, 1939) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was raised there. She attended the Philadelphia Museum College of Art, but graduated from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1960). She was married (1959) to Hank Hyman, a mathematician and engineer, to whom she bore a daughter. They lived in Stockholm, Sweden, for several years, during which time she studied at the Swedish State Art School (Konstfacksolan). After Trina and Hyman were divorced (1968), she and her daughter removed to New Hampshire, where she remained for the rest of her life.
Trina Hyman illustrated over one hundred and fifty books including How Six Found Christmas (1969) and the autobiographical work Self-Portrait: Trina Schart Hyman (1981). She was twice awarded the Caldecott medal for illustrating Little Red Riding Hood (1984) and Saint George and the Dragon (1985), written by Margaret Hodges. She was awarded the Boston Globe-Horn Book award for her illustrations for All in Free but Janey (1968) and King Stork (1973). Trina Schart Hyman died from breast cancer (Nov 19, 2004) aged sixty-five.

Hynes, Sarah – (1859 – 1938)
Anglo-Australian botanist and naturalist
Sarah Hynes was born (Sept 21, 1859) in Scotland the daughter of a ship captain. She attended Edinburgh Ladies’ College and finished her education at the University of Sydney in New South Wales. She taught natural history at the Technological Museum and was appointed as the government botanist at the herbarium in the Sydney Botanical Gardens (1901 – 1911), the first woman ever to hold a government position, and was also the first woman to become a member of the Linnaean Society. Hynes later worked as a high school teacher and was the founder and president of the Sydney Forum Club. Her contribution to botany and education was recognized when was appointed MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) by King George V (1934). She remained unmarried. Sarah Hynes died (May 28, 1938) aged seventy-eight in Sydney.

Hypatia – (c365 – 415 AD)
Greek philosopher
Hypatia was the daughter of the mathematician, Theon of Alexandria. Born and educated in Alexandria, Hypatia studied mathematics with her father before being instructed in philosophy. Becoming a leading exponent on neo-Platonism in Alexandria, she was also learned in astronomy, and Hypatia assisted her father with his commentary on the Almagest of Ptolemy, as well as being the author of commentaries on Diophantus, the astronomical canons, and the Conica of Apollonius.  
Modest and beautiful in her youth, Hypatia never married, and was generally respected and admired by the people of Alexandria. Damascius records that the new governors visited her house to pay their first official visits, upon their arrival in Alexandria. Hypatia was publicly and brutally murdered (March, 415 AD) by the fanatical followers of the Christian patriarch Cyril of Jerusalem. The tradition that Hypatia was a young virgin at the time of her death is romantic fiction.

Hyrnetho – (fl. c1100 – c1050 BC)
Greek queen and ruler
Hyrnetho was daughter to the semi-legendary King Temenus of the Heraklidae family, who became king of Argos at the beginning of the Dorian invasions (c1100 – c1000 BC). According to legend, Temenus favoured Hyrnethos’s husband, Deiphontes, above his own sons, her brothers, who then slew Temenus. Apollodorus states that the Argive people then elected Hyrnetho and Deiphontes as king and queen. One of her brothers, either Archelaus or Perdikas, was ancestor the Argead dynasty of Macedonia.

Hyslop, Beatrice Fry – (1899 – 1973)
American historian
Hyslop was born (April 10, 1899) in New York, the daughter of James Hervey Hyslop, the founder of the American Society for Psychical Research. She studied history at Mount Holyoke College, and worked as a teacher. She remained unmarried. Beatrice Hyslop specialized in the era of the French Revolution, and was commissioned by the French government to produce the Repertoire critique des cahiers de doleances pour les Etats-genereaux de 1789 (1931).
This was followed by French Nationalism in 1789 According to the General Cahiers (1934) and A Guide to the General Cahiers (1936), which established Hyslop as a recognized specialist in this field. She was appointed as an Officier (1952), and then Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (1961). She published articles in the American Historical Review, and was the author of L’Appanage de Philippe-Egalite, duc d’Orleans, 1785 – 1791 (1965). Beatrice Fry Hyslop died (July 23, 1973) aged seventy-four, in Rochester, New York.